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Results 251 - 300 of 1381
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Malassiné A - - 2007
Recently, the expression of a human endogenous retrovirus HERV-FRD, able to encode a fusogenic envelope protein (syncytin 2), has been observed in human placenta. The aim of the present study was to localize the expression of syncytin 2 in first trimester placenta. In addition, we investigated the presence of HERV-FRD ...
Xu Xun - - 2006
Palatal fusion is a complex, multi-step developmental process; the consequence of failure in this process is cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in humans. Previous studies have shown that regression of the medial edge epithelium (MEE) upon palatal fusion is required for this process, and TGF-beta signaling ...
Wu Maoqing - - 2006
As an atypical member of the Rab family, Rab24 has several attributes distinguishing this protein from the other members. Based on the yeast two-hybrid system, interaction between human RAB24 and two proteins, cyclophilin A (CyP-A) and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), was detected and identified in COS-7 cells. ...
Cartagena-Lirola Hugo - - 2006
Conjugation is a complex event directed to ensure the transfer of genetic material, which is achieved by the union of two cells. In fungi, success of this relevant process requires digestion of the cell wall at the point where both cells have agglutinated and, later, the union of the plasma ...
Kaleeba Johnan A R - - 2006
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus 8) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma and other lymphoproliferative syndromes often associated with HIV/AIDS. Functional complementary DNA selection for a receptor mediating KSHV cell fusion identified xCT, the 12-transmembrane light chain of the human cystine/glutamate exchange transporter system x-c. Expression of recombinant ...
Barale Sophie - - 2006
The highly conserved small Rho G-protein, Cdc42p plays a critical role in cell polarity and cytoskeleton organization in all eukaryotes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cdc42p is important for cell polarity establishment, septin ring assembly, and pheromone-dependent MAP-kinase signaling during the yeast mating process. In this study, we further investigated ...
Bär Séverine - - 2006
Ebola viruses (EboV) are enveloped RNA viruses infecting cells by a pH-dependent process mediated by viral glycoproteins (GP) involving endocytosis of virions and their routing into acidic endosomes. As with well-characterized pH-dependent viral entry proteins, in particular influenza virus hemagglutinin, it is thought that EboV GP require activation by low ...
Schowalter Rachel M - - 2006
The paramyxovirus fusion protein (F) promotes fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane of target cells as well as cell-cell fusion. The plasma membrane is closely associated with the actin cytoskeleton, but the role of actin dynamics in paramyxovirus F-mediated membrane fusion is unclear. We examined cell-cell fusion ...
Stebelska Katarzyna - - 2006
Cationic liposomes are used as efficient carriers for gene delivery into mammalian cells due to their ability to bind nucleic acids, adsorb onto the cell surface and fuse with negatively charged membranes. This last property enables the release and escape of their cargo from endosomal compartments. The efficiency of this ...
Xu X Y - - 2006
Cytoplasm of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is known to influence seedlessness. Transfer of cytoplasm to a seedy cultivar could possibly lead to the production of seedless citrus fruits. In the present paper cytoplasts were isolated from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of Satsuma mandarin via ultra-centrifugation in a discontinuous gradient. No ...
Broer Rene - - 2006
The spike protein (S) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is responsible for receptor binding and membrane fusion. It contains a highly conserved transmembrane domain that consists of three parts: an N-terminal tryptophan-rich domain, a central domain, and a cysteine-rich C-terminal domain. The cytoplasmic tail of S has previously ...
Muys, James Johan
Exocytosis is a fundamental cellular process where membrane-bound secretory granules &#13;from within the cell fuse with the plasma membrane to form fusion pore openings &#13;through which they expel their contents. This mechanism occurs constitutively in &#13;all eukaryotic cells and is responsible for the regulation of numerous bodily functions. &#13;Despite intensive ...
Muys, James Johan
Exocytosis is a fundamental cellular process where membrane-bound secretory granules from within the cell fuse with the plasma membrane to form fusion pore openings through which they expel their contents. This mechanism occurs constitutively in all eukaryotic cells and is responsible for the regulation of numerous bodily functions. Despite intensive ...
Parris George - - 2006
The two-stage initiation-progression model of cancer is widely accepted. Initiation appears to result most often from accumulation of damage to the DNA expressed as multiple mutations in the phenotype. Unsymmetrical chromosome segregation during mitosis of normal or mutated cells produces aneuploid cells and also contributes to the evolution of neoplasia. ...
Delboy Mark G - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can utilize multiple pathways to enter host cells. The factors that determine which route is taken are not clear. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that express glycoprotein D (gD)-binding receptors are model cells that support a pH-dependent, endocytic entry pathway for all HSV strains tested ...
Tada Takashi - - 2006
Nuclear reprogramming is an intriguing phenomenon, in which specialized somatic cells reacquire pluripotency through the global resetting of epigenetic modifications without changes occurring to their nuclear DNA information. The nuclear reprogramming activity retained by unfertilized eggs and embryonic stem cells is readily observable through the techniques of nuclear transplantation and ...
Tada Masako - - 2006
Cell fusion is an approach for combining genetic and epigenetic information between two different types of cells. Electrofusion for generating hybrid cells between mouse embryonic stem cells and somatic cells, which is a type of nonchemically induced and nonvirus-mediated cell fusion, is introduced here as a highly effective, reproducible, and ...
Do Jeong Tae - - 2006
Fertilized eggs and early blastomeres, that have the potential to develop to fetuses when placed into a uterus, are totipotent. Those cells in the embryo, that can give rise to all cell types of an organism, but not to an organism itself, are pluripotent. Embryonic stem (ES), embryonic carcinoma (EC), ...
Pralong Danièle - - 2006
Embryonic stem cell (ESC) technology should enable the generation of specific cell types for the study and treatment of human diseases. Therapeutic cloning provides a way to generate ESCs genetically matched to diseased individuals through nuclear reprogramming of the somatic genome. However, practical and ethical limitations associated with therapeutic cloning ...
Sullivan Stephen - - 2006
As donor organs and tissues for transplantation medicine are scarce, alternative methods for replacing damaged cells or restoring organ function are highly needed. Here, we consider the therapeutic potential of cell fusion. After highlighting the various contexts in which cells are known to fuse during mammalian development, we discuss the ...
Yang Jian - - 2006
Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated cell fusion is a simple and efficient technique used widely for the production of somatic cell hybrids and for nuclear transfer in mammalian cloning. We describe a basic protocol of PEG-mediated cell fusion for the production of somatic cell hybrids. Fusion can be performed between adherent and ...
Bian Jing - - 2006
Novel strategies for the treatment of congestive heart failure have taken the form of gene and cell therapy to induce angiogenesis, optimize calcium handling by cardiac myocytes, or regenerate damaged myocardial tissue. Arguably both gene- and cell-based therapies would be benefited by having the ability to locally deliver specific transcription ...
Merten Christoph A - - 2006
Membrane fusion plays a key role in many biological processes including vesicle trafficking, synaptic transmission, fertilization or cell entry of enveloped viruses. As a common feature the fusion process is mediated by distinct membrane proteins. We describe here 'Fusoselect', a universal procedure allowing the identification and engineering of molecular determinants ...
Strelchenko Nick - - 2006
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) provides the basis for the development of patient-specific stem cell lines. Recent progress in SCNT suggested the presence of reprogramming factors in human embryonic stem (hES) cells, although no method is currently available for replacement of nuclei of hES cells by somatic cell nuclei. An ...
Carvalho A F - - 2006
The binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, placenta were studied, with emphasis on the synthesis of BNC-specific proteins. Placentomal tissues of 27 water buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy) were processed for light and electron microscopy. The frequency of BNCs was 20% of the trophoblastic cells ...
Sparkes Imogen A - - 2006
Expression and tracking of fluorescent fusion proteins has revolutionized our understanding of basic concepts in cell biology. The protocol presented here has underpinned much of the in vivo results highlighting the dynamic nature of the plant secretory pathway. Transient transformation of tobacco leaf epidermal cells is a relatively fast technique ...
Tada Masako - - 2006
Cell fusion is a powerful tool for understanding the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming. In hybrid cells of somatic cells and pluripotential stem cells, including embryonic stem (ES) and embryonic germ cells, somatic nuclei acquire pluripotential competence. ES and embryonic germ cells retain intrinsic trans activity to induce epigenetic reprogramming. ...
Podbilewicz Benjamin - - 2006
Selective cell fusion is a natural part of development. It is found in sexually reproducing organisms that require fertilization to propagate and in muscles, placenta, bones, lens of the eye and stem cells. Cell fusion is particularly important in the development of C. elegans: in addition to 300 sperm and ...
Sullivan Stephen - - 2006
Cells of different types can be induced to fuse by electroshock. Cells of one type are typically dominant and are able to reprogram the nuclei derived from cells of the other type, in fusion hybrids derived from one cell of each type. Flow cytometry provides a quick and objective technique ...
Turner Peter C - - 2006
The serpin SPI-3 and the hemagglutinin (HA) encoded by cowpox virus (CPV) block cell-cell fusion, and colocalize at the cell surface. wtCPV does not fuse cells, but inactivation of either gene leads to fusion. SPI-3 mAb added to wtCPV-infected cells caused fusion, confirming that SPI-3 protein at the cell surface ...
O'Donnell Christopher D - - 2006
Heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform-2 (3-OST-2), which belongs to a family of enzymes capable of generating herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) entry and spread receptors, is predominantly expressed in human brain. Despite its unique expression pattern, the ability of 3-OST-2 to mediate HSV-1 entry and cell-to-cell fusion is not known. ...
Ruel Nancy - - 2006
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the four viral glycoproteins required for viral entry and cell fusion and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. Mutants of HSV type 2 gB were generated by substituting conserved residues in the cytoplasmic tail with alanine or by deleting 41 amino ...
Shi Ming - - 2005
Growth and the expression of the anti-ErbB2 scFv-Fc-IL2 fusion protein in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were in association at 37 degrees C. The expression of the fusion protein was no more than 25 microg/ml. At 30 degrees C the cell growth was arrested but the cells continued to produce ...
Ji Changhua - - 2006
In the current study, a novel coreceptor-specific cell-cell fusion (CCF) assay system is reported. The system possesses the following features: dual CCR5-dependent and CXCR4-dependent CCF assays, all stable cell lines, inducible expression of gp160 to minimize cytotoxicity, robust luciferase reporter, and 384-well format. These assays have been validated using various ...
Robert Stéphanie - - 2005
The synthesis of cellulose microfibrils requires the presence of a membrane-bound endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanase, KORRIGAN1 (KOR1). Although the exact biochemical role of KOR1 in cellulose synthesis is unknown, we used the protein as a marker to explore the potential involvement of subcellular transport processes in cellulose synthesis. Using immunofluorescence and a green ...
Duelli Dominik M - - 2005
Amodel that explains both the origin and sporadic nature of cancer argues that cancer cells are a chance result of events that cause genomic and epigenetic variability. The prevailing view is that these events are mutations that affect chromosome segregation or stability. However, genomic and epigenetic variability is also triggered ...
Liu Shi-Hwei - - 2005
We have previously engineered a recombinant Pichia pastoris GS115 transformant, MSPGA-7, harboring seven copies of glucoamylase (GA) fused with modified signal peptide. High yield secretion of GA was achieved as an extra copy of SEC4 was integrated to the transformant. To elucidate the physiological role of SEC4, a dominant-negative mutant ...
Kuwabara Tomohiko - - 2005
A cell-fusing hyperthermophilic archaeon was isolated from hydrothermal fluid obtained from Suiyo Seamount of the Izu-Bonin Arc. The isolate, TS1(T), is an irregular coccus, usually 0.5-2 microm in diameter and motile with a polar tuft of flagella. Cells in the exponential phase of growth fused at room temperature in the ...
Tiwari Vaibhav - - 2005
Many heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfotransferase (3-OST) isoforms generate cellular receptors for herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD). Interestingly, the ability of 3-OST-4 to mediate HSV-1 entry and cell-to-cell fusion has not been determined, although it is predominantly expressed in the brain, a primary target of HSV-1 infections. We ...
Park Jungyul - - 2005
We present a microfabricated hybrid biopolymer microcantilever, in which the contractile force of self-organized cardiomyocytes can be measured and studied, as a prototype for the development of cell-driven actuators. The microcantilever is made of a flexible, transparent, biocompatible poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrate, using a simple microfabrication technique. Seeding and culturing cardiomyocytes on ...
Lin Cheng-Wen - - 2005
The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is an important issue for treatment and prevention of SARS. Recently, SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) protease has been implied to be possible relevance to SARS-CoV pathogenesis. In this study, we intended to identify potential 3CL(pro)-interacting cellular protein(s) using the phage-displayed human lung cDNA ...
Kopec Karla K - - 2005
This unit describes a convenient functional uptake assay for GABA transport into cell lines transiently transfected with GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1) and other GAT isoforms. This facile, homogeneous assay allows for the determination of K(m), V(max), and K(i) values. The assay utilizes commercially available microtiter plates that contain scintillant embedded in ...
Omerović Jasmina - - 2005
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects B lymphocytes and epithelial cells. While the glycoproteins required for entry into these two cell types differ, the gH/gL glycoprotein complex is essential for entry into both epithelial and B cells. Analysis of gH protein sequences from three gammaherpesviruses (EBV, marmoset, and rhesus) revealed a potential ...
Winkler C - - 2006
Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages is suggested to reduce cardiovascular risk. Within this context, most attention is drawn to antioxidant ingredients of wine, but also beer was found to be beneficial. Potential effects of three different types of beer including alcohol-free beer were investigated using freshly isolated human peripheral blood ...
Gao Yanhong - - 2005
spindlin1, a novel human gene recently isolated by our laboratory, is highly homologous to mouse spindlin gene. In this study, we cloned cDNA full-length of this novel gene and send it to GenBank database as spindlin1 (Homo sapiens spindlin1) with Accession No. AF317228. In order to investigate the function of ...
Parris George E - - 2006
The two-stage initiation-progression model of cancer is widely accepted. Although mutations explain initiation of neoplasia, the assumption that mutations are responsible for progression of neoplasia to cancer appears to have little experimental support. The "cell clone ecology hypothesis" explains why neoplasia evolve and the "cell fusion model of cancer progression ...
Nevzglyadova Olga V - - 2005
It has been shown that defects in cell fusion during mating can trigger programmed cell death in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We wished to test whether defects in nuclear migration during cell fusion have the same effect. A partial pedigree analysis of nine kar1 x KAR1 crosses of two different ...
Scanlan Perry M - - 2005
Cell surface heparan sulfate functions as a co-receptor in HSV-1 entry. In order to study its significance in context with specific gD receptors (nectin-1, HVEM, and 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate) a low speed centrifugation based virus inoculation (spinoculation) method was used. The experiments were performed at 1200 x g using glycosylaminoglycan ...
Li Ziyi - - 2005
The domestic ferret, Mustela putorius furos, holds great promise as a genetic model for human lung disease, provided that key technologies for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are developed. In this report, we extend our understanding of SCNT in this species by defining conditions for efficient cell fusion by electrical ...
Wu Liguo - - 2005
The core fusion machinery of all herpesviruses consists of three conserved glycoproteins, gB and gHgL, suggesting a common mechanism for virus cell fusion, but fusion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with B cells and epithelial cells is initiated differently. Fusion with B cells requires a fourth protein, gp42, which complexes with ...
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