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Results 401 - 450 of 1381
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Gloushankova Natalia A - - 2003
Subclones of human carcinoma-derived A-431 cell line stably producing fusion proteins consisting of the enhanced green fluorescent protein and either human desmoglein 2 (Dsg-GFP) or human plakoglobin (GFP-Pg) were used to examine the behavior of desmosomes in living cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy of the fixed cells showed that both fusion proteins, ...
Weimann James M - - 2003
Heterokaryons are the product of cell fusion without subsequent nuclear or chromosome loss. Decades of research using Sendai-virus or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated fusion in tissue culture showed that the terminally differentiated state of a cell could be altered. But whether stable non-dividing heterokaryons could occur in animals has remained unclear. ...
Vassilopoulos George - - 2003
Cell fusion has long been known to produce viable cells and to have a major role in mammalian development and differentiation. As gene expression profiles can change after cell fusion, this event must be also considered as an alternative explanation for the many cases of 'stem cell plasticity' that have ...
Frank Natasha Y - - 2003
Cell fusion involving progenitor cells is a newly recognized phenomenon thought to contribute to tissue differentiation. The molecular mechanisms governing cell fusion are unknown. P-glycoprotein and related ATP-binding cassette transporters are expressed by progenitor cells, but their physiological role in these cell types has not been defined. Here, we have ...
Kim Jae-Yean - - 2003
Intercellular communication delivers critical information for position-dependent specification of cell fate. In plants, a novel mechanism for cell-to-cell communication involves the intercellular trafficking of regulatory proteins and mRNAs. The maize KNOTTED1 (KN1) gene acts non cell-autonomously in the maize leaf, and KN1 was the first plant protein shown to traffic ...
Mori Kouki - - 2004
Membrane fusion is an important event in the functioning of a living organism. Life starts as a sperm fuses with the membrane of an egg, leading to its fertilization. Membrane fusion is also required for myogenesis, osteogenesis and placenta formation. Multinucleated giant cells originating from monocytes-macrophages are associated with granulomatous ...
Phan Vy - - 2003
Fusion of tumor cells with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) has been proposed for the preparation of cancer vaccines. However, generation of these hybrids, using physical or chemical methods such as electrofusion or polyethylene glycol (PEG), has been difficult to standardize. Characterization of cell fusion has also been problematic because of difficulties ...
Holme Andrea - - 2003
The technology of gene knockout and transgenic mice has allowed the study of the role of genes and their proteins in animal physiology and metabolism. However, these techniques have often been found to be limited in that some genetic manipulations of mice led either to a fatal phenotype or to ...
Hitt Anne L - - 2003
We have identified a homologue (ponB) of the ponticulin gene (ponA), an F-actin binding protein, in the expressed sequence tag library generated to mRNA isolated from fusion-competent cells of Dictyostelium discoideum. PonB is predicted to have many of the same characteristics as ponticulin. Both proteins are predicted to possess a ...
Andersen Thomas - - 2003
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The biological factors determining a successful spinal fusion have not yet been fully determined. PURPOSE: To determine the influence of graft cell vigor on fusion rate and fusion mass using in vitro osteoblast proliferation as a predictor. STUDY DESIGN: Animal study randomizing to posterolateral fusion with autograft with ...
Shemer Gidi - - 2003
The ability of two or more cells to unite to form a new syncytial cell has been utilized in metazoans throughout evolution to form many complex organs, such as muscles, bones and placentae. This requires migration, recognition and adhesion between cells together with fusion of their plasma membranes and rearrangement ...
Meertens Nadine - - 2003
Canine distemper virus (CDV), a mobillivirus related to measles virus causes a chronic progressive demyelinating disease, associated with persistence of the virus in the central nervous system (CNS). CNS persistence of morbilliviruses has been associated with cell-to-cell spread, thereby limiting immune detection. The mechanism of cell-to-cell spread remains uncertain. In ...
Avitabile Elisa - - 2003
A Myc epitope was inserted at residue 283 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein K (gK), a position previously shown not to interfere with gK activity. The Myc-tagged gK localized predominantly to the endoplasmic reticulum, both in uninfected and in HSV-infected cells. gK, coexpressed with the four HSV ...
Gómez-Treviño A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The fusogenic (F) membrane glycoprotein of the paramyxovirus SV5 allows virus to enter host cells and mediates fusion between neighboring cells, which leads to cell death. F glycoprotein is synthesized as an inactive precursor (F(0)) that is cleaved by cellular protease furine to form the active heterodimer F(1) + ...
Lee Jang-Won - - 2003
Cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer has been successfully achieved by both fusing of a donor cell with and injecting an isolated donor cell nucleus into an enucleated oocyte. However, each of the above methods involves extended manipulation of either the oocytes (fusion) or the donor cells (nucleus isolation). Additionally, ...
Kudo Yoshiki - - 2003
The physiological importance of CD98 surface antigen in regulating placental trophoblast cell fusion and amino acid transport activity has been studied in parallel in a cell model of syncytialization (the cytotrophoblast cell line BeWo following increased intracellular cAMP by forskolin treatment) using antisense oligonucleotides. CD98 protein abundance (determined by Western ...
Diakidi-Kosta A - - 2003
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) (S) is a spontaneous syncytial mutant derived from the prototype HSV-1(F) after extensive plaque purification, and produces large syncytial plaques on Vero cells. Marker transfer experiments and DNA sequence analysis mapped the syncytial phenotype to a T-C base substitution at codon 787 of the cytoplasmic ...
Fujino Masako - - 2003
Abstract Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and receptor (-R) signaling pathway is required for epithelial cell growth and differentiation such as the degeneration of the medial edge epithelial cells during the fusion process of secondary palate formation. As epithelial fusion takes place during primary palate formation, we investigated the involvement of ...
Blanco Julià - - 2003
Cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (gp120/gp41, Env) induce the death of target cells either after cell-to-cell fusion or after cell-to-cell contact in a fusion-independent fashion. Here, we demonstrate that Env-induced death of single cells (including primary CD4 T cells) required gp120 and gp41 function. The gp41 peptide C34, ...
Jenkinson Stephen - - 2003
M-tropic HIV strains gain access to their host cell via interaction of the viral envelope protein gp120 with the CCR5 coreceptor and CD4 located on the host cell. Inhibition of this event has been shown to reduce viral fusion and entry into cells in vitro. In the present study we ...
Shemer Gidi - - 2002
General mechanisms by which Hox genes establish cell fates are known. However, a few Hox effectors mediating cell behaviors have been identified. Here we found the first effector of LIN-39/HoxD4/Dfd in Caenorhabditis elegans. In specific vulval precursor cells (VPCs), LIN-39 represses early and late expression of EFF-1, a membrane protein ...
Gottfried Eva - - 2002
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells currently being discussed as a potent tool for antitumor vaccination strategies. The approach consisting of the in vitro generation of DC-tumor cell hybrids may be advantageous for individualized vaccines since there is no need for the determination of MHC-restricted tumor-associated antigens recognized by ...
Cho M S - - 2002
Cell fusion techniques were used to derive mammalian host cell lines suitable for large-scale production of therapeutic proteins. Although the 293S cell line, of human embryonic kidney origin, is an excellent host cell for mammalian gene expression, these cells have a tendency to form large and tight aggregates in suspension ...
Crawford J Adam - - 2002
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses a type III secretion system to translocate into host cells several effector molecules that are required for virulence. One of these, the translocated intimin receptor, Tir, inserts into the host cell cytoplasmic membrane, where it functions as the receptor for intimin, an outer membrane adhesin ...
Meiling-Wesse Khuyen - - 2002
Here we identify Mon1p as being essential for the cvt-pathway and autophagy. Thus, mon1Delta cells are impaired in proaminopeptidase I maturation and homozygous diploid mon1Delta cells do not sporulate. Quantitative autophagy measurements suggest a complete autophagy block. The autophagosomal marker protein GFP-Aut7p accumulates in mon1Delta cells at punctate structures outside ...
Bagnat Michel - - 2002
Exposure to mating pheromone in haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells results in the arrest of the cell cycle, expression of mating-specific genes, and polarized growth toward the mating partner. Proteins involved in signaling, polarization, cell adhesion, and fusion are localized to the tip of the mating cell (shmoo) where fusion will ...
Zhang Mingliang - - 2002
Fungal adhesins represent a large family of serine/threonine-rich secreted glycoproteins. Adhesins have been shown to play roles in heterotypic and homotypic cell-cell adhesion processes, morphogenetic pathways and invasive/pseudohyphal growth, frequently in response to differentiation cues. Here we address the role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating-specific adhesin Fig2p. Cells lacking FIG2 ...
Leach Craig - - 2002
Inhibitor-2 of type 1 protein phosphatase is a phosphoprotein conserved among all eukaryotes, and it appears in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of tissue culture cells. We discovered that endogenous inhibitor-2 is concentrated in the nucleus of cells cultured at low density, whereas cells growing at high density excluded inhibitor-2 ...
Harris Edward - - 2002
RabD, a Dictyostelium Rab14-related GTPase, localizes in the endo-lysosomal pathway and contractile vacuole system of membranes. Cell lines expressing dominant-negative RabD were defective in endocytosis, endosomal membrane flow and homotypic lysosome fusion. In support of a role for RabD in fusion, cells overexpressing constitutively active RabD(Q67L) accumulated enlarged hydrolase-rich acidic ...
Engling André - - 2002
Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) is a secretory protein that lacks a signal peptide. Consistently, FGF-2 has been shown to be secreted by an ER-Golgi-independent mechanism; however, the machinery mediating this process remains to be established at the molecular level. Here we introduce a novel experimental system based on flow ...
Chang Yijan E - - 2002
The long-term effects of interferon treatment on cell lines that maintain human papillomavirus type 31 (HPV-31) episomes have been examined. High doses and prolonged interferon treatment resulted in growth arrest of HPV-positive cells, with a high percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis. These effects were not seen with interferon treatment of ...
Fan Zhenghong - - 2002
Formation of small polykaryons by cell-cell fusion is characteristic of herpes simplex virus (HSV) lesions, but the great majority of viruses isolated from such lesions produce only limited cell fusion in tissue culture. Because of this, HSV laboratory strains that produce extensive cell fusion (syncytium formation) in culture are regarded ...
Alper Scott - - 2002
During larval development in C. elegans, some of the cells of the ventral epidermis, the Pn.p cells, fuse with the growing epidermal syncytium hyp7. The pattern of these cell fusions is regulated in a complex, sexually dimorphic manner. It is essential that some Pn.p cells remain unfused in order for ...
Mascarenhas Judita - - 2002
Disruption of ypuG and ypuH open reading frames in Bacillus subtilis leads to temperature-sensitive slow growth, a defect in chromosome structure and formation of anucleate cells. The genes, which were named scpA and scpB, were found to be epistatic to the smc gene. Fusions of ScpA and ScpB to the ...
Sebastiani M - - 2002
For a long time now we have been putting forwards the hypothesis that, when two cells belonging to different tissues of the same organism fuse, the nucleous/nuclei of the resulting "fused" cell could lay into a cytoplasm possibly containing factors influencing the activation or deactivation of genes able to interfere ...
Nordeng Tommy W - - 2002
The major histocompatibility complex class II associated invariant chain (Ii) has been shown to inhibit endocytic transport and to increase the size of endosomes. We have recently found that this property has a significant impact on antigen processing and presentation. Here, we show in a cell-free endosome fusion assay that ...
Zheng Haiyan - - 2002
SNAREs are important components of the vesicle trafficking machinery in eukaryotic cells. In plants, SNAREs have been found to play a variety of roles in the development and physiology of the whole organism. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a novel plant-specific SNARE, NPSN11, a member of a ...
Bläser Susanne - - 2002
Septins are evolutionary conserved cytoskeletal GTPases forming heteropolymer complexes involved in cytokinesis and other cellular processes. CDCrel-1 (cell division cycle related-1) is a recently cloned and characterized human septin which is highly expressed in non-dividing cells, such as neurons. Using a yeast two-hybrid system we demonstrate that CDCrel-1 partners with ...
Hug Bruce A - - 2002
AML1-ETO is an oncoprotein that can promote self-renewal of primary hematopoietic cells by opposing the activity of AML1. Two domains, Nervy-homology(NH) 2 and NH4, have been implicated in the recruitment of corepressors by AML1-ETO, but the relative roles of NH2 and NH4 vary in different cell lines and have not ...
Ruiz-Binder Nayma E - - 2002
The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been used as a model system to study flagellar assembly, centriole assembly, and cell cycle events. These processes are dynamic. Therefore, protein targeting and protein-protein interactions should be evaluated in vivo. To be able to study dynamic processes in C. reinhardtii in vivo, we ...
Pertel Peter E - - 2002
Herpesvirus entry into cells and herpesvirus-induced cell fusion are related processes in that virus penetration proceeds by fusion of the viral envelope and cell membrane. To characterize the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) glycoproteins that can mediate cell fusion, a luciferase reporter gene activation assay was used. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) ...
Kurahashi Hiroshi - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Tropomyosin is an actin-binding protein, which is thought to stabilize actin filaments and influence many aspects of F-actin. In fission yeast, the cdc8 gene encodes tropomyosin, and the gene product Cdc8p is known to be essential for the formation of the F-actin contractile ring and hence for cytokinesis in ...
Matsuyama Shutoku - - 2002
The soluble receptor-resistant (srr) mutants, srr7 and srr11, isolated from a murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) JHMV, have an amino acid mutation at positions 1114 (Leu to Phe) and 65 (Leu to His), respectively, in the spike (S) protein. These mutants failed to efficiently infect BHK cells expressing CEACAM1b ...
Taylor Michael V - - 2002
A key feature of myogenesis is the fusion of myoblasts to form multinucleate myotubes. Recent work in Drosophila has uncovered a collection of genes that operate at different stages of this process. Some interactions between them have been described that begin to define links from outside the cell via the ...
Ramos Corinne - - 2002
Electric field pulses induce permeabilization and associated fusogenicity in cell membranes. Electrofusion of cells is usually performed in two steps: the first is the creation of close intercellular contacts; the second is an application of electric pulses that induces membrane fusion. Very large cell contacts can be obtained by a ...
Kim Jae Yean - - 2002
Dominant mutations in the maize homeobox gene knotted1 (kn1) act nonautonomously during maize leaf development, indicating that Kn1 is involved in the generation or transmission of a developmental signal that passes from the inner layers of the leaf to epidermal cells. We previously found that this nonautonomous activity is correlated ...
Yoshida N - - 2002
We investigated the potential utility of a recombinant E. coli that expresses the human metallothionein II gene as a fusion protein with beta-galactosidase as a heavy metal biosorbent. E. coli cells expressing the metallothionein fusion demonstrated enhanced binding of Cd2+ compared to cells that lack the metallothionein. It was shown ...
Mohler William A - - 2002
Multinucleate cells are widespread in nature, yet the mechanism by which cells fuse their plasma membranes is poorly understood. To identify animal fusogens, we performed new screens for mutations that abolish cell fusion within tissues of C. elegans throughout development. We identified the gene eff-1, which is expressed as cells ...
Fiebiger Edda - - 2002
The human cytomegalovirus gene products US2 and US11 induce proteasomal degradation of MHC class I heavy chains. We have generated an enhanced green fluorescent protein-class I heavy chain (EGFP-HC) chimeric molecule to study its dislocation and degradation in US2- and US11-expressing cells. The EGFP-HC fusion is stable in control cells, ...
Ye Xiu-Lin - - 2002
Fertilization in flowering plants involves the fusion of one sperm with the egg cell and a second sperm with the central cell. In the Nun orchid, Phaius tankervilliae (Aiton) Bl., the pollen tube deposits two sperms in the "cytoplasmic mass" of the degenerating synergid. Initially both sperms stay close together. ...
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