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De Petris Giovanni G Mayo Clinic-Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ, USA - - 2014
Microscopic colitis (MC) is an umbrella term that encompasses lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC). Several histological variants of these 2 entities exist; among them is the uncommon giant cell colitis (GCC), in which histiocytic giant cells (GCs) are present in background of CC or LC. We report the ...
Gerlach Katharina K Department of Medicine 1, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Kussmaul Campus for Medical Research, Erlangen, - - 2014
The molecular checkpoints that drive inflammatory bowel diseases are incompletely understood. Here we found more T cells expressing the transcription factor PU.1 and interleukin 9 (IL-9) in patients with ulcerative colitis. In an animal model, citrine reporter mice had more IL-9-expressing mucosal T cells in experimental oxazolone-induced colitis. IL-9 deficiency ...
Rubio Carlos A - - 2012
The number of round cells that should normally be present in the colonic mucosa remains disputed. Biopsies from patients with chronic diarrhoea, having a slightly increased number of round cells in the lamina propria mucosa (lpm) may be diagnosed as slight chronic colitis by some pathologists, while others may regard ...
Kierdorf Uwe - - 2012
The annual regrowth of deer antlers is a unique case of extensive appendage regeneration in mammals. This review compares basic aspects of antler regeneration with epimorphic regeneration in other vertebrate taxa. The mesenchymal cells that build up the regenerating antler are not derived from dedifferentiated cells in the pedicle stump, ...
Jiang Li - - 2012
Swertia tetraptera Maxim. is an important source of secoiridoid glucosides. To produce these pharmacologically valuable compounds heterologously in somatic hybrid cell lines, S. tetraptera protoplasts were irradiated with various doses of UV light and fused with protoplasts from a long-term cell line of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd. This recipient was chosen ...
Sousa Sara - - 2011
The origin of cells that generate the blastema following appendage amputation has been a long-standing question in epimorphic regeneration studies. The blastema is thought to originate from either stem (or progenitor) cells or differentiated cells of various tissues that undergo dedifferentiation. Here, we investigate the origin of cells that contribute ...
Rink Jochen C - - 2011
The maintenance of organs and their regeneration in case of injury are crucial to the survival of all animals. High rates of tissue turnover and nearly unlimited regenerative capabilities make planarian flatworms an ideal system with which to investigate these important processes, yet little is known about the cell biology ...
Murphy Malea M - - 2011
Muscle regeneration requires the coordinated interaction of multiple cell types. Satellite cells have been implicated as the primary stem cell responsible for regenerating muscle, yet the necessity of these cells for regeneration has not been tested. Connective tissue fibroblasts also are likely to play a role in regeneration, as connective ...
Yoshinari Nozomi - - 2011
The multitude of cells constituting organisms are fragile and easily damaged day by day. Therefore, maintenance of tissue morphology and function is fundamental for multicellular organisms to attain long life. For proper maintenance of tissue integrity, organisms must have mechanisms that detect the loss of tissue mass, activate the de ...
Moon In Seok - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Lateral line system of the zebrafish is a useful model for study of hair cell toxicity and regeneration. We found that low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) stimulated the regeneration of mechanosensory hair cells after neomycin-induced cell death in zebrafish lateral line. The aims of this study were to quantify ...
Lee Seung-Hee SH Sanford Children's Health Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, - - 2011
Partial pancreatectomy is one of the most commonly used models in the study of β-cell regeneration. The mechanism by which regeneration occurs in this model has been controversial, with some claiming that islet and β-cell neogenesis is important, while others claim that β-cell replication is predominant. Here, we combined a ...
Sustar Anne A Dept of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195, - - 2011
Cell proliferation is required for tissue regeneration, yet the dynamics of proliferation during regeneration are not well understood. Here we investigated the proliferation of eye and leg regeneration in fragments of Drosophila imaginal discs. Using twin spot clones, we followed the proliferation and fates of sister cells arising from the ...
Beers Michael F - - 2011
All tissues and organs can be classified according to their ability to repair and regenerate during adult homeostasis and after injury. Some exhibit a high rate of constant cell turnover, while others, such as the lung, exhibit only low-level cell regeneration during normal adult homeostasis but have the ability to ...
Tsuwamoto Ryo - - 2011
Companion cells are metabolically active and functionally specialized cells that behave as terminals for the transport of materials between phloem and the surrounding tissue. Although previous research has clarified the distinct function of companion cells, it is still largely unknown how plants establish and maintain the special identity of these ...
Damiani C - - 2011
Despite myriads of possible gene expression profiles, cells tend to be found in a confined number of expression patterns. The dynamics of Boolean models of gene regulatory networks has proven to be a likely candidate for the description of such self-organisation phenomena. Because cells do not live in isolation, but ...
Ye Xin - - 2011
The developing mammalian kidney is an attractive system in which to study the control of organ growth. Targeted mutations in the Wnt receptors frizzled (Fz) 4 and Fz8 lead to reduced ureteric bud growth and a reduction in kidney size, a phenotype previously reported for loss of Wnt11. In cell ...
McAdams Harley H HH Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2011
The control circuitry that directs and paces Caulobacter cell cycle progression involves the entire cell operating as an integrated system. This control circuitry monitors the environment and the internal state of the cell, including the cell topology, as it orchestrates orderly activation of cell cycle subsystems and Caulobacter's asymmetric cell ...
Papetti Michael M Department of Oncology, Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York 10467, USA. - - 2011
Multiple signals, controlling both proliferation and differentiation, must be integrated in the reprogramming of intestinal epithelial cells during maturation along the crypt-luminal axis. The v-myb family member Mybl2, a molecule implicated in the development and maintenance of the stem cell phenotype, has been suggested to play an important role in ...
Miao Ren R Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255, United - - 2011
Aft1p is a major iron regulator in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It indirectly senses cytosolic Fe status and responds by activating or repressing iron regulon genes. Aft1p within the Aft1-1(up) strain has a single amino acid mutation which causes it to constitutively activate iron regulon genes regardless of cellular Fe ...
Zeng Xianzhuo - - 2011
Histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) catalyzed by the enzymatic subunit EZH2 in the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is essential for cells to 'memorize' gene expression patterns through cell divisions and plays an important role in establishing and maintaining cell identity during development. However, how the epigenetic mark is ...
Mittenthal Jay E - - 2011
Cells make many transitions from an old to a new phase of activity - between inactive and active states of an enzyme, or between phases of the cell cycle. If a cell is to survive, molecular prerequisites for functioning in the new phase should be available before a transition occurs. ...
Chara Osvaldo - - 2011
For animal cell plasma membranes, the permeability of water is much higher than that of ions and other solutes, and exposure to hyposmotic conditions almost invariably causes rapid water influx and cell swelling. In this situation, cells deploy regulatory mechanisms to preserve membrane integrity and avoid lysis. The phenomenon of ...
Faouzi Malika - - 2011
Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer in the world in terms of incidence and mortality in women. However, the mechanism by which BC develops remains largely unknown. The increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) can result in different physiological changes including cell growth and death. Orai isoforms are highly Ca(2+) ...
Węsierska-Gądek Józefa - - 2011
Complexes consisting of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their regulatory subunits (the cyclins) control the progression of normal mammalian cells through the cell cycle. However, during malignant transformation this regulatory apparatus malfunctions, allowing cells to undergo unchecked proliferation. In many cases, the high mitotic potential of malignant cells is due to ...
Ebner Olivia A - - 2011
Since gene expression is controlled on many different levels in a cell, capturing a comprehensive snapshot of all regulatory processes is a difficult task. One possibility to monitor effective changes within a cell is to directly quantify changes in protein synthesis, which reflects the accumulative impact of regulatory mechanisms on ...
Li Ying-Ying - - 2011
Zoledronic acid (ZOL) was shown earlier to prolong survival in animal models of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to examine whether alteration of intracellular cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, retinoblastoma, and Ras protein expression and E2F localization are among the possible antilung cancer mechanisms driven by ...
Pan Fan - - 2011
Substantial advances in our understanding of the developmental and functional relationship between regulatory T cells (T(regs)) and T helper 17 (T(H)17) cells and their potential clinical applications have been made. In response to these breakthroughs, the second international conference entitled "China Tregs/Th17 2010 Shanghai Conference," held in Shanghai, China, was ...
Wang D - - 2011
Until recently, Cip/Kip members were almost solely viewed as nuclear proteins with a principal function of inhibiting cyclin/cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) activity and hence, inhibiting cell cycle progression. P27Kip1 (hereafter p27) belongs to the Cip/Kip family that binds and inhibits all the cyclin/CDK complexes, thus often referred as a universal CDK inhibitor. ...
Lien Hsiu-Man - - 2011
In this study, 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-l,3-benzodioxole (SY-1) was isolated from three different sources of dried fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorate (AC). AC is a medicinal mushroom that grows on the inner heartwood wall of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hay (Lauraceae), an endemic species that is used in Chinese medicine for its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory ...
García-Arrarás José E - - 2011
Determining the type and source of cells involved in regenerative processes has been one of the most important goals of researchers in the field of regeneration biology. We have previously used several cellular markers to characterize the cells involved in the regeneration of the intestine in the sea cucumber Holothuria ...
Seidel Hannah S - - 2011
Many animals alter their reproductive strategies in response to environmental stress. Here we have investigated how L4 hermaphrodites of Caenorhabditis elegans respond to starvation. To induce starvation, we removed food at 2 h intervals from very early- to very late-stage L4 animals. The starved L4s molted into adulthood, initiated oogenesis, ...
Chen Huan - - 2011
MicroRNAs are a class of small regulatory RNAs that modulate a variety of biological processes, including cellular differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism and proliferation. This study aims to explore the effect of miR-34a in hepatocyte proliferation and its potential role in liver regeneration termination. MiR-34a was highly induced after partial hepatectomy. Overexpression ...
Ni Choileain Siobhan - - 2011
Adequate termination of an immune response is as important as the induction of an appropriate response. CD46, a regulator of complement activity, promotes T cell activation and differentiation towards a regulatory Tr1 phenotype. This Tr1 differentiation pathway is defective in patients with MS, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis, underlying its importance ...
de Boer Onno J - - 2011
Allograft vasculopathy (AV) and native atherosclerosis (NA) share the presence of a T-cell mediated inflammatory response, but differ in overall plaque morphology and growth rate. We studied the distribution and frequency of regulatory- and cytotoxic T cells in the arterial intima lesions in both conditions. The study is based on ...
Britos Leticia - - 2011
Bacteria adapt to shifts from rapid to slow growth, and have developed strategies for long-term survival during prolonged starvation and stress conditions. We report the regulatory response of C. crescentus to carbon starvation, based on combined high-throughput proteome and transcriptome analyses. Our results identify cell cycle changes in gene expression ...
Stein Gary S GS Department of Cell Biology and Cancer Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA. - - 2011
The organization and intranuclear localization of nucleic acids and regulatory proteins contribute to both genetic and epigenetic parameters of biological control. Regulatory machinery in the cell nucleus is functionally compartmentalized in microenvironments (focally organized sites where regulatory factors reside) that provide threshold levels of factors required for transcription, replication, repair ...
Liu Youhong - - 2010
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a first-line anti-cancer agent for acute promyelocytic leukemia, and induces apoptosis in other solid cancer cell lines including breast cancer cells. However, as with arsenites found in drinking water and used as raw materials for wood preservatives, insecticides, and herbicides, low doses of ATO can induce ...
Fahham Najmeh - - 2010
The tumor suppressor p16(INK4a) has earned widespread attention in cancer studies since its discovery as an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 4/6. Structurally, it consists of four complete ankyrin repeats, believed to be involved in CDK4 interaction. According to the previous disparities concerning the importance of domains and inactivating mutations ...
Mikami Iwao - - 2010
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway plays pivotal roles in fundamental cellular functions including cell proliferation and cell survival. Its deregulation has been implicated in many types of human malignancies. We investigated the role of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in human malignant pleural mesothelioma (MM). Here, we report that aberrant activation of ...
Szwarcwort-Cohen Moran - - 2010
Entry into and precise progression through the cell cycle depends on the sequential expression and activation of cyclin dependent kinases (CDK). In accord, CDK dysregulation is a hallmark of many cancers. The function of Cdk2 is still an enigma as in vitro studies revealed that it is required for S ...
Jiang Jiahua - - 2010
Mushrooms are an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and have been used for millennia to prevent or treat a variety of diseases. Currently mushrooms or their extracts are used globally in the form of dietary supplements. In the present study we have evaluated the anticancer effects of the ...
Ou Ting-Tsz - - 2010
Cell cycle regulation is a critical issue in cancer treatment. Previously, gallic acid (GA) has been reported to possess anticancer ability. Here, we have evaluated the molecular mechanism of GA on cell cycle modulation in a human bladder transitional carcinoma cell line (TSGH-8301 cell). Using flow cytometer analysis, exposure of ...
Noh Joonyong - - 2010
Foxp3 is a transcript factor for regulatory T cell development. Interestingly, Foxp3-expressing cells were identified in B cells, especially in CD19(+)CD5(+) B cells, while those were not examined in CD19(+)CD5(-) B cells. Foxp3-expressing CD5(+) B cells in this study were identified in human PBMCs and were found to consist of ...
Chung Heekyung - - 2010
Several studies indicate that the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system may trigger cytotoxicity upon 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) recognition, but signaling pathways regulated by MMR in response to 5-FU are unknown. We hypothesize that recognition of 5-FU in DNA by MMR proteins trigger specific signaling cascades that results in slowing of the ...
Nangia-Makker Pratima P Tumor Progression and Metastasis, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, - - 2010
Galectin-3 cleavage is related to progression of human breast and prostate cancer and is partly responsible for tumor growth, angiogenesis and apoptosis resistance in mouse models. A functional polymorphism in galectin-3 gene, determining its susceptibility to cleavage by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2/-9 is related to racial disparity in breast cancer incidence ...
Zhang Shuhong S Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, - - 2011
Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable with current therapy, indicating the need for continued development of novel therapeutic agents. We evaluated the activity of a novel phenylbutyrate-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor, AR-42, in primary human myeloma cells and cell lines. AR-42 was cytotoxic to MM cells at a mean LC(50) of 0.18 ...
Starostina Natalia G NG Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. - - 2010
The Cip/Kip CDK inhibitor (CKI) p21(Cip1/WAF1) has a critical role in the nucleus to limit cell proliferation by inhibiting CDK-cyclin complexes. In contrast, cytoplasmic p21 regulates cell survival and the actin cytoskeleton. These divergent functions for p21 in different cellular compartments suggest the necessity for complex regulation. In this study, we ...
Zhou Hongyu H Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932, - - 2010
Ciclopirox olamine (CPX) is a synthetic antifungal agent clinically used to treat mycoses of the skin and nails. Here, we show that CPX inhibited tumor growth in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenografts. To unveil the underlying mechanism, we further studied the antitumor activity of CPX in cell culture. The results ...
Yip Wai Kien - - 2010
Secondary metabolites from actinomycetes especially the genus Streptomyces may be one of the most important sources for novel anticancer agents. A purified fraction from a novel actinomycete strain, Streptomyces sp. H7372, was elucidated in breast cancer cells. We have isolated three purified fractions from a novel strain, Streptomyces sp. H7372. ...
Relja Borna - - 2010
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of major health concerns worldwide and one of leading causes of cancer death after lung and gastric cancers. Simvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering drug which inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase. Simvastatin exhibits numerous pleiotropic effects including anti-cancer activity. Yet, the anticancer effects in HCC remain poorly ...
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