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Results 351 - 400 of 1351
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Ou Wu - - 2004
Cell fusion occurs in many cellular processes and viral infections. We developed a new, quantitative cell fusion assay based on the tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA)-induced expression of a luciferase reporter gene. The assay is objective, sensitive, linear over 2-3 orders of magnitude, amenable to microtiter-plate format, and generalizable to study fusion ...
Keppler Antje - - 2004
A general approach for the sequential labeling of fusion proteins of O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) with different fluorophores in mammalian cells is presented. AGT fusion proteins with different localizations in the cell can be labeled specifically with different fluorophores, and the fluorescence labeling can be used for applications such as multicolor ...
Faergeman Nils J - - 2004
In the present study, we show that depletion of acyl-CoA-binding protein, Acb1p, in yeast affects ceramide levels, protein trafficking, vacuole fusion and structure. Vacuoles in Acb1p-depleted cells are multi-lobed, contain significantly less of the SNAREs (soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors) Nyv1p, Vam3p and Vti1p, and are unable ...
Shmulevitz Maya - - 2004
The p10 fusion-associated small transmembrane protein of avian reovirus induces extensive syncytium formation in transfected cells. Here we show that p10-induced cell-cell fusion is restricted by rapid degradation of the majority of newly synthesized p10. The small ectodomain of p10 targets the protein for degradation following p10 insertion into an ...
Caslini C - - 2004
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALLs) expressing MLL-AF4, the fusion product of t(4;11)(q21;q23), show marked leucocytosis and extramedullary disease in multiple organs, respond poorly to chemotherapy and have poor prognosis. In vitro, leukemic cells with the t(4;11) show resistance to serum deprivation-induced or interferon gamma-regulated CD95-mediated apoptosis. In addition, t(4;11) cells have ...
de Haan Cornelis A M - - 2004
Cleavage of the mouse hepatitis coronavirus strain A59 spike protein was blocked in a concentration-dependent manner by a peptide furin inhibitor, indicating that furin or a furin-like enzyme is responsible for this process. While cell-cell fusion was clearly affected by preventing spike protein cleavage, virus-cell fusion was not, indicating that ...
Weise Jan Bernd - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Hybrid cells generated from dendritic cells (DC) and tumor cells provide tumor-associated antigens (TAA) in a polyvalent mode and therefore they have aroused interest in cancer immunotherapy. The present study was designed to investigate the hybrid cell generation and optimize its implementation for a TAA-target treatment of head and ...
Pryor Paul R - - 2004
Both heterotypic and homotypic fusion events are required to deliver endocytosed macromolecules to lysosomes and remodel late endocytic organelles. A trans-SNARE complex consisting of Q-SNAREs syntaxin 7, Vti1b and syntaxin 8 and the R-SNARE VAMP8 has been shown by others to be responsible for homotypic fusion of late endosomes. Using ...
Wu T-P - - 2004
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on human sperm activity, human sperm-oocyte fusion and mouse embryonic development. Results showed that various concentrations of NO synthase blocker, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, did not affect sperm cell motility at 0, 1, 2 or 4 hr, respectively. In ...
Matheos Dina - - 2004
During mating, budding yeast cells reorient growth toward the highest concentration of pheromone. Bni1p, a formin homologue, is required for this polarized growth by facilitating cortical actin cable assembly. Fus3p, a pheromone-activated MAP kinase, is required for pheromone signaling and cell fusion. We show that Fus3p phosphorylates Bni1p in vitro, ...
Tiwari Vaibhav - - 2004
Membrane fusion induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is required for both entry and cell-to-cell spread. It is mediated by the viral glycoprotein gB, gD, gH-gL and gD receptors. Although 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS) is a receptor for HSV-1 entry, the requirement for heparan sulfate in the fusion process ...
Simmons Graham - - 2004
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a rapidly emerging pathogen with potentially serious consequences for public health. Here we describe conditions that result not only in the efficient expression of the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein on the surface of cells, but in its incorporation into lentiviral particles that can ...
Pandey Sanjeev - - 2004
The major surface glycoprotein gp63 of the kinetoplastid protozoal parasite Leishmania is implicated as a ligand mediating uptake of the parasite into, and survival within, the host macrophage. By expressing gp63 antisense RNA from an episomal vector in L. donovani promastigotes, gp63-deficient transfectants were obtained. Reduction of the gp63 level ...
Weise Jan B - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Hybrid cells generated from dendritic cells (DC) and tumour cells provide tumour-associated antigens (TAA) in a polyvalent mode. The present study was designed to investigate the hybrid cell generation by dendritic cells and different tumour cell lines to establish an electrofusion protocol with an optimal fusion setting. MATERIALS AND ...
Senkevich Tatiana G - - 2004
The A28L gene of vaccinia virus is conserved in all poxviruses and encodes a protein that is anchored to the surface of infectious intracellular mature virions (IMV) and consequently lies beneath the additional envelope of extracellular virions. A conditional lethal recombinant vaccinia virus, vA28-HAi, with an inducible A28L gene, undergoes ...
Pasieka Tracy Jo - - 2004
The gH glycoprotein of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a major fusogen. The realigned short cytoplasmic tail of gH (18 amino acids) harbors a functional endocytosis motif (YNKI) that mediates internalization in both VZV-infected and transfected cells (T. J. Pasieka, L. Maresova, and C. Grose, J. Virol. 77: 4194-4202, 2003). During ...
Krejci O - - 2004
L-Asparaginase is a standard component in chemotherapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Leukaemic cells carrying TEL/AML1 fusion gene are more sensitive to treatment with L-asparaginase compared to other subtypes of ALL. We demonstrate in vitro the prolonged growth suppression of TEL/AML1[+] cells compared to TEL/AML1[-] leukaemic cells after L-asparaginase ...
Lee Hakjoo - - 2004
Enzyme/prodrug approach is one of the actively developing areas for cancer therapy. In an effort to develop more effective enzyme/prodrug systems, cell-permeable cytosine deaminase was produced by fusing yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) in frame with RKKRRQRRR domain of HIV-1 Tat which is an efficient delivery peptide of the foreign proteins ...
Gabrijel Mateja - - 2004
The fusion of antigen presenting and cancer cells leads to the formation of hybrid cells, which are considered a potential vaccine for treating cancer. The quality assessment of hybrid cell vaccines is crucial for the introduction of this new treatment. Flow cytometry was the method used recently, since it is ...
Jones Thomas R - - 2004
A novel small molecule inhibitor of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was identified as the result of screening a chemical library by using a whole-virus infected-cell assay. Synthetic chemistry efforts yielded the analog designated CFI02, a compound whose potency had been increased about 100-fold over an initial inhibitor. The inhibitory concentration of ...
Nelson Bryce - - 2004
Cell fusion in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a temporally and spatially regulated process that involves degradation of the septum, which is composed of cell wall material, and occurs between conjugating cells within a prezygote, followed by plasma membrane fusion. The plasma membrane protein Fus1p is known to be ...
Smoley Stephanie A - - 2004
Dual-color, dual-fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (D-FISH) can accurately detect and quantify cells with BCR/ABL fusion in <1% of 500 nuclei in 80% of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and t(9;22)(q34;q11.2). The remaining patients have one of three forms of atypical D-FISH patterns; these patterns have different sensitivities to ...
Do Jeong Tae - - 2004
The restricted potential of a differentiated cell can be reverted back to a pluripotent state by cell fusion; totipotency can even be regained after somatic cell nuclear transfer. To identify factors involved in resetting the genetic program of a differentiated cell, we fused embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with neurosphere cells ...
Cavrois Marielle - - 2004
The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based HIV-1 virion fusion assay exploits the incorporation of beta-lactamase-Vpr chimeric proteins into HIV-1 virions and their subsequent delivery into the cytoplasm of target cells as a marker of fusion. This transfer can be monitored by the enzymatic cleavage of the CCF2-AM dye, a fluorescent ...
Abe Hiroko - - 2004
Human alpha-1,3-fucosyltansferase (FucT) encoded by the FUT6 gene was displayed at the cell surface of yeast cells engineered using the yeast cell wall protein Pir1 or Pir2, and the FucT activity was detected at the surface of cells producing the Pir1-HA-FUT6 or Pir2-FLAG-FUT6 fusion proteins. To obtain higher activity, we ...
Horsley Valerie - - 2004
In mammals, cell fusion occurs among a limited number of cell types: sperm and oocytes during fertilization, trophoblasts during placenta formation, macrophages during giant cell and osteoclast formation and myoblasts in the formation of myofibers and myotubes. The molecular mechanisms involved in these membrane fusion events largely are unknown. This ...
Badalyan Suzanna M - - 2004
In most filamentous basidiomycetes, clamp cells are found at the septa of dikaryotic mycelia. Clamp cell formation starts at hyphal tip cells with the development of a lateral bulge at a position slightly apical to the future septum. Relative to the growth direction of the hypha, the protrusion expands backwards ...
Kawano Kojiro - - 2004
The present study compared the potential of nuclear-transferred porcine oocytes receiving fetal somatic cells by direct injection and cell fusion procedures to develop into blastocysts. After brief treatment of in vitro matured oocytes with demecolcine and sucrose, the protrusion containing the condensed chromosome mass was mechanically removed. Single donor cells ...
Mateo-Lozano Silvia - - 2003
Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is the prototype of a family of tumors (ESFT) of neuroectodermal origin formed by small, round cells with limited neural differentiation, which arise most frequently within bones in children or adolescents. The proliferation of ESFT cells is highly dependent on the establishment of, and signaling through several ...
Jin L - - 2003
The diagnosis of small round cell sarcomas is often very difficult, especially when only small biopsy specimens are available for examination. Recent studies have shown that some sarcomas have specific recurrent chromosomal translocations producing chimeric gene fusions, which can be detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), fluorescent in situ ...
Rittig M G - - 2003
Following reports that a VacA+cag+ toxigenic but not a VacA-cag- non-toxigenic Helicobacter pylori strain induced homotypic phagosome fusion in murine macrophages, we addressed that phenomenon in human cells. Mononuclear phagocytes and epitheloid cells were challenged with H. pylori strains of different vacA and cag genotypes and with VacA- and Cag- ...
Cuervo Rodrigo - - 2004
During mammalian development, a pair of shelves fuses to form the secondary palate, a process that requires the adhesion of the medial edge epithelial tissue (MEE) of each shelf and the degeneration of the resulting medial epithelial seam (MES). It has been reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) occurs during shelf ...
Tolmachova Tanya - - 2004
Vesicular transport is a complex multistep process regulated by distinct Rab GTPases. Here, we show for the first time that an EGFP-Rab fusion protein is fully functional in a mammalian organism. We constructed a PAC-based transgenic mouse, which expresses EGFP-Rab27a under the control of endogenous Rab27a promoter. The EGFP-Rab27a transgene ...
Liu Tie Fu - - 2003
The cytotoxicity of combinations of a diphtheria toxin-human epidermal growth factor fusion protein (DAB(389)EGF) and a Pseudomonas exotoxin-human interleukin 13 fusion protein (IL13PE38QQR) was tested against 14 human glioma cell lines. After cells were cultured for 48 h with various concentrations of the fusion proteins, the percentage reductions in thymidine ...
Borges M - - 2003
Syncytial fusion is a key event in implantation and placentation. Its regulation is only poorly understood. We present a cell-cell fusion assay based on staining of cells in two portions with a green and a red fluorescent cytoplasmic dye that become intracellularly mixed only after syncytial fusion. We quantified cell-cell ...
Heinkelein Martin - - 2003
A remarkable feature of the prototype foamy virus (PFV) replication pathway has been reported to consist of the ability to retrotranspose intracellularly with high efficiency (M. Heinkelein, T. Pietschmann, G. Jármy, M. Dressler, H. Imrich, J. Thurow, D. Lindemann, M. Bock, A. Moebes, J. Roy, O. Herchenröder, and A. Rethwilm, ...
Yamamoto Hiroki - - 2003
LytF, LytE, and LytC are vegetative cell wall hydrolases in Bacillus subtilis. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that an epitope-tagged LytF fusion protein (LytF-3xFLAG) in the wild-type background strain was localized at cell separation sites and one of the cell poles of rod-shaped cells during vegetative growth. However, in a mutant lacking ...
Ebert Daniel H DH Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pediatrics and Elizabeth B. Lamb Center for Pediatric Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee - - 2004
Persistent reovirus infections of murine L929 (L) fibroblast cells select mutant (LX) cells that do not support proteolytic disassembly of reovirus virions within the endocytic pathway. To better understand the function and regulation of endocytic proteases, we conducted experiments to define the block to reovirus disassembly displayed by LX cells. ...
Gloushankova Natalia A - - 2003
Subclones of human carcinoma-derived A-431 cell line stably producing fusion proteins consisting of the enhanced green fluorescent protein and either human desmoglein 2 (Dsg-GFP) or human plakoglobin (GFP-Pg) were used to examine the behavior of desmosomes in living cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy of the fixed cells showed that both fusion proteins, ...
Weimann James M - - 2003
Heterokaryons are the product of cell fusion without subsequent nuclear or chromosome loss. Decades of research using Sendai-virus or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated fusion in tissue culture showed that the terminally differentiated state of a cell could be altered. But whether stable non-dividing heterokaryons could occur in animals has remained unclear. ...
Vassilopoulos George - - 2003
Cell fusion has long been known to produce viable cells and to have a major role in mammalian development and differentiation. As gene expression profiles can change after cell fusion, this event must be also considered as an alternative explanation for the many cases of 'stem cell plasticity' that have ...
Frank Natasha Y NY Partners Center for Human Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2003
Cell fusion involving progenitor cells is a newly recognized phenomenon thought to contribute to tissue differentiation. The molecular mechanisms governing cell fusion are unknown. P-glycoprotein and related ATP-binding cassette transporters are expressed by progenitor cells, but their physiological role in these cell types has not been defined. Here, we have ...
Kim Jae-Yean - - 2003
Intercellular communication delivers critical information for position-dependent specification of cell fate. In plants, a novel mechanism for cell-to-cell communication involves the intercellular trafficking of regulatory proteins and mRNAs. The maize KNOTTED1 (KN1) gene acts non cell-autonomously in the maize leaf, and KN1 was the first plant protein shown to traffic ...
Mori Kouki - - 2004
Membrane fusion is an important event in the functioning of a living organism. Life starts as a sperm fuses with the membrane of an egg, leading to its fertilization. Membrane fusion is also required for myogenesis, osteogenesis and placenta formation. Multinucleated giant cells originating from monocytes-macrophages are associated with granulomatous ...
Phan Vy - - 2003
Fusion of tumor cells with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) has been proposed for the preparation of cancer vaccines. However, generation of these hybrids, using physical or chemical methods such as electrofusion or polyethylene glycol (PEG), has been difficult to standardize. Characterization of cell fusion has also been problematic because of difficulties ...
Holme Andrea - - 2003
The technology of gene knockout and transgenic mice has allowed the study of the role of genes and their proteins in animal physiology and metabolism. However, these techniques have often been found to be limited in that some genetic manipulations of mice led either to a fatal phenotype or to ...
Hitt Anne L - - 2003
We have identified a homologue (ponB) of the ponticulin gene (ponA), an F-actin binding protein, in the expressed sequence tag library generated to mRNA isolated from fusion-competent cells of Dictyostelium discoideum. PonB is predicted to have many of the same characteristics as ponticulin. Both proteins are predicted to possess a ...
Andersen Thomas - - 2003
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The biological factors determining a successful spinal fusion have not yet been fully determined. PURPOSE: To determine the influence of graft cell vigor on fusion rate and fusion mass using in vitro osteoblast proliferation as a predictor. STUDY DESIGN: Animal study randomizing to posterolateral fusion with autograft with ...
Shemer Gidi - - 2003
The ability of two or more cells to unite to form a new syncytial cell has been utilized in metazoans throughout evolution to form many complex organs, such as muscles, bones and placentae. This requires migration, recognition and adhesion between cells together with fusion of their plasma membranes and rearrangement ...
Meertens Nadine - - 2003
Canine distemper virus (CDV), a mobillivirus related to measles virus causes a chronic progressive demyelinating disease, associated with persistence of the virus in the central nervous system (CNS). CNS persistence of morbilliviruses has been associated with cell-to-cell spread, thereby limiting immune detection. The mechanism of cell-to-cell spread remains uncertain. In ...
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