Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 1380
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Cuccarese Michael F - - 2013
Aminoglycosides are broad-spectrum antibiotics that are used for the treatment of severe Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections. While bactericidal effects of aminoglycosides are due to binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, aminoglycosides can affect protein synthesis, intracellular calcium levels and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ...
Bondarczuk Kinga - - 2013
Copper is a metallic element that is crucial for cell metabolism; however, in extended concentrations, it is toxic for all living organisms. The dual nature of copper has forced organisms, including bacteria, to keep a tight hold on cellular copper content. This challenge has led to the evolution of complex ...
Vidic Jasmina - - 2013
Antibiotic resistance has impelled the research for new agents that can inhibit bacterial growth without showing cytotoxic effects on humans and other species. We describe the synthesis and physicochemical characterization of nanostructured ZnMgO whose antibacterial activity was compared to its pure nano-ZnO and nano-MgO counterparts. Among the three oxides, ZnO ...
Gholap Haribhau - - 2013
The resurgence of infectious diseases and associated issues related to antibiotic resistance has raised enormous challenges which may possibly be confronted primarily by nanotechnology routes. One key need of critical significance in this context is the development of an agent capable of inhibiting quorum sensing mediated biofilm formation in pathogenic ...
Bhatty Minny - - 2013
The bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) comprise a biologically diverse group of translocation systems functioning to deliver DNA or protein substrates from donor to target cells generally by a mechanism dependent on establishment of direct cell-to-cell contact. Members of one T4SS subfamily, the conjugation systems, mediate the widespread and ...
Dmowski Michał - - 2013
Low copy number plasmids cannot rely on the random segregation during bacterial cell division. To be stably maintained in the population they evolved two types of mechanisms (i) partition systems (PAR) that actively separate replicated plasmid molecules to the daughter cells and (ii) toxin-andidote systems (TA) that act after cell ...
Dmowski Michał - - 2013
Active support is needed for low copy-number plasmids to be stably maintained in bacterial cells. The mechanisms that fulfill this role are (i) partition systems (PAR) acting to separate plasmid molecules to daughter cells and (ii) toxin-andidote (TA) (post-segregational killing-PSK) systems which arrest cell growth until the plasmid reaches the ...
Huang L L Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA ; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2013
Photodynamic inactivation of pathogenic bacteria and cancer cells by novel water-soluble decacationic fullerene monoadducts, C60[>M(C3N6 (+)C3)2] and C70[>M(C3N6 (+)C3)2], were investigated. In the presence of a high number of electron-donating iodide anions as parts of quaternary ammonium salts in the arm region, we found that C70[>M(C3N6 (+)C3)2] produced more highly ...
Jain Aanchal - - 2013
In the present work, the physiological effects of the ZnO nanorods on the Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Aerobacter aerogenes) bacterial cells have been studied. The analysis of bacterial growth curves for various concentrations of ZnO nanorods indicates that Gram positive and Gram ...
Wise David R - - 2011
Citrate is a critical metabolite required to support both mitochondrial bioenergetics and cytosolic macromolecular synthesis. When cells proliferate under normoxic conditions, glucose provides the acetyl-CoA that condenses with oxaloacetate to support citrate production. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle anaplerosis is maintained primarily by glutamine. Here we report that some hypoxic cells ...
Colombo Sergio L - - 2011
During cell division, the activation of glycolysis is tightly regulated by the action of two ubiquitin ligases, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-Cdh1 (APC/C-Cdh1) and SKP1/CUL-1/F-box protein-β-transducin repeat-containing protein (SCF-β-TrCP), which control the transient appearance and metabolic activity of the glycolysis-promoting enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, isoform 3 (PFKFB3). We now demonstrate that the breakdown of PFKFB3 ...
Medina-Ceja Laura - - 2011
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glutamate and GABA transporters are cell surface proteins localized on neurons and glial cells that mediate the reuptake of glutamate and GABA from the extracellular space. In different models of the acquisition of epilepsy, important changes in the expression of these transporters have been demonstrated, although to ...
Lee Sang Min - - 2012
Bee venom (BV), which is extracted from honeybees, is used in traditional Korean medical therapy. Several groups have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of BV in osteoarthritis both in vivo and in vitro. Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Changes in glutamate release and uptake ...
Giust Davide - - 2011
Here we report on the surface immobilization of redox-active [60]fullerene derivatives and the consequent neuroprotective effects toward l-glutamate induced excitotoxicity in human derived undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells.
Chen Kangni K Medical Research Council Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX, United - - 2011
CTP synthase is compartmentalized within a subcellular structure, termed the cytoophidium, in a range of organisms including bacteria, yeast, fruit fly and rat. Here we show that CTP synthase is also compartmentalized into cytoophidia in human cells. Surprisingly, the occurrence of cytoophidia in human cells increases upon treatment with a ...
Tardito Saverio - - 2011
Selected oncogenic mutations support unregulated growth enhancing glutamine availability but increasing the dependence of tumor cells on the amino acid. Data from literature indicate that a subset of HepatoCellular Carcinomas (HCC) is characterized by mutations of β-catenin and overexpression of Glutamine Synthetase (GS). To assess if this phenotype may constitute ...
Kung Hsiu-Ni HN Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of - - 2011
Although significant variations in the metabolic profiles exist among different cells, little is understood in terms of genetic regulations of such cell type-specific metabolic phenotypes and nutrient requirements. While many cancer cells depend on exogenous glutamine for survival to justify the therapeutic targeting of glutamine metabolism, the mechanisms of glutamine ...
Ola Mohammad Shamsul - - 2011
Glutamate released from retinal neurons during neurotransmission is taken up by retinal Müller cells, where much of the amino acid is subsequently amidated to glutamine or transaminated to α-ketoglutarate for oxidation. Müller cell glutamate levels may have to be carefully maintained at fairly low concentrations to avoid excesses of glutamate ...
Hu Yuan - - 2012
The neuroprotective effects of 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose (DISS) from Radix Polygala against glutamate-induced SH-SY5Y neuronal cells injury were evaluated in the present study. SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were pretreated with glutamate (8 mM) for 30 min followed by cotreatment with DISS for 12 h. Cell viability was determined by (3,4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylte-trazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and apoptosis ...
Soltani Nepton - - 2011
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by insulitis and islet β-cell loss. Thus, an effective therapy may require β-cell restoration and immune suppression. Currently, there is no treatment that can achieve both goals efficiently. We report here that GABA exerts antidiabetic effects by acting on both the ...
Perego Carla - - 2011
Recent evidence shows that neurotransmitters (e.g. GABA, Ach, adenosine, glutamate) are active on Schwann cells, which form myelin sheaths in the peripheral nervous system under different pathophysiologic conditions. Glutamate, the most important excitatory neurotransmitter, has been recently involved in peripheral neuropathies, thus prevention of its toxic effect is desirable to ...
Qu Wenchao - - 2011
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Recent reports suggest that cancer cells may use glutamine, instead of glucose, as an alternative source of metabolic energy. This suggests that hyperpolarized (13)C glutamine may be useful as a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) imaging agent for detecting changes in glutamine metabolism in cancerous cells or tissues. ...
Chen Jing - - 2011
Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, plays an important role in neurological disorders. Previous studies have shown that excess glutamate can cause oxidative stress in a hippocampal HT-22 cell line. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a member of the flavonoid family, is a selective tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) agonist ...
Niki Mayu - - 2011
In taste bud cells, glutamate may elicit two types of responses, as an umami tastant and as a neurotransmitter. Glutamate applied to apical membrane of taste cells would elicit taste responses whereas glutamate applied to basolateral membrane may act as a neurotransmitter. Using restricted stimulation to apical or basolateral membrane ...
Kassam Shireen - - 2011
PURPOSE: Selenium is a trace element that is fundamental to human health. Research has mainly focussed on its role in cancer prevention, but recent evidence supports its role in established cancer, with high concentrations inducing tumour cell death and non-toxic concentrations sensitising cells to chemotherapy. However, the precise mechanism of ...
Armanious Hanan - - 2011
One of the main functions of ADAM10, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase, is to regulate the bioavailability of adhesion molecules and ligands to various cellular signaling receptors. Constitutive activation of ADAM10 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several types of solid tumors. In this study, we found that mantle cell ...
Egervári Gábor - - 2011
Growth factors and mitogens influence signaling pathways and often induce the activity of p70S6 kinase (p70S6K), which in turn phosphorylates the ribosomal S6 protein (S6). Although recent data are rather conflicting, the overall view suggests that phosphorylated S6 is a regulator of global protein synthesis, cell proliferation, cell size and ...
Sleebs Brad E - - 2011
ABT-737 and ABT-263 are potent inhibitors of the BH3 antiapoptotic proteins, Bcl-x(L) and Bcl-2. This class of putative anticancer agents invariantly contains an acylsulfonamide core. We have designed and synthesized a series of novel quinazoline-based inhibitors of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) that contain a heterocyclic alternative to the acylsulfonamide. These compounds ...
Vishwamitra Deeksha - - 2011
Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) tyrosine kinase induces significant oncogenic effects. Strategies to block IGF-IR signaling are being tested in clinical trials that include patients with aggressive solid malignancies. Mantle cell lymphoma is a B-cell neoplasm with poor prognosis and a tendency to develop resistance. The expression and ...
Cesetti Tiziana - - 2011
Signal-regulated changes in cell size affect cell division and survival and therefore are central to tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. In this respect, GABA receptors (GABA(A) Rs) are of particular interest because allowing anions flow across the cell membrane modulates the osmolyte flux and the cell volume. Therefore, we have here ...
Garbati Michael R - - 2011
Human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line RC-K8 has an altered EP300 locus that encodes a C-terminally truncated histone acetyltransferase (HAT) protein (p300ΔC). We now show that p300ΔC contains 1047N-terminal amino acids of p300 fused to 25 amino acids encoded by sequences from chromosome 6. Over-expressed p300ΔC localized to nuclear ...
Alinari Lapo - - 2011
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell malignancy with a median survival of 3 years despite chemoimmunotherapy. Rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb), has shown only modest activity as single agent in MCL. The humanized mAb milatuzumab targets CD74, an integral membrane protein linked with promotion of B-cell ...
Jin L - - 2011
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma with poor prognosis, requiring novel anticancer strategies. Mantle cell lymphoma cell lines with known p53 status were treated with GUT-70, a tricyclic coumarin derived from Calophyllum brasiliense, and the biological and biochemical consequences of GUT-70 were studied. GUT-70 markedly reduced cell ...
Horvilleur Emilie E MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building, P.O. Box 138, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK. - - 2010
B-cell lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases that can arise at different stages of B-cell development, often as a result of errors in the cells' unique ontogeny. Common oncogenic features are often observed, including chromosomal rearrangements, somatic mutations and transcriptional change. Disruption of translation regulation is also frequently implicated ...
Do Jeong Tae - - 2011
The restricted gene expression of a differentiated cell can be reversed by forming hybrid with embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The resulting hybrid cells showed not only an ESC-specific marker expression but also a differentiation potential similar to the pluripotent fusion partner. Here, we evaluated whether the tetraploid fusion hybrid cells ...
Zaliova M - - 2011
Translocation (12;21), the most frequent chromosomal aberration in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, creates TEL/AML1 fusion gene. Resulting hybrid protein was shown to have a role in pre-leukemia establishment. To address its role for leukemic cell survival, we applied RNA interference to silence TEL/AML1 in leukemic cells. We designed and tested ...
Roué Gaël - - 2011
Despite the promising introduction of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), not all patients respond, and resistance often appears after initial treatment. By analyzing a set of 18 MCL samples, including cell lines with constitutive or induced resistance to bortezomib, we found a high ...
Spector David L - - 2010
INTRODUCTION Fluorescent protein fusions (FPFs) have been used to address a wide range of questions in individual cells as well as in specific tissues of particular organisms. However, investigators must take extreme care when using FPFs to ensure that the resultant fusion protein is expressed at or close to the ...
Lluis Frederic - - 2010
Cell-cell fusion contributes to cell differentiation and developmental processes. We have previously showed that activation of Wnt/β-catenin enhances somatic cell reprograming after polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated fusion. Here, we show that neural stem cells and ESCs can fuse spontaneously in cocultures, although with very low efficiency (about 2%), as the hybrids ...
Okamoto Takashi - - 2010
Gamete fusion activates the egg in animals and plants, and the gamete fusion site on the zygote might provide a possible cue for zygotic development and/or embryonic patterning. In angiosperms, a zygote generally divides into a two-celled proembryo consisting of an apical and a basal cell with different cell fates. ...
Dittmar Thomas - - 2011
Several data of the past years clearly indicated that the fusion of tumor cells and tumor cells or tumor cells and normal cells can give rise to hybrids cells exhibited novel properties such as an increased malignancy, drug resistance, or resistance to apoptosis. In the present study we characterized hybrid ...
Melichar Heather J - - 2011
The movement of proteins within cells can provide dynamic indications of cell signaling and cell polarity, but methods are needed to track and quantify subcellular protein movement within tissue environments. Here we present a semiautomated approach to quantify subcellular protein location for hundreds of migrating cells within intact living tissue ...
Guo Pengfei - - 2010
Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells requires recognition of cell corpses followed by internalization and enclosure within plasma membrane-derived phagosomes. Phagosomes undergo maturation to generate phagolysosomes in which cell corpses are degraded; however, regulation of the maturation process is poorly understood. Here, we identified Rab GTPase 14, which regulates apoptotic cell degradation ...
Guo Jitong - - 2010
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the potential to reprogram somatic cells into ESC-like cells through cell fusion. In the present study, the potential of human (h)ESC cytoplasts and karyoplasts to reprogram human hepatocytes was evaluated. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) transfected hESCs (ENVY cells) were fused with SNARF-1 (CellTracker)-labeled human hepatocytes ...
Gottesman Amy - - 2010
Cell-to-cell fusion (cell fusion) is a fundamental biological process that also has been used as a versatile experimental tool to dissect a variety of cellular mechanisms, including the consequences of cell fusion itself, and to produce cells with desired properties, such as hybridomas and reprogrammed progenitors. However, current methods of ...
Clow Andrew L - - 2010
Nuclear transfer (NT) cloning involves manual positioning of individual donor-recipient cell couplets for electrofusion. This is time-consuming and introduces operator-dependent variation as a confounding parameter in cloning trials. In order to automate the NT procedure, we developed a micro-fluidic device that integrates automated cell positioning and electrofusion of isolated cell ...
Kumar Ashish R - - 2011
The most frequent MLL-gene rearrangement found in leukemia is a reciprocal translocation with AF4 on chromosome 4 resulting in the formation of the MLL-AF4 and the AF4-MLL fusion genes. The oncogenic role of MLL-AF4 is documented but the significance of the reciprocal product - AF4-MLL in leukemia is less clear. ...
Shibukawa Yukinao - - 2010
Cell-cell fusion is an intriguing differentiation process, essential for placental development and maturation. A proteomic approach identified a cytoplasmic protein, calponin 3 (CNN3), related to the fusion of BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. CNN3 was expressed in cytotrophoblasts in human placenta. CNN3 gene knockdown promoted actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and syncytium formation in ...
Atanasiu Doina - - 2010
Herpesviruses minimally require the envelope proteins gB and gH/gL for virus entry and cell-cell fusion; herpes simplex virus (HSV) additionally requires the receptor-binding protein gD. Although gB is a class III fusion protein, gH/gL does not resemble any documented viral fusion protein at a structural level. Based on those data, ...
Steinberg Florian - - 2010
The fusion of mammalian cells into syncytia is a developmental process that is tightly restricted to a limited subset of cells. Besides gamete and placental trophoblast fusion, only macrophages and myogenic stem cells fuse into multinucleated syncytia. In contrast to viral cell fusion, which is mediated by fusogenic glycoproteins that ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >