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Results 201 - 250 of 1382
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Chou Chih-Fong - - 2007
The membrane fusion process mediated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S protein and its cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) had been reconstituted using two Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines that constitutively express these recombinant proteins separately. This system was applied to develop a quantitative measurement of ...
Garg Himanshu - - 2007
The loss of CD4(+) T cells in HIV-1 infections is hypothesized to be caused by apoptosis of bystander cells mediated by cell surface-expressed HIV-1 Env glycoprotein. However, the mechanism by which Env mediates this process remains controversial. Specifically, the role of HIV-1 gp120 binding to CD4 and CXCR4 versus the ...
Castillo-Lluva Sonia - - 2007
Cyclin-dependent kinases from the Cdk5/Pho85 family are thought to play important roles in morphogenesis in organisms as diverse as yeast and humans. Here we used the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis to address the role of Cdk5/Pho85 kinases in the morphogenesis and virulence of dimorphic phytopathogens. We found that Cdk5 ...
Zheng Feng - - 2007
Hantaviruses (HTVs) are enveloped viruses and can induce low PH-dependent cell fusion. In this report we molecularly cloned viral glycoproteins (GPs) cDNA and nucleocapsid (NP) cDNA of two strains of Hantaan virus and one strain of Seoul virus and expressed in Vero E6 cells under control of a CMV promoter. ...
Heidel Jeremy D - - 2007
PURPOSE: Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is a therapeutic target for DNA replication-dependent diseases such as cancer. Here, a potent small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplex against the M2 subunit of RR (RRM2) is developed and shown to reduce the growth potential of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ...
Cho Hee Cheol - - 2007
As an alternative to electronic pacemakers, we explored the feasibility of converting ventricular myocytes into pacemakers by somatic cell fusion. The idea is to create chemically induced fusion between myocytes and syngeneic fibroblasts engineered to express HCN1 pacemaker channels (HCN1-fibroblasts). HCN1-fibroblasts were fused with freshly isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes ...
Chen Elizabeth H - - 2007
Cell-cell fusion is a highly regulated and dramatic cellular event that is required for development and homeostasis. Fusion may also play a role in the development of cancer and in tissue repair by stem cells. While virus-cell fusion and the fusion of intracellular membranes have been the subject of intense ...
Ganem Neil J - - 2007
Aneuploidy is one of the most obvious differences between normal and cancer cells. However, there remains debate over how aneuploid cells arise and whether or not they are a cause or consequence of tumorigenesis. One proposed route to aneuploid cancer cells is through an unstable tetraploid intermediate. Supporting this idea, ...
Dranitzki-Elhalel M - - 2007
A chimeric CD40.FasL (CD40-CD95L) protein was designed with the combined capacities to bind to two surface receptors on activated T cells, CD40 ligand (CD40L; CD154) and Fas receptor (CD95). CD40.FasL, once tethered to the cell surface via one of its ends, can transmit a signal via its other end. In ...
Wu Liguo L Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology and Feist-Weiller Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, - - 2007
Cell fusion mediated by Epstein-Barr virus requires three conserved glycoproteins, gB and gHgL, but activation is cell type specific. B cell fusion requires interaction between MHC class II and a fourth virus glycoprotein, gp42, which complexes non-covalently with gHgL. Epithelial cell fusion requires interaction between gHgL and a novel epithelial ...
Ohnuma Kei - - 2007
CD26 is a widely distributed 110-kDa cell surface glycoprotein with an important role in T-cell costimulation. We demonstrated previously that CD26 binds to caveolin-1 in antigen-presenting cells, and following exogenous CD26 stimulation, Tollip and IRAK-1 disengage from caveolin-1 in antigen-presenting cells. IRAK-1 is then subsequently phosphorylated to up-regulate CD86 expression, ...
Islam M Q - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Some normal somatic cells in culture divide a limited number of times before entering a non-dividing state called replicative senescence and fusion of normal cells with immortal cells claimed to produce hybrid cells of limited proliferation. We reinvestigated the proliferative capacity of hybrid cells between normal cell and immortal ...
Amatore Christian - - 2007
In chromaffin cells, the exocytosis of neuromediators involves the fusion between a secretory vesicle and the cell membrane. Many techniques based on electrophysiology, electrochemistry and fluorescence microscopy allow the study of such a complex process at active zones of single immobilized cells. These techniques can provide an effective analysis either ...
Zheng Feng - - 2007
The Hantaan virus (HTNV) is an enveloped virus that is capable of inducing low pH-dependent cell fusion. We molecularly cloned the viral glycoprotein (GP) and nucleocapsid (NP) cDNA of HTNV and expressed them in Vero E6 cells under the control of a CMV promoter. The viral gene expression was assessed ...
Evseenko D A - - 2007
Trophoblast cells undergo loss of plasma membrane lipid asymmetry during cell fusion without further progression to terminal phases of apoptosis. The nature of the anti-apoptotic mechanisms providing cell survival during this process is unknown. Using a BeWo cell model, we explored the role of the xenobiotic/lipid transporter ABCG2 in promoting ...
Heiman Maxwell G - - 2007
The molecular machines that mediate cell fusion are unknown. Previously, we identified a multispanning transmembrane protein, Prm1 (pheromone-regulated membrane protein 1), that acts during yeast mating (Heiman, M.G., and P. Walter. 2000. J. Cell Biol. 151:719-730). Without Prm1, a substantial fraction of mating pairs arrest with their plasma membranes tightly ...
Schaper, Janina
Cellular immunotherapy of cancer is a hot topic ever since the discovery that the immune system is capable of recognising tumour cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the professional antigen presenting cells that are best suited for cell-based immunotherapy and therefore ex vivo generated DC cancer vaccines are currently applied in ...
Gong Rui - - 2007
Syncytin-A, a new mouse endogenous retroviral envelope protein expressed in placenta, can mediate cell fusion in vitro. But its physiological function was still unknown. We proposed a role for syncytin-A in syncytiotrophoblast (SynT) formation derived from the differentiation of trophoblast stem (TS) cells during placental development. To evaluate this hypothesis, ...
Bai Li - - 2007
Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation is central to glucose homeostasis. Functional assays to distinguish individual steps in the GLUT4 translocation process are lacking, thus limiting progress toward elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we have developed a robust method, which relies on dynamic tracking of single GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) in ...
Collas P - - 2007
Reprogramming of a differentiated cell into a cell capable of giving rise to many different cell types, a pluripotent cell, which in turn could repopulate or repair sick or damaged tissue, would present beneficial applications in regenerative medicine. Somatic cell nuclear transfer may offer this possibility, but technical hurdles and ...
Ducibella Tom - - 2007
Recent studies demonstrate that regulated secretion in probably all mammalian cells, from gonadotropes to gametes, utilizes similar signaling systems, intracellular Ca(2+) regulation, Ca(2+)-dependent proteins, cytoskeletal participation, and SNARE-mediated fusion. Thus, highly specialized cells, like sperm and eggs, should no longer be considered to have evolved a cell-type specific secretory mechanism. ...
Huckriede Anke - - 2007
RNA interference is expected to have considerable potential for the development of novel specific therapeutic strategies. However, successful application of RNA interference in vivo will depend on the availability of efficient delivery systems for the introduction of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) into the appropriate target cells. This paper focuses on the ...
Yamakawa Izumi - - 2007
When K562 cells were infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or human parainfluenza type 2 virus (hPIV-2), polykaryocyte formation could not be detected. Failure of multinucleated giant cell formation in K562 cells infected with either NDV or hPIV-2 is due to disturbance of the viral envelope-cell fusion step or to ...
Gur Ilan - - 2006
This work presents a technique to create ordered and easily characterized hybrid nanocrystal-polymer composites by sequential deposition of tetrapod-shaped cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystals and poly(3-hexlythiophene). With controlled fabrication and composite morphology, these devices offer several advantages over traditional co-deposited hybrid cells and provide a model system for detailed investigation into ...
Jessberger Sebastian - - 2007
Multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) can be isolated from various regions of the adult brain and propagated in vitro. Recent reports have suggested spontaneous fusion events among NSCs when grown as free-floating neurospheres that may affect the genetic composition of NSC cultures. We used adult NSCs expressing either red fluorescent ...
Olszanecki R - - 2006
Production of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites - prostacyclin (PGI(2)) in large vessels and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in microcirculation is intrinsically involved in maintenance of vascular wall homeostasis. EA.hy 926 is a hybrid cell line, is derived by fusion of HUVEC with A549 cells. The aim of this study was to ...
Petit Chad M - - 2007
The SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the etiological agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein mediates membrane fusion events during virus entry and virus-induced cell-to-cell fusion. The cytoplasmic portion of the S glycoprotein contains four cysteine-rich amino acid clusters. Individual cysteine clusters were altered via cysteine-to-alanine ...
Strick Reiner - - 2007
Endometrial carcinomas (EnCa) predominantly represent a steroid hormone-driven tumor initiated from prestages. The human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W envelope gene Syncytin-1 was significantly increased at the mRNA and protein levels in EnCa and prestages compared to controls. Steroid hormone treatment of primary EnCa cells and cell lines induced Syncytin-1 due to ...
Haagensen Janus A J - - 2007
During Pseudomonas aeruginosa flow cell biofilm development, the cell population differentiates into a nonmotile subpopulation which forms microcolonies and a migrating subpopulation which eventually colonizes the top of the microcolonies, resulting in the development of mushroom-shaped multicellular structures. The cap-forming subpopulation was found to develop tolerance to membrane-targeting antimicrobial agents, ...
López-Balderas N - - 2007
Syncytia formation in HIV infections is driven by the virus fusion-active molecules (Env) interacting with membrane components of hosts cells. HIV-syncytia are usually interpreted as pathogenic entities and although they may potentially vary in size, numbers and types of constituent cells, little is known about the extent and significance of ...
Podbilewicz Benjamin - - 2006
During cell-cell fusion, two cells' plasma membranes merge, allowing the cytoplasms to mix and form a syncytium. Little is known about the mechanisms of cell fusion. Here, we asked whether eff-1, shown previously to be essential for fusion in Caenorhabditis elegans, acts directly in the fusion machinery. We show that ...
Kreth Jens - - 2006
Streptococcus mutans is a major cariogenic inhabitant of the high cell density oral biofilm (dental plaque). In previous studies, we showed that production of one of its virulence factors, the bacteriocin mutacin IV, was regulated by high cell density as well as the competence regulatory system ComED. In this study, ...
Gianni Tatiana - - 2006
Four glycoproteins (gD, gB, gH, and gL) are required for herpes simplex virus entry into the cell or for cell-cell fusion in transfected cells. gD serves as the receptor-binding glycoprotein and as the trigger of fusion; the other three execute fusion between the viral envelope and the plasma and endocytic ...
Lee Jeong H - - 2006
Enveloped viruses contain surface proteins that mediate fusion between the viral and target cell membranes following an activating stimulus. Acidic pH induces the influenza virus fusion protein hemagglutinin (HA) via irreversible refolding of a trimeric conformational state leading to exposure of hydrophobic fusion peptides on each trimer subunit. Herein, we ...
Dudas Marek - - 2007
Formation of the palate, the organ that separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity, is a developmental process characteristic to embryos of higher vertebrates. Failure in this process results in palatal cleft. During the final steps of palatogenesis, two palatal shelves outgrowing from the sides of the embryonic oronasal ...
Choi Jaebok - - 2006
The fusion of the Caenorhabditis elegans uterine anchor cell (AC) with the uterine-seam cell (utse) is an excellent model system for studying cell-cell fusion, which is essential to animal development. We obtained an egg-laying defective (Egl) mutant in which the AC fails to fuse with the utse. This defect is ...
Filone Claire Marie - - 2006
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the Phlebovirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family, is transmitted by mosquitoes and infects both humans and domestic animals, particularly cattle and sheep. Since primary RVFV strains must be handled in BSL-3+ or BSL-4 facilities, a RVFV cell-cell fusion assay will facilitate the ...
Huerta Leonor - - 2006
Expression of fusion proteins in the plasma membrane enables cells to bind and fuse with surrounding cells to form syncytia. Cell fusion can have important functional outcomes for the interacting cells, as syncytia formation does in AIDS pathogenesis. Studies on cell fusion would be facilitated by a quantitative method able ...
Jin Jiu-Zhen - - 2006
Malformations in secondary palate fusion will lead to cleft palate, a common human birth defect. Palate fusion involves the formation and subsequent degeneration of the medial edge epithelial seam. The cellular mechanisms underlying seam degeneration have been a major focus in the study of palatogenesis. Three mechanisms have been proposed ...
Kaleeba Johnan A R - - 2006
The molecular mechanism of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus 8) entry is poorly understood. We tested a broad variety of cell types of diverse species and tissue origin for their ability to function as targets in a quantitative reporter gene assay for KSHV-glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion. Several human, non-human primate, ...
Even Deborah L - - 2006
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) spreads from an infected cell to an uninfected cell by virus entry, virus-induced cell fusion, and cell-cell spread. The three forms of virus spread require the viral proteins gB, gD, and gH-gL, as well as a cellular gD receptor. The mutual requirement for the ...
Pérez-Pomares José M - - 2006
Throughout embryonic development, segregated epithelial and/or mesenchymal cell populations make contact and fuse to shape new tissue units. This process, known as tissue fusion, is a key event in many essential morphogenetic mechanisms and its disruption can lead to congenital malformations. Another mechanism whereby complex tissues can arise involves a ...
Sha YongGang - - 2006
SARS-CoV spike (S) protein-mediated cell fusion is important for the viral entry mechanism and identification of SARS-CoV entry inhibitors. In order to avoid the high risks involved in handling SARS-CoV and to facilitate the study of viral fusion mechanism, we established the cell lines: SR-COS7 cells that stably express both ...
Tanino Takanori - - 2006
A Pichia pastoris cell-surface display system was constructed using a Flo1p anchor system, which was developed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The lipase from Rhizopus oryzae with a pro sequence (ProROL) was used as the model protein and was genetically fused to the anchor consisting of amino acids 1-1099 of Flo1p (FS ...
Chen Su Hong - - 2006
The two sperm cells of Torenia fournieri are dimorphic. The dimorphic character suggests that they might be preferentially involved in fertilization during in vivo fusion with the egg cell and central cell. To probe the mechanism of preferential fertilization, it is necessary to use the most current molecular techniques. For ...
Sukhorukov Vladimir L - - 2006
Electrofusion of tumour and dendritic cells (DCs) is a promising approach for production of DC-based anti-tumour vaccines. Although human DCs are well characterised immunologically, little is known about their biophysical properties, including dielectric and osmotic parameters, both of which are essential for the development of efficient electrofusion protocols. In the ...
Nagamine Takeaki - - 2006
We evaluated the changes of metallothionein induction and cellular zinc distribution in HepG2 cells by interferonbeta treatment. Immunohistochemical staining of metallothionein was observed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of hepatocytes; which was observed predominantly in the cells treated with interferon and zinc compared to those with zinc alone, interferon alone ...
Kim In-Wook - - 2006
Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) is one of the transcriptional factors for the activation of type I Interferon (IFN) genes. It is known that IRF7 and the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are highly expressed in EBV type III latency cells, and LMP1 induces mRNA expression ...
Qiu Zhaozhu - - 2006
Most strains of murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) express a cleavable spike glycoprotein that mediates viral entry and pH-independent cell-cell fusion. The MHV type 2 (MHV-2) strain of murine coronavirus differs from other strains in that it expresses an uncleaved spike and cannot induce cell-cell fusion at neutral pH ...
Ishii Masaru - - 2006
We showed that CD9, a member of tetraspanin superfamily proteins, is expressed in a specific membrane microdomain, called "lipid raft," and is crucial for cell fusion during osteoclastogenesis after activation of the RANK/RANKL system. INTRODUCTION: Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing multinuclear polykaryons that are essential for bone remodeling and are formed through ...
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