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Meijer Alfred J - - 2007
Autophagy is inhibited by TOR-dependent signaling. Interruption of signalling by rapamycin is known to stimulate autophagy, both in mammalian cells and in yeast. However, inactivation of TOR by AMPK has yielded controversial results in the literature with regard to its effect on autophagy: activation of autophagy in yeast but inhibition ...
Tsuchiya Masa - - 2007
The ergodic hypothesis, which assumes the independence of each cell of the ensemble from all the others, is a necessary prerequisite to attach single cell based explanations to the grand averages taken from population data. This was the prevailing view about the interpretation of cellular biology experiments that typically are ...
Tafesse Fikadu Geta - - 2007
Sphingomyelin (SM) is a vital component of cellular membranes in organisms ranging from mammals to protozoa. Its production involves the transfer of phosphocholine from phosphatidylcholine to ceramide, yielding diacylglycerol in the process. The mammalian genome encodes two known SM synthase (SMS) isoforms, SMS1 and SMS2. However, the relative contributions of ...
Konishi Teruaki - - 2007
The geometric locations of ion traversals in mammalian cells constitute important information in the study of heavy ion-induced biological effects. We employed a contact microscopy technique, which was developed for boron imaging in boron neutron capture therapy to the irradiation mammalian cells by low-energy heavy ions. This method enables the ...
Novella Isabel S - - 2007
Arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) represent quintessential generalists, with the ability to infect and perform well in multiple hosts. However, antagonistic pleiotropy imposed a cost during the adaptation to persistent replication of vesicular stomatitis virus in sand fly cells and resulted in strains that initially replicated poorly in hamster cells, even when ...
Arden Nilou - - 2007
Mammalian cell cultures are integral to the production of therapeutic and diagnostic proteins. A common problem encountered in culturing these cell lines, however, is a loss in viability at later stages of the cell culture process. In this study the effects of three newly synthesized chemical caspase inhibitors were investigated ...
Watanabe Ryosuke - - 2007
Cells regulate the rate of protein synthesis during conditions of cell stress to adapt to environmental changes. However, the molecular interactions between signaling pathways controlling translation and the cellular response to stress remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that the expression of growth arrest and DNA damage protein 34 ...
Meleady Paula - - 2007
Global expression profiling of mammalian cells used for the production of biopharmaceuticals will allow greater insights into the molecular mechanisms that result in a high producing cellular phenotype. These studies may give insights for genetic intervention to possibly create better host cell lines or even to provide clues to more ...
Underhill Michèle F - - 2007
In recent years there have been a number of reports that suggest the sub-physiological (<37 degrees C) temperature in vitro culturing of mammalian cells can result in enhanced heterologous protein production. Despite these reports, the mechanisms by which mammalian cells respond to such conditions are largely unknown. We therefore set ...
Kovacic Lidija - - 2007
Ammodytoxin (Atx) is a snake venom phospholipase A2 (sPLA2s) with presynaptic toxicity, anticoagulant activity and the ability to influence cell cycle progression. These multiple physiological activities make this molecule a promising tool for studying processes influenced by the highly homologous mammalian sPLA2s-for example cell proliferation and apoptosis. Secreted PLA2s can ...
Horibata Yasuhiro - - 2007
We report here the expression of a bacterial sphingomyelinase in mammalian cells as a functionally active form. A chimeric Pseudomonas sphingomyelinase fused with the lysosomal sorting motif of lysosomal acid phosphatase was sorted to lysosomes in mammalian cells. As expected, the chimeric SMase hydrolyzed sphingomyelin in vivo to produce ceramide, ...
Ehrmann Klaus - - 2007
NMR spectra of mammalian cells are taken using surface microprobes that are based on microfabricated planar coils. The surface microprobe resembles a miniaturized Petri dish commonly used in biological research. The diameter of the planar coils is 1 mm. Chinese Hamster Ovaries are immobilized in a uniform layer on the ...
Echave Pedro - - 2007
The regulation of cell growth and proliferation is fundamental for animal development and homeostasis but the mechanisms that coordinate cell growth with cell cycle progression are poorly understood. One possibility is that "cell-size checkpoints" act to delay division until cells have achieved a minimal size or mass however, the existence ...
Kölln Johanna - - 2007
The complement activating venom component Cobra Venom Factor (CVF) forms a stable CVF-dependent C3 convertase complex, which initiates continuous activation of the complement system, consumes all downstream complement components and obliterates functional complement. Therefore, native CVF is routinely used as decomplementing agent in vivo and in vitro. However, in most ...
Easwaran Hariharan P - - 2007
BACKGROUND: DNA replication in higher eukaryotic cells is organized in discrete subnuclear sites called replication foci (RF). During the S phase, most replication proteins assemble at the RF by interacting with PCNA via a PCNA binding domain (PBD). This has been shown to occur for many mammalian replication proteins, but ...
Mitra Poulami - - 2007
The serum-borne, bioactive sphingolipid mediator, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), regulates numerous important physiological and pathological processes, mainly acting through specific cell surface G-protein-coupled receptors. Although many mammalian cells can produce S1P, there is little information as to how it is secreted to reach its receptors. Progress in elucidating this mechanism has been ...
Lillig Christopher Horst - - 2007
Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems in mammalian cells utilize thiol and selenol groups to maintain a reducing intracellular redox state acting as antioxidants and reducing agents in redox signaling with oxidizing reactive oxygen species. During the last decade, the functional roles of thioredoxin in particular have continued to expand, also including ...
Cabrera-Socorro Alfredo - - 2007
Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells of the mammalian neocortex co-express the extracellular matrix protein Reelin and p73, a transcription factor involved in cell death and survival. Most neocortical CR cells derive from the cortical hem, with minor additional sources. We analyzed the distribution of Reelin and p73 immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the ...
Perron Amélie - - 2007
Neurotensin (NT) receptors NTS1 and NTS2 are known to display considerable distributional overlap in mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Using co-immunoprecipitation approaches, we demonstrated here that NTS1 forms constitutive heterodimers with NTS2 in transfected COS-7 cells. We also showed that co-expression of NTS2 with NTS1 markedly decreases the cell surface ...
Oberholzer Michael - - 2007
Flagellar-mediated motility is an indispensable function for cell types as evolutionarily distant as mammalian sperm and kinetoplastid parasites, a large group of flagellated protozoa that includes several important human pathogens. Despite the obvious importance of flagellar motility, little is known about the signalling processes that direct the frequency and wave ...
Hölzel Michael - - 2007
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to analyze gene function in mammalian cells. However, the interpretation of RNAi knock-down phenotypes can be hampered by off-target effects or compound phenotypes, as many proteins combine multiple functions within one molecule and coordinate the assembly of multimolecular complexes. Replacing the endogenous protein ...
Polzikov Mikhail - - 2007
SURF-6 is a bona fide nucleolar protein comprising an evolutionary conserved family that extends from human to yeast. The expression of the mammalian SURF-6 has been recently found to be regulated during the cell cycle. In order to determine the importance of SURF-6 in mammalian cells, we applied the Tet-On ...
Walton Wendy J - - 2006
It is estimated that over half of all proteins are glycosylated, yet only a small number of the structures in the protein data bank are of intact glycoproteins. One of the reasons for the lack of structural information on glycoproteins is the high cost of isotopically labeling proteins expressed from ...
Rubakhin Stanislav S SS Department of Chemistry, Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, - - 2006
The peptide content of individual mammalian cells is profiled using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Both enzymatic and nonenzymatic procedures, including a glycerol cell stabilization method, are reported for the isolation of individual mammalian cells in a manner compatible with MALDI MS measurements. Guided microdeposition of MALDI matrix ...
Zhang Yansheng - - 2006
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring defense compound produced by a limited number of plants in response to stresses. Besides cardiovascular benefits, this health-promoting compound has been reported to extend life spans in yeasts, flies, worms, and fish. To biosynthesize resveratrol de novo, tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), 4-coumarate CoA-ligase (4CL), and ...
Di Bacco Alessandra - - 2006
Post-translational modification by SUMO is a dynamic and reversible process and several SUMO-specific proteases that remove SUMO from substrates have been identified. We have recently described the activities of a new SUMO-specific protease, SENP5. We found that SENP5 discriminates between SUMO-1 and SUMO-2/3 and cells depleted of SENP5 by RNAi ...
Watanabe M - - 2006
In addition to its role in the adult mammalian nervous system as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of several kinds of cells including cancer cells. GABA is synthesized predominantly from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase and exerts its effects via ionotropic GABA(A) ...
Underhill Michèle F - - 2006
There are a growing number of reports on the beneficial effects of subphysiological temperature in vitro culturing (27-35 degrees C) of mammalian cells on recombinant protein yield. However, this effect is not conserved across cell lines and target products, and our understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for increased recombinant ...
Nangle Leslie A - - 2006
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases prevent mistranslation, or genetic code ambiguity, through specialized editing reactions. Mutations that disrupt editing in bacteria adversely affect cell growth and viability, and recent work in the mouse supports the idea that translational errors caused by an editing defect lead to a neurological disease-like phenotype. To further investigate ...
Meley Daniel - - 2006
Interruption of mTOR-dependent signaling by rapamycin is known to stimulate autophagy, both in mammalian cells and in yeast. Because activation of AMPK also inhibits mTOR-dependent signaling one would expect stimulation of autophagy by AMPK activation. According to the literature, this is true for yeast but, unexpectedly, not for mammalian cells ...
Ozturk, Sadettin S.
A transtubular mammalian cell perfusion chamber has been developed that allows separate delivery and control of medium and gas flow to the cells. The hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics of the reactor are studied experimentally for both gas and liquid components. Feasibility and potential of the transtubular reactor are demonstrated ...
Meissner Alexander - - 2006
During development, the genetic content of each cell remains, with a few exceptions, identical to that of the zygote. Differentiated cells, therefore, retain all the genetic information necessary to generate an entire organism (nuclear totipotency). Nuclear transfer (NT) was initially developed to test experimentally this concept by cloning animals from ...
Long Gang - - 2006
Entry of the budded virus form of baculoviruses into insect and mammalian cells is generally thought to occur through a low-pH-dependent endocytosis pathway, possibly through clathrin-coated pits. This insight is primarily based on (immuno)electron microscopy studies but requires biochemical support to exclude the use of other pathways. Here, we demonstrate ...
Zhao Tian-Yong TY Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0298, - - 2006
Although short interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced gene silencing can be transmitted between cells in plants and in Caenorhabditis elegans, this phenomenon has been barely studied in mammalian cells. Both immortalized oligodendrocytes and SNB19 glioblastoma cells were transfected with siRNA constructs for phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) or ...
Meuwly F - - 2007
This article describes the development history of packed-bed bioreactors (PBRs) used for the culture of mammalian cells. It further reviews the current applications of PBRs and discusses the steps forward in the development of these systems for bioprocess and biomedical applications. The latest generation of PBRs used in bioprocess applications ...
Maguire Katie Kennedy KK Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Delaware Biotechnology Institute, 15 Innovation Way, Newark, DE 19711, - - 2007
The mechanism by which modified single-stranded oligonucleotides (MSSOs) direct base changes in genes is not completely understood, but there is evidence that DNA damage, repair and cell cycle checkpoint proteins are involved in the targeted nucleotide exchange (TNE) process. We are interested in the role of the mismatch repair protein, ...
Urbina Julio A - - 2006
Lysophospholipid analogues (LPAs) comprise a class of metabolically stable compounds that have been developed as anticancer agents for over two decades, but which have also potent and selective antiparasitic activity, particularly against trypanosomatid parasites such as Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi, both in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo activities ...
Yang Linda - - 2006
Recent studies in Cdc42 knockout mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and ES-derived fibroblastoid cell lines raise concern on a body of literature derived by dominant mutant expression approach in a variety of cell lines implicating mammalian Cdc42 as a key regulator of filopodia induction, directional migration and cell cycle progression. ...
Koh Won-Gun - - 2006
This paper describes microfluidic systems containing immobilized hydrogel-encapsulated mammalian cells that can be used as cell-based biosensors. Mammalian cells were encapsulated in three-dimensional poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) hydrogel microstructures which were photolithographically polymerized in microfluidic devices and grown under static culture conditions. The encapsulated cells remained viable for a week and were ...
Yuen Courtney M CM Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, - - 2006
Inteins are naturally occurring protein elements that catalyze their own excision from within a larger protein together with the ligation of the flanking "extein" sequences. Previously we reported the directed evolution of an intein-based molecular switch in which intein splicing in yeast cells was made dependent on the cell-permeable small ...
Guan Zheng-Bing - - 2007
B cell activating factor (BAFF) belonging to the TNF family is critical for B cell survival and maturation. In the present study, we identified a duck BAFF cDNA, named dBAFF, by RT-PCR and RACE strategies. The open reading frame (ORF) of this cDNA encodes a 288-amino acid protein containing a ...
Castel David - - 2006
There is an increasing need for systematic cell-based assays in a high-throughput screening (HTS) format to analyze the phenotypic consequences of perturbing mammalian cells with drugs, genes, interfering RNA. Taking advantage of the recent progress in microtechnology, new cell microarrays are being developed and applied to a large range of ...
Hoffman Brenton D - - 2006
Although understanding cells' responses to mechanical stimuli is seen as increasingly important for understanding cell biology, how to best measure, interpret, and model cells' mechanical properties remains unclear. We determine the frequency-dependent shear modulus of cultured mammalian cells by using four different methods, both unique and well established. This approach ...
Kim Peter K - - 2006
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles that proliferate under different physiological conditions and can form de novo in cells that lack them. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been shown to be the source of peroxisomes in yeast and plant cells. It remains unclear, however, whether the ER has a similar role in ...
Oliveira-Silva M B - - 2006
Intracellular development of Cystoisospora belli was demonstrated in 4 different mammalian cell lines. Human ileocecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8), epithelial carcinoma of lung (A549), Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK), and African green monkey kidney (VERO) were exposed in vitro to C. belli sporozoites, which had been isolated from the feces of HIV-AIDS patients. ...
Ginty Patrick J - - 2006
We demonstrate that mammalian cells can survive for 5 min within high-pressure CO(2)(.) Cell survival was investigated by exposing a range of mammalian cell types to supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) (35 degrees C, 74 bar; 1 bar = 100 kPa) for increasing exposure and depressurization times. The myoblastic C2C12 cell line, ...
Al-Fageeh Mohamed B - - 2006
There are a growing number of reports on the sub-physiological temperature culturing (<37 degrees C) of mammalian cells for increased recombinant protein yield, although the effect is variable between cell lines, expression systems, and the product of interest. What is becoming clear is that exposing mammalian cells to sub-physiological temperatures ...
Eisenbach Michael - - 2006
Contrary to the prevalent view, there seems to be no competition in the mammalian female genital tract among large numbers of sperm cells that are racing towards the egg. Instead, small numbers of the ejaculated sperm cells enter the Fallopian tube, and these few must be guided to make the ...
Lee Min-Jung - - 2006
The development of gustatory papillae in mammalian embryos requires the coordination of a series of morphological events, such as proliferation, differentiation and innervation. In mice, the circumvallate papilla (CVP) is a specialized structure that develops in a characteristic spatial and temporal pattern in the posterior region of the tongue dorsal ...
Dziarski Roman - - 2006
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are innate immunity molecules present in insects, mollusks, echinoderms, and vertebrates, but not in nematodes or plants. PGRPs have at least one carboxy-terminal PGRP domain (approximately 165 amino acids long), which is homologous to bacteriophage and bacterial type 2 amidases. Insects have up to 19 PGRPs, ...
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