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Results 401 - 450 of 2142
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Hao Nan N Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, - - 2008
Cell differentiation requires the ability to detect and respond appropriately to a variety of extracellular signals. Here we investigate a differentiation switch induced by changes in the concentration of a single stimulus. Yeast cells exposed to high doses of mating pheromone undergo cell division arrest. Cells at intermediate doses become ...
Fuad-Hassan Avan - - 2008
The growth and emergence of maize silks has a considerable importance in yield determination under drought conditions. Spatial and temporal patterns of the rates of tissue expansion and of cell division were characterized in silks of plants subjected to different soil water potentials. In all cases, silk development consisted of ...
Clifford Dawn M - - 2008
The periodicity of CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases) regulates most cell cycle transitions including cytokinesis. High Cdk1 activity promotes cytoskeletal rearrangements necessary for cell division while at the same time ensuring that cytokinesis does not begin before the separation of sister chromatids during anaphase. The conserved Cdc14 (cell division cycle 14)-family of ...
Bonner Mary Kate MK Department of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 425-G Henry Mall, Madison, WI 53706, USA. - - 2008
Cell division is the most fundamental process in the development of all living organisms. The generation of cell diversity throughout development, the multiplication of cells during wound repair and the maintenance of stem cells in several tissues and organs all rely on proper progress through cell division. Historically, biochemical studies ...
Congdon Kendra L KL Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2008
A fundamental mechanism by which cells can give rise to daughters with different fates is via asymmetric division. During asymmetric division, a mother cell generates daughter cells that go on to adopt different fates because of differential segregation of cell fate determinants. Although originally characterized in invertebrates, asymmetric division has ...
Fuentealba Luis C LC Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1662, - - 2008
Mitotic cell division ensures that two daughter somatic cells inherit identical genetic material. Previous work has shown that signaling by the Smad1 transcription factor is terminated by polyubiquitinylation and proteasomal degradation after essential phosphorylations by MAPK and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Here, we show that, unexpectedly, proteins specifically targeted ...
Lundgren Magnus - - 2008
The hyperthermophilic archaea Acidianus hospitalis, Aeropyrum pernix, Pyrobaculum aerophilum, Pyrobaculum calidifontis, and Sulfolobus tokodaii representing three different orders in the phylum Crenarchaeota were analyzed by flow cytometry and combined phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy. The overall organization of the cell cycle was found to be similar in all species, with a ...
Speicher Stephan - - 2008
Asymmetric cell division is a conserved mechanism to generate cellular diversity during animal development and a key process in cancer and stem cell biology. Despite the increasing number of proteins characterized, the complex network of proteins interactions established during asymmetric cell division is still poorly understood. This suggests that additional ...
Gao Yajun - - 2008
Loss-of-function alleles of the sole heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunit in Arabidopsis, GPA1, display defects in cell proliferation throughout plant development. Previous studies indicated that GPA1 is involved in brassinosteroid (BR) response. Here we provide genetic evidence that loss-of-function mutations in GPA1, gpa1-2 and gpa1-4, enhance the developmental defects of bri1-5, ...
Gajjar, Shefali Rajendra
When prototrophic yeast cells undergo continuous growth in nutrient-limited conditions, they experience robust metabolic oscillations. Additionally, the processes of metabolism in yeast cells have been shown to be coordinated with cell division; cell division can only occur in certain phases of the metabolic cycle. It has been hypothesized that certain ...
Rabodzey, Aleksandr
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Biological Engineering Division, 2006.
Siegal-Gaskins Dan - - 2008
The robust surface adherence property of the aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus permits visualization of single cells in a linear microfluidic culture chamber over an extended number of generations. The division rate of Caulobacter in this continuous-flow culture environment is substantially faster than in other culture apparati and is independent of ...
Gönczy Pierre - - 2008
Asymmetric cell division is fundamental for generating diversity in multicellular organisms. The mechanisms that govern asymmetric cell division are increasingly well understood, owing notably to studies that were conducted in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. Lessons learned from these two model organisms also apply to cells that divide asymmetrically in ...
Garcia Kristin - - 2008
Drosophila researchers met in sunny San Diego for the 49(th) Annual Meeting of The Genetics Society of America. It was cold outside and even colder inside. Like last year, 'Mitosis, Meiosis and Cell Division' was no longer a session. Instead, we searched out and covered talks and posters in 'Cell ...
Ebersbach Gitte G Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, - - 2008
Formation of the Z ring is the first known event in bacterial cell division. However, it is not yet known how the assembly and contraction of the Z ring are regulated. Here, we identify a novel cell division factor ZapB in Escherichia coli that simultaneously stimulates Z ring assembly and ...
Noctor Stephen C SC Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. - - 2008
Neocortical precursor cells undergo symmetric and asymmetric divisions while producing large numbers of diverse cortical cell types. In Drosophila, cleavage plane orientation dictates the inheritance of fate-determinants and the symmetry of newborn daughter cells during neuroblast cell divisions. One model for predicting daughter cell fate in the mammalian neocortex is ...
Grigsby Iwen F - - 2008
Normal animal development requires accurate cell divisions, not only in the early stages of rapid embryonic cleavages, but also in later developmental stages. The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-85 gene is implicated only in cell divisions that occur post-embryonically, primarily in terminal neuronal lineages. Variable post-embryonic cell division failures in ventral cord ...
Niven Gordon W - - 2008
The distributions of times to first cell division were determined for populations of Escherichia coli stationary-phase cells inoculated onto agar media. This was accomplished by using automated analysis of digital images of individual cells growing on agar and calculation of the "box area ratio." Using approximately 300 cells per experiment, ...
Sugiyama Yuki - - 2008
A fertilised Caenorhabditis elegans embryo shows an invariable pattern of cell division and forms a multicellular body where each cell locates to a defined position. Mitotic spindle orientation is determined by several preceding events including the migration of duplicated centrosomes on a nucleus and the rotation of nuclear-centrosome complex. Cell ...
Russell Sarah M - - 2008
The production, from a single naive T cell, of the many different activated T cell types required for an effective immune response has fascinated immunologists for decades. This process underpins the development of vaccines, immunosuppressive regimes in transplant patients, and immunotherapy in cancer among other things. Despite the enormous advances ...
Hatzold Julia - - 2008
Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis ...
Pisani Kristy A - - 2008
The apostome ciliate Hyalophysa chattoni, a symbiont of the estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, was tested for its growth and reproductive ability in a wide range of salinities from 0.1 to 55 ppt. Shrimp, with their attached ciliates, were slowly acclimated to different salinities in order to assess protozoan cell ...
Wasserstrom Adam - - 2008
The depth of a cell of a multicellular organism is the number of cell divisions it underwent since the zygote, and knowing this basic cell property would help address fundamental problems in several areas of biology. At present, the depths of the vast majority of human and mouse cell types ...
Haeusser Daniel P DP Department of Biology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, - - 2008
The relationship between events during the bacterial cell cycle has been the subject of frequent debate. While early models proposed a relatively rigid view in which DNA replication was inextricably coupled to attainment of a specific cell mass, and cell division was triggered by the completion of chromosome replication, more ...
Théry Manuel - - 2008
Cell rounding is a common feature of cell division. The spherical shape that cells adopt during mitosis is apparently neither a simple detachment nor a global softening or stiffening that allows cells to adopt what seems to be a mechanical equilibrium. It is a highly complex mechanical transformation by which ...
Claessen Dennis - - 2008
The characteristic shape of bacterial cells is mainly determined by the cell wall, the synthesis of which is orchestrated by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Rod-shaped bacteria have two distinct modes of cell wall synthesis, involved in cell elongation and cell division, which are believed to employ different sets of PBPs. A ...
Konopka Catherine A - - 2008
Members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1 (DRP1) family are required for cytokinesis and cell expansion. Two isoforms, DRP1A and DRP1C, are required for plasma membrane maintenance during stigmatic papillae expansion and pollen development, respectively. It is unknown whether the DRP1s function interchangeably or if they have distinct roles ...
Schwamborn Jens C - - 2008
Asymmetric stem cell division is thought to require precise orientation of the mitotic spindle. However, a recent study in Cell (Yingling et al., 2008) analyzes the role of LIS1 in the developing mouse brain and shows that spindle orientation is more important during early, symmetric progenitor cell divisions than for ...
Veening Jan-Willem - - 2008
Upon nutritional limitation, the bacterium Bacillus subtilis has the capability to enter the irreversible process of sporulation. This developmental process is bistable, and only a subpopulation of cells actually differentiates into endospores. Why a cell decides to sporulate or not to do so is poorly understood. Here, through the use ...
den Blaauwen Tanneke - - 2008
For growth and division of rod-shaped bacteria, the cylindrical part of the sacculus has to be elongated and two new cell poles have to be synthesized. The elongation is performed by a protein complex, the elongase that inserts disaccharidepentapeptide units at a limited number of discrete sites while using the ...
Hett Erik C - - 2008
The genus Mycobacterium is best known for its two major pathogenic species, M. tuberculosis and M. leprae, the causative agents of two of the world's oldest diseases, tuberculosis and leprosy, respectively. M. tuberculosis kills approximately two million people each year and is thought to latently infect one-third of the world's ...
Kang Choong-Min CM Department of Biological Science, Wayne State University, 5047 Gullen Mall, Detroit, MI 48202, USA. - - 2008
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains 11 serine/threonine kinase genes, and the products of two of these, PknA and PknB, are key components of a signal transduction pathway that regulates cell division and/or morphology. Previously, we have shown that one substrate of these kinases is Wag31, a homologue of the cell ...
Rabinowitz Jeremy S - - 2008
During animal development, blast cell lineages are generated by repeated divisions of a mother cell into a series of daughter cells, often with a specific series of distinct fates. Nanos is a translational regulator that is involved in germline development in diverse animals and also involved in somatic patterning in ...
O'Farrell Fergal - - 2008
During Drosophila embryogenesis, timely and orderly asymmetric cell divisions ensure the correct number of each cell type that make up the sensory organs of the larval PNS. We report a role of scraps, Drosophila Anillin, during these divisions. Anillin, a constitutive member of the contractile ring is essential for cytokinesis ...
John Peter C L - - 2008
Currently, there is little information to indicate whether plant cell division and development is the collective effect of individual cell programming (cell-based) or is determined by organ-wide growth (organismal). Modulation of cell division does not confirm cell autonomous programming of cell expansion; instead, final cell size seems to be determined ...
Letek Michal - - 2008
Bacterial cell growth and cell division are highly complicated and diversified biological processes. In most rod-shaped bacteria, actin-like MreB homologues produce helicoidal structures along the cell that support elongation of the lateral cell wall. An exception to this rule is peptidoglycan synthesis in the rod-shaped actinomycete Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is ...
Adams Sally - - 2008
Chloroplasts arise by binary fission from pre-existing plastids, thus division plays a key role in the development of these essential photosynthetic organelles. To ensure that actively dividing tissues accumulate large numbers of chloroplasts prior to cell division, chloroplast division and the cell cycle must be intimately linked. However, little is ...
Wu Pao-Shu PS Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research, - - 2008
Asymmetric cell division is an important and conserved strategy in the generation of cellular diversity during animal development. Many of our insights into the underlying mechanisms of asymmetric cell division have been gained from Drosophila, including the establishment of polarity, orientation of mitotic spindles and segregation of cell fate determinants. ...
Bischoff Marcus M MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge, - - 2008
Setting aside pluripotent cells that give rise to the future body is a central cell fate decision in mammalian development. It requires that some blastomeres divide asymmetrically to direct cells to the inside of the embryo. Despite its importance, it is unknown whether the decision to divide symmetrically versus asymmetrically ...
Lee, Hyun-Kyung
Arabidopsis leaf morphology is determined by the coordinated action of cell division and elongation. Of all the hormones that control leaf shape, the brassinosteroids (BRs) are active components in this process. BRs are a group of plant-originated steroidal compounds that induce growth along the long axes of organs. Here, we ...
Sumara Izabela - - 2008
Faithful division of eukaryotic cells requires temporal and spatial coordination of morphological transitions, which ensures that the newly replicated copies of the genome are equally distributed into the two daughter cells during mitosis. One of the mechanisms ensuring the fidelity of mitotic progression is targeted, ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of key regulators. ...
Kavanová Monika - - 2008
Nitrogen deficiency severely inhibits leaf growth. This response was analysed at the cellular level by growing Lolium perenne L. under 7.5 mM (high) or 1 mM (low) nitrate supply, and performing a kinematic analysis to assess the effect of nitrogen status on cell proliferation and cell growth in the leaf ...
Radhakrishnan Sunish Kumar - - 2008
Caulobacter crescentus divides asymmetrically into a swarmer cell and a stalked cell, a process that is governed by the imbalance in phosphorylated levels of the DivK cell fate determinant in the two cellular compartments. The asymmetric polar localization of the DivJ kinase results in its specific inheritance in the stalked ...
T. Hult
We investigate the possibility of multiple high altitude platform (HAP) coverage of a common cell area using a wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) system. In particular, we study the uplink system performance of the system. The results show that depending on the traffic demand and the type of service ...
Turner, Marian Linnett
Humoral immune responses arise when B lymphocytes respond to activation signals, enter mitosis and proliferate rapidly. Concurrent differentiation to antibody secreting and isotype switched effector cells is tightly linked to cell division, such that the degree of proliferation strongly influences the nature of the response that is mounted. Previous versions ...
Zong, Junyao
The work done in this thesis focuses on the design of a square-shaped 20-way metamaterial power divider which is fabricated in microstrip technology and operates at 1 GHz. The divider comprises 12 square-shaped left-handed unit cells and 13 square-shaped right-handed unit cells, and these unit cells have the same size ...
Ripetti V - - 2008
Genetic control of plant size and shape is a promising perspective, particularly in fruit trees, in order to select desirable genotypes. A recent study on architectural traits in an apple progeny showed that internode length was a highly heritable character. However, few studies have been devoted to internode cellular patterning ...
Beaulieu Jeremy M - - 2008
Across eukaryotes phenotypic correlations with genome size are thought to scale from genome size effects on cell size. However, for plants the genome/cell size link has only been thoroughly documented within ploidy series and small subsets of herbaceous species. Here, the first large-scale comparative analysis is made of the relationship ...
Lundberg Gisela - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Amplification of the oncogene MYCN in double minutes (DMs) is a common finding in neuroblastoma (NB). Because DMs lack centromeric sequences it has been unclear how NB cells retain and amplify extrachromosomal MYCN copies during tumour development. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that MYCN-carrying DMs in NB cells translocate from ...
Nicolay Brandon N - - 2008
The Hippo pathway negatively regulates the cell number in epithelial tissue. Upon its inactivation, an excess of cells is produced. These additional cells are generated from an increased rate of cell division, followed by inappropriate proliferation of cells that have failed to exit the cell cycle. We analyzed the consequence ...
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