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Results 301 - 350 of 1351
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Salsman Jayme - - 2005
The fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins of the fusogenic reoviruses are the only known examples of membrane fusion proteins encoded by non-enveloped viruses. While the involvement of the FAST proteins in mediating extensive syncytium formation in virus-infected and -transfected cells is well established, the nature of the fusion reaction and ...
Voigt Boris - - 2005
In vivo visualization of filamentous actin in all cells of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is essential for understanding the numerous roles of the actin cytoskeleton in diverse processes of cell differentiation. A previously introduced reporter construct based on the actin-binding domain of mouse talin proved to be useful for unravelling some ...
Kinzler Eric R - - 2005
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is dependent on the functions of structural glycoproteins at multiple stages of the viral life cycle. These proteins mediate the initial attachment and fusion events that occur between the viral envelope and a host cell membrane, as well as virion-independent cell-cell spread of the infection. Here ...
Koyanagi Masamichi - - 2005
The regeneration of new myocardium by stem or progenitor cells is an important therapeutic option. Cellular or nuclear fusion is considered as an alternative to cell reprogramming by transdifferentiation. However, the generation of hybrid cells may also be a consequence of a transient transmembrane exchange of proteins and organelles between ...
Kontani Kenji K Department of MCD Biology, Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, 93106, - - 2005
Cell-cell fusion initiates fertilization, sculpts tissues during animal development, reprograms stem cells to new differentiated states, and may be a key step in cancer progression. While cell fusion is tightly regulated, the mechanisms that limit fusion to appropriate partners are unknown. Here, we report that the fus-1 gene is essential ...
Hoth Stefan - - 2005
Syncytial feeding complexes induced by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii represent strong metabolic sinks for photoassimilates. These newly formed structures were described to be symplastically isolated from the surrounding root tissue and their mechanism of carbohydrate import has repeatedly been under investigation. Here, we present analyses of the symplastic connectivity ...
Chen Elizabeth H - - 2005
Cell-cell fusion is fundamental to the development and physiology of multicellular organisms, but little is known of its mechanistic underpinnings. Recent studies have revealed that many proteins involved in cell-cell fusion are also required for seemingly unrelated cellular processes such as phagocytosis, cell migration, axon growth, and synaptogenesis. We review ...
Ambrosi Dominic J - - 2005
Advances in mammalian cloning prove that somatic nuclei can be reprogrammed to a state of totipotency by transfer into oocytes. An alternative approach to reprogram the somatic genome involves the creation of hybrids between somatic cells and other cells that contain reprogramming activities. Potential fusion partners with reprogramming activities include ...
Germain E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Wild-type RD114 virus is capable of generating syncytia during its replication, and it is believed that cell-free viruses direct the fusion of neighboring cells. The RD114 envelope (Env) that mediates this fusion event is now widely used to pseudotype retroviral and lentiviral vectors in gene therapy. Indeed, vectors pseudotyped ...
del Campo Jacob J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Many animal tissues form via fusion of cells. Yet in all instances of developmental cell fusion, the mechanism underlying fusion of plasma membranes remains poorly understood. EFF-1 is required for most somatic cell fusions in C. elegans, and misexpressed EFF-1 alters the normal pattern of fusing hypodermal cells. However, ...
Bowes Timothy J - - 2005
Mitochondrial fusion and fission are important aspects of eukaryotic cell function that permit the adoption of varied mitochondrial morphologies depending upon cellular physiology. We previously observed that ethacrynic acid (EA) induced mitochondrial fusion in cultured BSC-1 and CHO/wt cells. However, the mechanism responsible for it was not clear since EA ...
Wang Wei - - 2005
Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) utilizes the PiT2 sodium-dependent phosphate transporter as its cell surface receptor to infect mammalian cells. The process of A-MuLV infection requires cleavage of the R peptide from the envelope protein. This occurs within virions thereby rendering them competent to fuse with target cells. Envelope proteins ...
Bennett Richard J - - 2005
It is now well established that mating can occur between diploid a and alpha cells of Candida albicans. There is, however, controversy over when, and with what efficiency, nuclear fusion follows cell fusion to create stable tetraploid a/alpha cells. In this study, we have analysed the mating process between C. ...
Kanda Hajime - - 2005
Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes is mediated by translocation of vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular storage sites to the cell periphery and the subsequent fusion of these vesicles with the plasma membrane, resulting in the externalization of GLUT4. Fusion of the GLUT4-containing vesicles with the plasma membrane ...
Pralong Dani?le - - 2005
Nuclear reprogramming by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) provides a practical approach for generating autologous pluripotent cells from adult somatic cells. It has been shown that murine somatic cells can also be reprogrammed to a pluripotent-like state by fusion with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Typically, the first step in SCNT ...
Khalequzzaman Mohammad - - 2005
Protocols for isolation of gametes of Oryza sativa were developed and initial results on in vitro fusion of sperm and egg cells are reported. The best yield of viable sperm cells was obtained when pollen grains were cultured in a medium containing of 1.3 mM boric acid, 3.6 mM calcium ...
Takei Shunsuke - - 2005
Because cardiomyocytes lose the ability to divide upon differentiation, myocardial failure is assumed to be generally irreversible. For terminal cardiac insufficiency, the potential for regenerative treatment by stem cells, especially embryonic stem (ES) cells, offers hope for the future. Recent studies showed that stem cells fuse spontaneously with cells remaining ...
Do Jeong Tae - - 2005
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are the pluripotent cells that also have the capacity to induce the genomic reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells. The progressively restricted genomic potential of somatic cells observed during embryonic development can be reverted to a pluripotent state by the formation of cell hybrids with ESCs. To ...
Wang Ye - - 2005
Trichosanthin (TCS) is a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) which can inhibit the growth of human choriocarcinoma (JAR) cells. There are no clear mechanisms to discover the interaction pathway and cytotoxicity of TCS in JAR cells. In this paper, we showed the distribution and transport of endogenously expressed TCS in JAR cells. ...
Zhiqiang Zhao Z Key Lab of Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering under the State Education Ministry, Bioenginering College, Chongqing University, 400044, - - 2005
A cell-to-cell fusion technique using 3-D microelectrodes array microchip has been developed. It permits cell-to-cell fusion operation in large amount simultaneously. And it needs much lower voltage (alternating voltage and pulse voltage) than the conventional cell fusion techniques. An array of 16 (4&#215;4) microelectrodes can be fabricated on a 1&#215;1cm ...
Ishida Kentaro - - 2005
Cells of Dictyostelium discoideum become sexually mature under submerged and dark conditions, and fuse with opposite mating-type cells to form zygote giant cells, which gather surrounding cells and finally develop into dormant structures called macrocysts. In the present study, we found that the multinuclear fused cells formed during this process ...
He D - - 2005
Arginines-containing membrane translocational signals (MTS), such as Tat(47-57) and VP22(267-300), and synthetic arginine-rich peptides have been reported to be efficient carriers for transporting various types of biomolecules into cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of living cells. Among those arginines-containing MTS, a 9-mer arginine peptide (Arg9) was proved the most economical and ...
Branigan Patrick J - - 2005
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important respiratory pathogen primarily affecting infants, young children, transplant recipients and the elderly. The F protein is the only virion envelope protein necessary and sufficient for virus replication and fusion of the viral envelope membrane with the target host cell. During natural infection, ...
Liu Jining - - 2005
We have previously described the construction of a P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1-mouse immunoglobulin Fc fusion protein, which when transiently coexpressed with the porcine alpha1,3 galactosyltransferase in COS cells becomes a very efficient adsorber of xenoreactive, anti-pig antibodies. To relate the adsorption capacity with the glycan expression of individual fusion proteins produced ...
McShane Marisa P - - 2004
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects human B lymphocytes and epithelial cells. We have compared the requirements for EBV glycoprotein-induced cell fusion between Chinese hamster ovary effecter cells and human B lymphoblasts or epithelial cells by using a virus-free cell fusion assay. EBV-encoded gB, gH, gL, and gp42 glycoproteins were required for ...
Willenbring Holger - - 2004
Cell fusion has evolved as an explanation of how transplanted bone marrow cells adopt the phenotype of hepatocytes, Purkinje neurons, skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. In vivo nuclear transfer associated with cell fusion has direct implications for regenerative medicine, but the spontaneous frequency of cell fusion is well below the ...
Besser Jaya - - 2004
The protein product of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) ORF47 is a serine/threonine protein kinase and tegument component. Evaluation of two recombinants of the Oka strain, rOka47DeltaC, with a C-terminal truncation of ORF47, and rOka47D-N, with a point mutation in the conserved kinase motif, showed that ORF47 kinase function was necessary for ...
Galletta Brian J - - 2004
The body wall muscles in the Drosophila larva arise from interactions between Duf/Kirre and Irregular chiasm C-roughest (IrreC-rst)-expressing founder myoblasts and sticks-and-stones (SNS)-expressing fusion competent myoblasts in the embryo. Herein, we demonstrate that SNS mediates heterotypic adhesion of S2 cells with Duf/Kirre and IrreC-rst-expressing S2 cells, and colocalizes with these ...
Kudo Yoshiki - - 2004
The physiological importance of CD98 surface antigen in regulating placental trophoblast cell fusion has been studied in a cell model of syncytialization (the cytotrophoblast cell line BeWo following increased intracellular cAMP by forskolin treatment) using RNA interference. CD98 protein abundance (determined by Western blot) was decreased by 40-50% following double-stranded ...
Nakagawa Ichiro - - 2004
We found that the autophagic machinery could effectively eliminate pathogenic group A Streptococcus (GAS) within nonphagocytic cells. After escaping from endosomes into the cytoplasm, GAS became enveloped by autophagosome-like compartments and were killed upon fusion of these compartments with lysosomes. In autophagy-deficient Atg5-/- cells, GAS survived, multiplied, and were released ...
Jung Cindy - - 2004
We describe the generation of lentiviruses pseudotyped with human parainfluenza type 3 envelope (HPIV3) glycoproteins. Lentivirus particles, expressed in 293T/17 cells, incorporate HPIV3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins into their lipid bilayers and are able to transduce human kidney epithelial cells and polarized MDCK cells. Neuraminidase, AZT, and anti-HPIV3 ...
Kondo Takako - - 2004
Cell-cell fusion generates multinucleated cells such as osteoclasts in bone, myotubes in muscle, and trophoblasts in placenta. Molecular details governing these fusion processes are still largely unknown. As a step toward identification of fusogenic genes, we tested the concept that retroviral vectors can be packaged as a result of cell-cell ...
Schwartz Jeffrey L - - 2004
Induced genomic instability in the human B lymphoblastoid cell line TK6 manifests itself as increases in end-to-end chromosome fusions and non-reciprocal chromosome translocations. It is not associated with elevated frequencies of specific locus mutations or other cytogenetic alterations. Previous studies on a limited number of cells and end-points suggested that ...
Matsuura Katsuhisa - - 2004
The concept of the plasticity or transdifferentiation of adult stem cells has been challenged by the phenomenon of cell fusion. In this work, we examined whether neonatal cardiomyocytes fuse with various somatic cells including endothelial cells, cardiac fibroblasts, bone marrow cells, and endothelial progenitor cells spontaneously in vitro. When cardiomyocytes ...
Tanaka Hiromasa - - 2004
During tracheal development in Drosophila, some branches join to form a continuous luminal network. Specialized cells at the branch tip, called fusion cells, extend filopodia to make contact and become doughnut shaped to allow passage of the lumen. These morphogenetic processes accompany the highly regulated cytoskeletal reorganization of fusion cells. ...
Ogino Michiko - - 2004
Hantaan virus (HTNV)-infected Vero E6 cells undergo cell fusion with both infected and uninfected cells under low-pH conditions. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy of HTNV-infected Vero E6 cells showed that envelope glycoproteins (GPs) were located both on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the ...
Fitch Pamela G - - 2004
To identify additional cell fusion genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we performed a high-copy suppressor screen of fus2Delta. Higher dosage of three genes, BEM1, LRG1, and FUS1, partially suppressed the fus2Delta cell fusion defect. BEM1 and FUS1 were high-copy suppressors of many cell-fusion-defective mutations, whereas LRG1 suppressed only fus2Delta and rvs161Delta. ...
Wang Yuh-Shuh - - 2004
The visualization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions with microtubule or actin filament (F-actin) binding proteins has provided new insights into the function of the cytoskeleton during plant development. For studies on actin, GFP fusions to talin have been the most generally used reporters. Although GFP-Talin has allowed in vivo ...
Wu Chia-Mao - - 2004
ECP (eosinophil cationic protein) is a major component of eosinophil granule proteins, and is used as a clinical biomarker for asthma and allergic inflammatory disease. ECP has been implicated in damage to the cell membrane of many tissue types, but the mechanism is not well known. In the present study, ...
Shemer Gidi - - 2004
Despite the identification of essential processes in which cell fusion plays spectacular roles such as in fertilization and development of muscle, bone, and placenta, there are no identified proteins that directly mediate developmental cell fusion reactions. C. elegans has recently become among the best-characterized models to use for studying developmental ...
Chen Zhe - - 2004
The development of the epidermis of Caenorhabditis elegans involves cell fusion, migration, and differentiation events. To understand the mechanisms underlying these processes, we characterized the roles of NHR-25, a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. The NHR-25 homologs Ftz-F1 in Drosophila and SF-1 in mammals are involved ...
Bradley Joe - - 2004
This article describes the automation of an in vitro cell-based fusion assay for the identification of novel inhibitors of receptor mediated HIV-1 entry. The assay utilises two stable cell lines: one expressing CD4, CCR5 and an LTR-promoter/beta-galactosidase reporter construct, and the other expressing gp160 and tat. Accumulation of beta-galactosidase can ...
Barale Sophie - - 2004
During Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating, chemotropic growth and cell fusion are critical for zygote formation. Cdc24p, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Cdc42 G protein, is necessary for oriented growth along a pheromone gradient during mating. To understand the functions of this critical Cdc42p activator, we identified additional cdc24 mating ...
Mortensen K - - 2004
Endothelial cells line the inside of blood and lymphatic vessels, and cancer cells must cross this barrier, first to gain access to the circulation, and, second, to exit and metastasize. How this occurs is incompletely understood. We now demonstrate that human cancer cells are able to fuse with endothelial cells ...
Avitabile Elisa - - 2004
Syncytium formation in cells that express herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B (gB), gD, gH, and gL is blocked by gK (E. Avitabile, G. Lombardi, and G. Campadelli-Fiume, J. Virol. 77:6836-6844, 2003). Here, we report the results of two series of experiments. First, UL20 protein (UL20p) expression weakly inhibited cell-cell fusion. ...
Imreh Marta P - - 2004
An approach of using RFP-transfected human foreskin fibroblasts (hFS-RFP) to support the growth of GFP expressing human embryonic stem cells (hES; HS181-GFP) is reported. The two-color system was applied to detect interactions between hFS and human embryonic stem cells (hES). After overnight culture, the hES cell colonies showed a behavior ...
Anderson Bambi D - - 2004
Live attenuated Edmonston B strain of measles virus (MV-Edm) is a potent and specific oncolytic agent, but the mechanism underlying its tumor selectivity is unknown. The virus causes cytopathic effects (CPEs) of extensive syncytial formation in tumor cells but minimal damage or cell killing in normal cells. The CPE is ...
Filion Christine - - 2004
The EWS/NOR-1 fusion protein is encoded by the t(9;22) chromosomal translocation found in approximately 75% of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) tumors. The lack of cellular models in which the oncogenic properties of this fusion protein are expressed has seriously hampered the study of its role in the development of EMC. ...
Harris Robert G - - 2004
Analysis of developmental plasticity of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) is complicated by the possibility of cell-cell fusion. Here we demonstrate that epithelial cells can develop from BMDCs without cell-cell fusion. We use the Cre/lox system together with beta-galactosidase and enhanced green fluorescent protein expression in transgenic mice to identify epithelial ...
Pontow S E - - 2004
The membrane fusion events which initiate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and promote cytopathic syncytium formation in infected cells commence with the binding of the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) to CD4 and an appropriate coreceptor. Here, we show that HIV Env-coreceptor interactions activate Rac-1 GTPase and stimulate the ...
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