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Results 351 - 400 of 1381
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Shemer Gidi - - 2004
Despite the identification of essential processes in which cell fusion plays spectacular roles such as in fertilization and development of muscle, bone, and placenta, there are no identified proteins that directly mediate developmental cell fusion reactions. C. elegans has recently become among the best-characterized models to use for studying developmental ...
Bradley Joe - - 2004
This article describes the automation of an in vitro cell-based fusion assay for the identification of novel inhibitors of receptor mediated HIV-1 entry. The assay utilises two stable cell lines: one expressing CD4, CCR5 and an LTR-promoter/beta-galactosidase reporter construct, and the other expressing gp160 and tat. Accumulation of beta-galactosidase can ...
Chen Zhe - - 2004
The development of the epidermis of Caenorhabditis elegans involves cell fusion, migration, and differentiation events. To understand the mechanisms underlying these processes, we characterized the roles of NHR-25, a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. The NHR-25 homologs Ftz-F1 in Drosophila and SF-1 in mammals are involved ...
Mortensen K - - 2004
Endothelial cells line the inside of blood and lymphatic vessels, and cancer cells must cross this barrier, first to gain access to the circulation, and, second, to exit and metastasize. How this occurs is incompletely understood. We now demonstrate that human cancer cells are able to fuse with endothelial cells ...
Avitabile Elisa - - 2004
Syncytium formation in cells that express herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B (gB), gD, gH, and gL is blocked by gK (E. Avitabile, G. Lombardi, and G. Campadelli-Fiume, J. Virol. 77:6836-6844, 2003). Here, we report the results of two series of experiments. First, UL20 protein (UL20p) expression weakly inhibited cell-cell fusion. ...
Barale Sophie - - 2004
During Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating, chemotropic growth and cell fusion are critical for zygote formation. Cdc24p, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Cdc42 G protein, is necessary for oriented growth along a pheromone gradient during mating. To understand the functions of this critical Cdc42p activator, we identified additional cdc24 mating ...
Imreh Marta P - - 2004
An approach of using RFP-transfected human foreskin fibroblasts (hFS-RFP) to support the growth of GFP expressing human embryonic stem cells (hES; HS181-GFP) is reported. The two-color system was applied to detect interactions between hFS and human embryonic stem cells (hES). After overnight culture, the hES cell colonies showed a behavior ...
Anderson Bambi D - - 2004
Live attenuated Edmonston B strain of measles virus (MV-Edm) is a potent and specific oncolytic agent, but the mechanism underlying its tumor selectivity is unknown. The virus causes cytopathic effects (CPEs) of extensive syncytial formation in tumor cells but minimal damage or cell killing in normal cells. The CPE is ...
Filion Christine - - 2004
The EWS/NOR-1 fusion protein is encoded by the t(9;22) chromosomal translocation found in approximately 75% of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) tumors. The lack of cellular models in which the oncogenic properties of this fusion protein are expressed has seriously hampered the study of its role in the development of EMC. ...
Harris Robert G - - 2004
Analysis of developmental plasticity of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) is complicated by the possibility of cell-cell fusion. Here we demonstrate that epithelial cells can develop from BMDCs without cell-cell fusion. We use the Cre/lox system together with beta-galactosidase and enhanced green fluorescent protein expression in transgenic mice to identify epithelial ...
Pontow S E - - 2004
The membrane fusion events which initiate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and promote cytopathic syncytium formation in infected cells commence with the binding of the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) to CD4 and an appropriate coreceptor. Here, we show that HIV Env-coreceptor interactions activate Rac-1 GTPase and stimulate the ...
Ou Wu - - 2004
Cell fusion occurs in many cellular processes and viral infections. We developed a new, quantitative cell fusion assay based on the tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA)-induced expression of a luciferase reporter gene. The assay is objective, sensitive, linear over 2-3 orders of magnitude, amenable to microtiter-plate format, and generalizable to study fusion ...
Keppler Antje - - 2004
A general approach for the sequential labeling of fusion proteins of O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) with different fluorophores in mammalian cells is presented. AGT fusion proteins with different localizations in the cell can be labeled specifically with different fluorophores, and the fluorescence labeling can be used for applications such as multicolor ...
Faergeman Nils J - - 2004
In the present study, we show that depletion of acyl-CoA-binding protein, Acb1p, in yeast affects ceramide levels, protein trafficking, vacuole fusion and structure. Vacuoles in Acb1p-depleted cells are multi-lobed, contain significantly less of the SNAREs (soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors) Nyv1p, Vam3p and Vti1p, and are unable ...
Shmulevitz Maya - - 2004
The p10 fusion-associated small transmembrane protein of avian reovirus induces extensive syncytium formation in transfected cells. Here we show that p10-induced cell-cell fusion is restricted by rapid degradation of the majority of newly synthesized p10. The small ectodomain of p10 targets the protein for degradation following p10 insertion into an ...
Caslini C - - 2004
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALLs) expressing MLL-AF4, the fusion product of t(4;11)(q21;q23), show marked leucocytosis and extramedullary disease in multiple organs, respond poorly to chemotherapy and have poor prognosis. In vitro, leukemic cells with the t(4;11) show resistance to serum deprivation-induced or interferon gamma-regulated CD95-mediated apoptosis. In addition, t(4;11) cells have ...
Weise Jan Bernd - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Hybrid cells generated from dendritic cells (DC) and tumor cells provide tumor-associated antigens (TAA) in a polyvalent mode and therefore they have aroused interest in cancer immunotherapy. The present study was designed to investigate the hybrid cell generation and optimize its implementation for a TAA-target treatment of head and ...
de Haan Cornelis A M - - 2004
Cleavage of the mouse hepatitis coronavirus strain A59 spike protein was blocked in a concentration-dependent manner by a peptide furin inhibitor, indicating that furin or a furin-like enzyme is responsible for this process. While cell-cell fusion was clearly affected by preventing spike protein cleavage, virus-cell fusion was not, indicating that ...
Pryor Paul R - - 2004
Both heterotypic and homotypic fusion events are required to deliver endocytosed macromolecules to lysosomes and remodel late endocytic organelles. A trans-SNARE complex consisting of Q-SNAREs syntaxin 7, Vti1b and syntaxin 8 and the R-SNARE VAMP8 has been shown by others to be responsible for homotypic fusion of late endosomes. Using ...
Wu T-P - - 2004
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on human sperm activity, human sperm-oocyte fusion and mouse embryonic development. Results showed that various concentrations of NO synthase blocker, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, did not affect sperm cell motility at 0, 1, 2 or 4 hr, respectively. In ...
Tiwari Vaibhav - - 2004
Membrane fusion induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is required for both entry and cell-to-cell spread. It is mediated by the viral glycoprotein gB, gD, gH-gL and gD receptors. Although 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS) is a receptor for HSV-1 entry, the requirement for heparan sulfate in the fusion process ...
Matheos Dina - - 2004
During mating, budding yeast cells reorient growth toward the highest concentration of pheromone. Bni1p, a formin homologue, is required for this polarized growth by facilitating cortical actin cable assembly. Fus3p, a pheromone-activated MAP kinase, is required for pheromone signaling and cell fusion. We show that Fus3p phosphorylates Bni1p in vitro, ...
Simmons Graham - - 2004
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a rapidly emerging pathogen with potentially serious consequences for public health. Here we describe conditions that result not only in the efficient expression of the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein on the surface of cells, but in its incorporation into lentiviral particles that can ...
Pasieka Tracy Jo - - 2004
The gH glycoprotein of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a major fusogen. The realigned short cytoplasmic tail of gH (18 amino acids) harbors a functional endocytosis motif (YNKI) that mediates internalization in both VZV-infected and transfected cells (T. J. Pasieka, L. Maresova, and C. Grose, J. Virol. 77: 4194-4202, 2003). During ...
Pandey Sanjeev - - 2004
The major surface glycoprotein gp63 of the kinetoplastid protozoal parasite Leishmania is implicated as a ligand mediating uptake of the parasite into, and survival within, the host macrophage. By expressing gp63 antisense RNA from an episomal vector in L. donovani promastigotes, gp63-deficient transfectants were obtained. Reduction of the gp63 level ...
Senkevich Tatiana G - - 2004
The A28L gene of vaccinia virus is conserved in all poxviruses and encodes a protein that is anchored to the surface of infectious intracellular mature virions (IMV) and consequently lies beneath the additional envelope of extracellular virions. A conditional lethal recombinant vaccinia virus, vA28-HAi, with an inducible A28L gene, undergoes ...
Weise Jan B - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Hybrid cells generated from dendritic cells (DC) and tumour cells provide tumour-associated antigens (TAA) in a polyvalent mode. The present study was designed to investigate the hybrid cell generation by dendritic cells and different tumour cell lines to establish an electrofusion protocol with an optimal fusion setting. MATERIALS AND ...
Krejci O - - 2004
L-Asparaginase is a standard component in chemotherapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Leukaemic cells carrying TEL/AML1 fusion gene are more sensitive to treatment with L-asparaginase compared to other subtypes of ALL. We demonstrate in vitro the prolonged growth suppression of TEL/AML1[+] cells compared to TEL/AML1[-] leukaemic cells after L-asparaginase ...
Lee Hakjoo - - 2004
Enzyme/prodrug approach is one of the actively developing areas for cancer therapy. In an effort to develop more effective enzyme/prodrug systems, cell-permeable cytosine deaminase was produced by fusing yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) in frame with RKKRRQRRR domain of HIV-1 Tat which is an efficient delivery peptide of the foreign proteins ...
Gabrijel Mateja - - 2004
The fusion of antigen presenting and cancer cells leads to the formation of hybrid cells, which are considered a potential vaccine for treating cancer. The quality assessment of hybrid cell vaccines is crucial for the introduction of this new treatment. Flow cytometry was the method used recently, since it is ...
Jones Thomas R - - 2004
A novel small molecule inhibitor of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was identified as the result of screening a chemical library by using a whole-virus infected-cell assay. Synthetic chemistry efforts yielded the analog designated CFI02, a compound whose potency had been increased about 100-fold over an initial inhibitor. The inhibitory concentration of ...
International Crops Research Institute ...
The hybrid between Arachis duranensis and A. glabrata was a triploid and had 8-11 bivalents with a mean of 10 bivalents per meiocyte. Ten bivalents were observed in 30% of the cells analysed. Trivalents were rarely observed. Forty-eight percent of the pollinations formed pegs when A. duranensis x A. glabrata ...
Kawano Kojiro - - 2004
The present study compared the potential of nuclear-transferred porcine oocytes receiving fetal somatic cells by direct injection and cell fusion procedures to develop into blastocysts. After brief treatment of in vitro matured oocytes with demecolcine and sucrose, the protrusion containing the condensed chromosome mass was mechanically removed. Single donor cells ...
Abe Hiroko - - 2004
Human alpha-1,3-fucosyltansferase (FucT) encoded by the FUT6 gene was displayed at the cell surface of yeast cells engineered using the yeast cell wall protein Pir1 or Pir2, and the FucT activity was detected at the surface of cells producing the Pir1-HA-FUT6 or Pir2-FLAG-FUT6 fusion proteins. To obtain higher activity, we ...
Badalyan Suzanna M - - 2004
In most filamentous basidiomycetes, clamp cells are found at the septa of dikaryotic mycelia. Clamp cell formation starts at hyphal tip cells with the development of a lateral bulge at a position slightly apical to the future septum. Relative to the growth direction of the hypha, the protrusion expands backwards ...
Cavrois Marielle - - 2004
The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based HIV-1 virion fusion assay exploits the incorporation of beta-lactamase-Vpr chimeric proteins into HIV-1 virions and their subsequent delivery into the cytoplasm of target cells as a marker of fusion. This transfer can be monitored by the enzymatic cleavage of the CCF2-AM dye, a fluorescent ...
Horsley Valerie - - 2004
In mammals, cell fusion occurs among a limited number of cell types: sperm and oocytes during fertilization, trophoblasts during placenta formation, macrophages during giant cell and osteoclast formation and myoblasts in the formation of myofibers and myotubes. The molecular mechanisms involved in these membrane fusion events largely are unknown. This ...
Do Jeong Tae - - 2004
The restricted potential of a differentiated cell can be reverted back to a pluripotent state by cell fusion; totipotency can even be regained after somatic cell nuclear transfer. To identify factors involved in resetting the genetic program of a differentiated cell, we fused embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with neurosphere cells ...
Smoley Stephanie A - - 2004
Dual-color, dual-fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (D-FISH) can accurately detect and quantify cells with BCR/ABL fusion in <1% of 500 nuclei in 80% of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and t(9;22)(q34;q11.2). The remaining patients have one of three forms of atypical D-FISH patterns; these patterns have different sensitivities to ...
Nelson Bryce - - 2004
Cell fusion in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a temporally and spatially regulated process that involves degradation of the septum, which is composed of cell wall material, and occurs between conjugating cells within a prezygote, followed by plasma membrane fusion. The plasma membrane protein Fus1p is known to be ...
Mateo-Lozano Silvia - - 2003
Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is the prototype of a family of tumors (ESFT) of neuroectodermal origin formed by small, round cells with limited neural differentiation, which arise most frequently within bones in children or adolescents. The proliferation of ESFT cells is highly dependent on the establishment of, and signaling through several ...
Jin L - - 2003
The diagnosis of small round cell sarcomas is often very difficult, especially when only small biopsy specimens are available for examination. Recent studies have shown that some sarcomas have specific recurrent chromosomal translocations producing chimeric gene fusions, which can be detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), fluorescent in situ ...
Rittig M G - - 2003
Following reports that a VacA+cag+ toxigenic but not a VacA-cag- non-toxigenic Helicobacter pylori strain induced homotypic phagosome fusion in murine macrophages, we addressed that phenomenon in human cells. Mononuclear phagocytes and epitheloid cells were challenged with H. pylori strains of different vacA and cag genotypes and with VacA- and Cag- ...
Cuervo Rodrigo - - 2004
During mammalian development, a pair of shelves fuses to form the secondary palate, a process that requires the adhesion of the medial edge epithelial tissue (MEE) of each shelf and the degeneration of the resulting medial epithelial seam (MES). It has been reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) occurs during shelf ...
Tolmachova Tanya - - 2004
Vesicular transport is a complex multistep process regulated by distinct Rab GTPases. Here, we show for the first time that an EGFP-Rab fusion protein is fully functional in a mammalian organism. We constructed a PAC-based transgenic mouse, which expresses EGFP-Rab27a under the control of endogenous Rab27a promoter. The EGFP-Rab27a transgene ...
Heinkelein Martin - - 2003
A remarkable feature of the prototype foamy virus (PFV) replication pathway has been reported to consist of the ability to retrotranspose intracellularly with high efficiency (M. Heinkelein, T. Pietschmann, G. Jármy, M. Dressler, H. Imrich, J. Thurow, D. Lindemann, M. Bock, A. Moebes, J. Roy, O. Herchenröder, and A. Rethwilm, ...
Yamamoto Hiroki - - 2003
LytF, LytE, and LytC are vegetative cell wall hydrolases in Bacillus subtilis. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that an epitope-tagged LytF fusion protein (LytF-3xFLAG) in the wild-type background strain was localized at cell separation sites and one of the cell poles of rod-shaped cells during vegetative growth. However, in a mutant lacking ...
Borges M - - 2003
Syncytial fusion is a key event in implantation and placentation. Its regulation is only poorly understood. We present a cell-cell fusion assay based on staining of cells in two portions with a green and a red fluorescent cytoplasmic dye that become intracellularly mixed only after syncytial fusion. We quantified cell-cell ...
Liu Tie Fu - - 2003
The cytotoxicity of combinations of a diphtheria toxin-human epidermal growth factor fusion protein (DAB(389)EGF) and a Pseudomonas exotoxin-human interleukin 13 fusion protein (IL13PE38QQR) was tested against 14 human glioma cell lines. After cells were cultured for 48 h with various concentrations of the fusion proteins, the percentage reductions in thymidine ...
Ebert Daniel H DH Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pediatrics and Elizabeth B. Lamb Center for Pediatric Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee - - 2004
Persistent reovirus infections of murine L929 (L) fibroblast cells select mutant (LX) cells that do not support proteolytic disassembly of reovirus virions within the endocytic pathway. To better understand the function and regulation of endocytic proteases, we conducted experiments to define the block to reovirus disassembly displayed by LX cells. ...
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