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Bernard Remi - - 2010
How bacteria respond to chromosome replication stress has been traditionally studied using temperature-sensitive mutants and chemical inhibitors. These methods inevitably arrest all replication and lead to induction of transcriptional responses and inhibition of cell division. Here, we used repressor proteins bound to operator arrays to generate a single stalled replication ...
Arnot David E - - 2011
The cell division cycle and mitosis of intra-erythrocytic (IE) Plasmodium falciparum are poorly understood aspects of parasite development which affect malaria molecular pathogenesis. Specifically, the timing of the multiple gap (G), DNA synthesis (S) and chromosome separation (M) phases of parasite mitosis are not well defined, nor whether genome divisions ...
Jennings Phoebe C - - 2010
The idea of a bacterial cytoskeleton arose just 10 years ago with the identification of the cell division protein, FtsZ, as a tubulin homolog. FtsZ plays a pivotal role in bacterial division, and is present in virtually all prokaryotes and in some eukaryotic organelles. The earliest stage of bacterial cell ...
Sirimuthu Narayana M S - - 2010
We describe the uptake of silver nanoparticles by CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells and their subsequent fate as a result of cell division during culture, as monitored by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. Mapping of populations of cells containing both labeled and native nanoparticles by SERS spectroscopy imaging provided a ...
Fendrych Matyás - - 2010
Cell reproduction is a complex process involving whole cell structures and machineries in space and time, resulting in regulated distribution of endomembranes, organelles, and genomes between daughter cells. Secretory pathways supported by the activity of the Golgi apparatus play a crucial role in cytokinesis in plants. From the onset of ...
Dhondt Stijn - - 2010
SHORT-ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) are required for stem cell maintenance in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root meristem, ensuring its indeterminate growth. Mutation of SHR and SCR genes results in disorganization of the quiescent center and loss of stem cell activity, resulting in the cessation of root growth. This paper ...
Wu Jian-Qiu - - 2010
A major question about cytokinesis concerns the role of the septin proteins, which localize to the division site in all animal and fungal cells but are essential for cytokinesis only in some cell types. For example, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, four septins localize to the division site, but deletion of the ...
Lluch-Senar Maria - - 2010
Mycoplasma genomes exhibit an impressively low amount of genes involved in cell division and some species even lack the ftsZ gene, which is found widespread in the microbial world and is considered essential for cell division by binary fission. We constructed a Mycoplasma genitalium ftsZ null mutant by gene replacement ...
Karamitros Dimitris D Department of Physiology, Medical School, University of Patras, Patras, Greece. - - 2010
The interplay of proliferation and differentiation is essential for normal development and organogenesis. Geminin is a cell cycle regulator which controls licensing of origins for DNA replication, safeguarding genomic stability. Geminin has also been shown to regulate cellular decisions of self-renewal versus commitment of neuronal progenitor cells. We discuss here ...
Szymanowska-Pułka Joanna - - 2010
In this work, the formation of the virtual lateral root (VLR) is shown. The VLR is formed using the 2D simulation model of growth and cell divisions based on the concept of growth tensor, specified for radish. Growth is generated by the field of growth rates of an unsteady type ...
Almonacid Maria - - 2010
A critical and irreversible step in the cell division cycle is cytokinesis which physically separates the two daughter cells. This event is consequently subject to tight spatial and temporal regulation. This review focuses on the spatial regulatory mechanisms controlling the position of the division plane. Studies performed in prokaryotic and ...
Sun Sean X SX Johns Hopkins University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute for NanoBioTechnology, Baltimore, MD, - - 2010
Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells use cytoskeletal proteins to regulate and modify cell shape. During cytokinesis or eukaryotic cell crawling, contractile forces are generated inside the cell to constrict the division site or to haul the rear of the cell forward, respectively. In many cases, these forces have been attributed to ...
Yasui Manabu - - 2010
The micronucleus (MN) test is widely used to biomonitor humans exposed to clastogens and aneugens, but little is known about MN development. Here we used confocal time-lapse imaging and a fluorescent human lymphoblastoid cell line (T105GTCH), in which histone H3 and α-tubulin stained differentially, to record the emergence and behavior ...
Staniland Sarah S - - 2010
Cell division in magnetotactic bacteria has attracted much interest, speculation and hypothesis with respect to the biomineralised chains of magnetic iron-oxide particles known as magnetosomes. Here we report direct Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) evidence that division occurs at a central point of the cell and the chain, cleaving the magnetosome ...
Walen Kirsten H - - 2010
Giant endopolyploid nuclei (>16n) can spontaneously fragment by endomitosis (nuclear internal division) into near-diploid cells with reproductive capacity (depolyploidization), and endotetra/octopolyploidy can undergo chromosome-visible meiotic-like genome reductional divisions also to replicative subcells. These unconventional divisions are associated with production of aneuploidy, which led to the question in this study of ...
Lange Ulrike C - - 2010
During mammalian development, maintenance of cell fate through mitotic divisions require faithful replication not only of the DNA but also of a particular epigenetic state. Germline cells have the capacity of erasing this epigenetic memory at crucial times during development, thereby resetting their epigenome. Certain marks, however, appear to escape ...
Moseley James B JB The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. - - 2010
Single-celled organisms monitor cell geometry and use this information to control cell division. Such geometry-sensing mechanisms control both the decision to enter into cell division and the physical orientation of the chromosome segregation machinery, suggesting that signals controlling cell division may be linked to the mechanisms that ensure proper chromosome ...
Pancholi Vijay - - 2010
Cell division and cell wall synthesis are closely linked complex phenomena and play a crucial role in the maintenance and regulation of bacterial virulence. Eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr kinases reported in prokaryotes, including that in group A Streptococcus (GAS) (Streptococcus pyogenes Ser/Thr kinase (SP-STK)), regulate cell division, growth, and virulence. The mechanism ...
Ducat Thierry - - 2010
MinE acts together with MinC and MinD to prevent placement of the cell division septum in the polar regions of gram negative bacteria, thereby ensuring that productive cell division occurs solely at the mid-cell. Here we report the backbone and side chain (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments for MinE ...
Wayne Kyle J KJ Department of Biology, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, - - 2010
The WalRK two-component regulatory system coordinates gene expression that maintains cell wall homeostasis and responds to antibiotic stress in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. Phosphorylated WalR (VicR) of the major human respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (WalR(Spn)) positively regulates transcription of several surface virulence genes and, most critically, pcsB, which encodes an essential ...
Kitajima Atsushi - - 2010
Asymmetric cell division generates two daughter cells of differential gene expression and/or cell shape. Drosophila neuroblasts undergo typical asymmetric divisions with regard to both features; this is achieved by asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants (such as Prospero) and also by asymmetric spindle formation. The loss of genes involved in ...
Sozzani R - - 2010
The development of multicellular organisms relies on the coordinated control of cell divisions leading to proper patterning and growth. The molecular mechanisms underlying pattern formation, particularly the regulation of formative cell divisions, remain poorly understood. In Arabidopsis, formative divisions generating the root ground tissue are controlled by SHORTROOT (SHR) and ...
Saunders Diane G O - - 2010
To infect plants, many pathogenic fungi develop specialized infection structures called appressoria. Here, we report that appressorium development in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae involves an unusual cell division, in which nuclear division is spatially uncoupled from the site of cytokinesis and septum formation. The position of the appressorium ...
Duby Geoffrey - - 2010
The Nicotiana tabacum Bright-Yellow-2 (BY2) cell line is one of most commonly used plant suspension cell lines and offers interesting properties, such as fast growth, amenability to genetic transformation, and synchronization of cell division. To build a proteome reference map of BY2 cell proteins, we isolated the soluble proteins from ...
Tabler Jacqueline M JM King's College London, Department of Craniofacial Development, Floor 27, Guy's Tower, London SE1 9RT, - - 2010
In both invertebrate and vertebrate embryonic central nervous systems, deep cells differentiate while superficial (ventricular) epithelial cells remain in a proliferative, stem cell state. The conserved polarity protein PAR-1, which is basolaterally localised in epithelia, promotes and is required for differentiating deep layer cell types, including ciliated cells and neurons. ...
Turner Robert D - - 2010
Division in Staphylococci occurs equatorially and on specific sequentially orthogonal planes in three dimensions, resulting, after incomplete cell separation, in the 'bunch of grapes' cluster organization that defines the genus. The shape of Staphylococci is principally maintained by peptidoglycan. In this study, we use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence ...
Kaehr Bryan - - 2010
We report an approach to position gold nanoparticle catalysts for metal reduction asymmetrically on a biological template (E. coli) by exploiting the polarity of the bacterial cell envelope undergoing growth and division.
Juarez Jennifer R - - 2010
The Min system regulates the positioning of the cell division site in many bacteria. In Escherichia coli, MinD migrates rapidly from one cell pole to the other. In conjunction with MinC, MinD helps to prevent unwanted FtsZ rings from assembling at the poles and to stabilize their positioning at midcell. ...
McCollum Dannel - - 2010
How cells mark the region of the plasma membrane where the cleavage furrow will assemble is a classic question in cell biology. A new study has shown an unexpected role for cortically associated endoplasmic reticulum in positioning the site of cell division.
Oliaro Jane J Cancer Immunology Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St Andrews Place, East Melbourne, - - 2010
Asymmetric cell division is a potential means by which cell fate choices during an immune response are orchestrated. Defining the molecular mechanisms that underlie asymmetric division of T cells is paramount for determining the role of this process in the generation of effector and memory T cell subsets. In other ...
Christen Matthias M Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2010
The bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) regulates cellular motility and the synthesis of organelles and molecules that promote adhesion to a variety of biological and nonbiological surfaces. These properties likely require tight spatial and temporal regulation of c-di-GMP concentration. We have developed genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer ...
Zheng Yixian - - 2010
Eukaryotic cell division uses morphologically different forms of mitosis, referred to as open, partially open and closed mitosis, for accurate chromosome segregation and proper partitioning of other cellular components such as endomembranes and cell fate determinants. Recent studies suggest that the spindle matrix provides a conserved strategy to coordinate the ...
Simonart T - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: Although there have been major advances in understanding immunopathogenesis of psoriasis, the basic processes causing psoriatic morphology remain to be identified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our group has designed a systematic review of studies (1962-2009) on keratinocyte kinetics in psoriasis. We obtained data from MEDLINE, PubMed, Current Contents, reference lists ...
Borghi Lorenzo - - 2010
Several genes involved in the regulation of postembryonic organ initiation and growth have been identified. However, it remains largely unclear how developmental cues connect to the cell cycle. RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED (RBR) is a plant homolog of the tumor suppressor Retinoblastoma (pRb), which is a key regulator of the cell cycle. ...
Maple Jodi - - 2010
Plastids are vital organelles, fulfilling important metabolic functions that greatly influence plant growth and productivity. In order to both regulate and harness the metabolic output of plastids, it is vital that the process of plastid division is carefully controlled. This is essential, not only to ensure persistence in dividing plant ...
Etchells J Peter - - 2010
Orientation of cell division is essential for plant development as the direction of growth is determined by the direction of cell expansion and orientation of cell division. We have demonstrated that cell division orientation in vascular tissue is regulated by the interactions between a receptor kinase (PXY) expressed in dividing ...
Wang Yubao - - 2010
The apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii replicates by endodyogeny, in which replicated organelles assemble into nascent daughter buds within the maternal parasite. The mechanisms governing this complex sequence are not understood. We now report that the kinase inhibitor 3-methlyadenine (3-MA) efficiently blocks T. gondii replication. The inhibition could not be attributed to ...
Mine Takashi T Department of Gynecologic Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. - - 2010
Notch and Hedgehog activate cell-cycle progression of adult and cancer stem cells. Notch is activated by DLL and Jag presents on neighboring cells. We investigated the effects of density of the Notch-activating ligand, Jag-1, and targeting Gli-1, in activation of division of paclitaxel/taxol-resistant, (PTX Res) ovarian cancer cells SKOV3 (SKOV3). ...
Hu Zhongyuan - - 2010
Strigolactones (SLs) are newly discovered plant hormones that regulate plant growth and development including shoot branching. They also stimulate symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Rice has at least three genes that are involved in SL synthesis (D10, D17/HTD1 and D27) and at least two genes that are involved in SL ...
Collier Justine - - 2010
Cell division in Gram-negative bacteria involves the co-ordinated invagination of the three cell envelope layers to form two new daughter cell poles. This complex process starts with the polymerization of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ into a Z-ring at mid-cell, which drives cytokinesis and recruits numerous other proteins to the division ...
Möll Andrea - - 2010
In bacteria, cytokinesis is dependent on lytic enzymes that facilitate remodelling of the cell wall during constriction. In this work, we identify a thus far uncharacterized periplasmic protein, DipM, that is required for cell division and polarity in Caulobacter crescentus. DipM is composed of four peptidoglycan binding (LysM) domains and ...
Poggio Sebastian - - 2010
During division of Gram-negative bacteria, invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane and inward growth of the peptidoglycan (PG) are followed by the cleavage of connective septal PG to allow cell separation. This PG splitting process requires temporal and spatial regulation of cell wall hydrolases. In Escherichia coli, LytM factors play an ...
Goley Erin D ED Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2010
Cell division in Gram-negative organisms requires coordinated invagination of the multilayered cell envelope such that each daughter receives an intact inner membrane, peptidoglycan (PG) layer and outer membrane (OM). Here, we identify DipM, a putative LytM endopeptidase in Caulobacter crescentus, and show that it plays a critical role in maintaining ...
Tammana T V Satish - - 2010
ADF/cofilin is an actin-dynamics-regulating protein that is required for several actin-based cellular processes such as cell motility and cytokinesis. A homologue of this protein has recently been identified in the protozoan parasite Leishmania, which has been shown to be essentially required in flagellum assembly and cell motility. However, the role ...
Kemper Björn - - 2010
Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) enables quantitative multifocus phase contrast imaging for nondestructive technical inspection and live cell analysis. Time-lapse investigations on human brain microvascular endothelial cells demonstrate the use of DHM for label-free dynamic quantitative monitoring of cell division of mother cells into daughter cells. Cytokinetic DHM analysis provides future ...
Roeder Adrienne H K - - 2010
How growth and proliferation are precisely controlled in organs during development and how the regulation of cell division contributes to the formation of complex cell type patterns are important questions in developmental biology. Such a pattern of diverse cell sizes is characteristic of the sepals, the outermost floral organs, of ...
Hyenne Vincent - - 2010
Asymmetric cell division is an important process to generate cell diversity and maintain tissue homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that this process may also be crucial to prevent tumor formation. In the past 30 years, the embryo of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be a very powerful model to ...
Schenk Christian - - 2010
In asymmetrically dividing cells, a failure to coordinate cell polarity with the site of cell division can lead to cell fate transformations and tumorigenesis. Cell polarity in C. elegans embryos is defined by PAR proteins, which occupy reciprocal halves of the cell cortex. During asymmetric division, the boundary between the ...
Moulager Mickael - - 2010
Although the decision to proceed through cell division depends largely on the metabolic status or the size of the cell, the timing of cell division is often set by internal clocks such as the circadian clock. Light is a major cue for circadian clock entrainment, and for photosynthetic organisms it ...
Louarn Gaëtan - - 2010
*In this study, we examined the impact of transient chilling in maize (Zea mays). We investigated the respective roles of the direct effects of stressing temperatures and indirect whorl size-mediated effects on the growth of leaves chilled at various stages of development. *Cell production, individual leaf extension and final leaf ...
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