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Fleissner André - - 2009
Cell-cell communication is essential for coordinating physiological responses in multicellular organisms and is required for various developmental processes, including cell migration, differentiation, and fusion. To facilitate communication, functional differences are usually required between interacting cells, which can be established either genetically or developmentally. However, genetically identical cells in the same ...
Sumer Huseyin - - 2009
Following fusion, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are capable of reprogramming somatic cells in cell hybrids. It has also been shown that transcriptional changes can occur in a heterokaryon, without nuclear hybridization. However, it is unclear whether these changes can be sustained after the removal of the dominant nucleus. In this ...
Pal'tsyn A A - - 2009
The prefrontal (cognitive) cerebral cortex of rats was studied by morphological and physiological methods 56 days after stroke induced by photothrombosis. The cognitive capacity impaired after the intervention was completely restored by this time. The count of fused cells (dikaryons) increased significantly in experimental and sham-operated (control) animals in comparison ...
Do Jeong Tae JT CHA Stem Cell Institute, CHA University, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-081, Korea. - - 2009
The fusion of somatic cells with pluripotent cells results in the generation of pluripotent hybrid cells. Because the ;memory' of somatic cells seems to be erased during fusion-induced reprogramming, genetic reprogramming is thought to be a largely unidirectional process. Here we show that fusion-induced reprogramming, which brings about the formation ...
Dong Bo - - 2009
Autophagy is a vacuolar/lysosomal cytoplasmic recycling system in eukaryotic cells. ScATG9 is indispensable for autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we deleted MgATG9, the orthologue of ScATG9, via targeted gene replacement in the phytopathogenic filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, and then analyzed the cellular distribution pattern of EGFP-MgAtg9 in the Mgatg9Delta mutant. ...
Bentley Katie - - 2009
Vascular abnormalities contribute to many diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. In angiogenesis new blood vessels, headed by a migrating tip cell, sprout from pre-existing vessels in response to signals, e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Tip cells meet and fuse (anastomosis) to form blood-flow supporting loops. Tip cell ...
Tiwari Vaibhav V Department of Ophthalmology, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612, - - 2009
Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins-induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: (1) a ...
O'Donnell Christopher D - - 2009
Despite the important contribution of cell-cell fusion in the development and physiology of eukaryotes, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate this process. Our study shows that glycosaminoglycans and more specifically heparan sulfate (HS) expressed on the cell surface and extracellular matrix may act as negative regulator of cell-cell ...
Hu Lulin L Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73126, - - 2009
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped DNA virus with an approximately 8000 base pair genome. Infection with certain types of HPV is associated with cervical cancer, although the molecular mechanism by which HPV induces carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Three genes encoded by HPV16 are regarded as oncogenic - E5, E6, ...
Kaya Cevdet - - 2010
Splenogonadal fusion is a rare congenital malformation characterized by intrauterine fusion of the spleen and gonad. We present a 13-year-old boy referred to our clinic, with left scrotal mass and impalpable testis on the right. The scrotal mass was diagnosed histologically as discontinuous-type splenogonadal fusion and intra-abdominal displaced right testis ...
Mattioli M - - 2009
The research has been designed to investigate whether acrosome-reacted spermatozoa can fuse with somatic cells and to check whether this event may involve the molecular machinery implicated in the sperm-egg fusion. Boar spermatozoa were capacitated in vitro and then treated with A23187 to induce acrosome reaction and activate their fusogenic ...
Dupressoir Anne - - 2009
In most mammalian species, a key process of placenta development is the fusion of trophoblast cells into a highly specialized, multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast layer, through which most of the maternofetal exchanges take place. Little is known about this process, despite the recent identification of 2 pairs of envelope genes of retroviral ...
Hancock Meaghan H - - 2009
Herpes simplex virus VP16 and ICP0 mutants replicate efficiently in U2OS osteosarcoma cells but are restricted in other cell types. We previously showed that the restrictive phenotype is dominant in a transient cell fusion assay, suggesting that U2OS cells lack an antiviral mechanism present in other cells. Recent data indicate ...
Gabrijel Mateja - - 2009
Late endocytic compartments, containing MHC class II molecules in antigen presenting cells, fuse to each other in order to deliver antigens to these molecules. We have shown previously that fusion of late endocytic compartments takes place also in hybridomas. Therefore, we investigate here whether the level of fused late endocytic ...
Nilforoushan Dorrin - - 2009
Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone resorbing cells which form by fusion of pre-osteoclasts. Here, we investigate how nitric oxide (NO) affects osteoclastogenesis. Time lapse photomicrography, using the fluorescent NO indicator dye, 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate, revealed an intense NO signal in pre-osteoclasts preceding cell fusion. Osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells increased when exposed to ...
Li Gong Chu - - 2009
Altered glycosylation may be a hallmark of malignant transformation and cancer progression. In the work described, a specific mannose-binding lectin, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA), was genetically fused with the extracellular domain of coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) to generate the soluble CAR (sCAR)-PPA fusion protein. The adenoviral transduction of acute myeloid leukemia ...
Bader Marie-France - - 2009
Membrane fusion remains one of the less well-understood processes in cell biology. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to explain how the generation of fusogenic lipids at sites of exocytosis facilitates secretion in mammalian cells. Over the last decade, chromaffin cells have served as an important cellular model to ...
Mori Yasuko - - 2009
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a T lymphotropic herpes virus that is categorized into two variants, A (HHV-6A) and B (HHV-6B), on the basis of distinct genetic, immunological and biological characteristics. HHV-6 uses human CD46 as a cellular receptor. Without viral replication, HHV-6A induces cell-cell fusion between cells expressing human ...
Sorem Jessica J Department of Microbiology, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2009
Glycoprotein B (gB) homologues within the herpesvirus family display high sequence conservation, and a number of gB homologues contain a cleavage motif R-X-K/R-R recognized by the cellular protease furin. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gB contains this motif and cleaved gB is found in EBV virions. To determine the functional significance of ...
Palermo Adam A Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Stem Cell Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, 269 Campus Dr., Stanford, CA 94305-5175, - - 2009
An understanding of nuclear reprogramming is fundamental to the use of cells in regenerative medicine. Due to technological obstacles, the time course and extent of reprogramming of cells following fusion has not been assessed to date. Here, we show that hundreds of genes are activated or repressed within hours of ...
Skelley Alison M AM Research Laboratory of Electronics, 50 Vassar Street, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, - - 2009
Cell fusion has been used for many different purposes, including generation of hybridomas and reprogramming of somatic cells. The fusion step is the key event in initiation of these procedures. Standard fusion techniques, however, provide poor and random cell contact, leading to low yields. We present here a microfluidic device ...
Liu X L - - 2009
Rubella virus (RUBV) infects cells via an acid-triggered membrane fusion process. RUBV virions contain two cysteine-rich glycoproteins, E2 and E1. The latter is believed to be involved in the membrane fusion. Using a recombinant plasmid containing RUBV E1 and E2, 11 of total 20 cysteines present in the ectodomain of ...
Xu D - - 2009
Controversy surrounds issue of cell fusion as a repair mechanism whereby stem cells regenerate. To identify the ratio of fusion happens between stem cells and damaged cells, hepatic cells were damaged with 200microM H2O2 for 2 hr. Then, mouse ESCs were cocultured with damaged human hepatocytes. Fusion was detected directly ...
Ma Guo-Feng - - 2009
The aim of the study was to investigate expression of ADAMs (A Disintegrin and A Metalloproteinase) of host cell origin during cell-cell fusion induced by human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2). Induction of host cell ADAM9 was observed in GMK cells, but the applicability of this model was restricted by ...
Yamada Yoshiyuki - - 2009
Coronavirus host and cell specificities are determined by specific interactions between the viral spike (S) protein and host cell receptor(s). Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis (IBV) has been adapted to embryonated chicken eggs, primary chicken kidney (CK) cells, monkey kidney cell line Vero, and other human and animal cells. Here we ...
Davies Paige S PS Department of Dermatology, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Stem Cell Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States of - - 2009
Cell fusion between circulating bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and non-hematopoietic cells is well documented in various tissues and has recently been suggested to occur in response to injury. Here we illustrate that inflammation within the intestine enhanced the level of BMDC fusion with intestinal progenitors. To identify important microenvironmental factors ...
Gurdon J B - - 2008
Nuclear reprogramming describes a switch in gene expression of one kind of cell to that of another unrelated cell type. Early studies in frog cloning provided some of the first experimental evidence for reprogramming. Subsequent procedures included mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, induction of pluripotency by ectopic gene ...
Fleissner André - - 2009
Cell-cell fusion is essential for a variety of developmental steps in many eukaryotic organisms, during both fertilization and vegetative cell growth. Although the molecular mechanisms associated with intracellular membrane fusion are well characterized, the molecular mechanisms of plasma membrane merger between cells are poorly understood. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora ...
Niu Chi-Chien - - 2009
Spontaneous cell fusion can occur in cocultured stem cells. We examined whether telomerase activity change and cell fusion occurred in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and nucleus pulposus cell (NPC) coculture. MSCs and NPCs were labeled with PKH26 and PKH67 dyes and cocultured at a 50:50 ratio. An equal number of ...
Nakamura Toshinobu - - 2008
Reprogramming of the epigenetic state from differentiated to pluripotent cells can be attained by cell fusion of differentiated somatic cells with embryonic stem (ES) cells or transfer of the nucleus of a differentiated cell into an enucleated oocyte. Activation of Akt signaling is sufficient to maintain pluripotency of ES cells ...
Flobakk Morten - - 2008
Targeting of T cell epitopes to APC enhances T cell responses. We used an APC-specific Ab (anti-IgD) and substituted either of 18 loops connecting beta strands in human IgG constant H (C(H)) domains with a characterized T cell peptide epitope. All Ab-epitope fusion molecules were secreted from producing cells except ...
Rothe Romy - - 2008
The recent development of peptide carriers for efficient and specific delivery of biologically active molecules into mammalian cells represents a major advance in the study of both normal and uncontrolled cell growth. In the past few years, this technology has been successfully applied to the delivery of therapeutic molecules in ...
Kazama Tomohiko - - 2008
We have previously reported the establishment of preadipocyte cell lines, termed dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells, from mature adipocytes of various animals. DFAT cells possess long-term viability and can redifferentiate into adipocytes both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, DFAT cells can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts and chondrocytes under appropriate culture conditions. ...
Han, Dong-Sheng
An effective method for producing doubled haploid plants of the Asiatic hybrid lily 'Connecticut King' was established with an in vitro colchicine treatment of haploid calli. With an increase in the concentration and duration of colchicine treatment for the haploid calli, both the survival rate and the shoot regeneration from ...
Majka S M - - 2008
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease associated with severe remodeling of the large and small pulmonary arteries. Increased accumulation of inflammatory cells and apoptosis-resistant cells are contributing factors. Proliferative apoptosis-resistant cells expressing CD133 are increased in the circulation of PAH patients. Circulating cells can contribute to tissue repair ...
Richard Jean-Philippe - - 2009
Little is known about the mechanisms of cell-cell fusion in development and diseases and, especially, about fusion stages downstream of an opening of nascent fusion pore(s). Earlier works on different cell-cell fusion reactions have indicated that cytoskeleton plays important role in syncytium formation. However, due to complexity of these reactions ...
Vanarsdall Adam L - - 2008
Herpesviruses use a cascade of interactions with different cell surface molecules to gain entry into cells. In many cases, this involves binding to abundant glycosaminoglycans or integrins followed by interactions with more limited cell surface proteins, leading to fusion with cellular membranes. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has the ability to infect ...
Henry, Michael
This proposal had two overall objectives: 1) Determine the frequency of breast cancer cell X host cell fusion events in experimental tumors; and 2) Measure the metastatic capacity of cells derived from fusion events. We engineered murine mammary carcinoma cells with a reporter construct in which fluorescent protein (mCherry) expression ...
Jackson Wesley M - - 2008
Osteoblasts respond to shear stress by simultaneously increasing their whole-cell stiffness and up-regulating the cytoskeletal crosslinking protein alpha-actinin. The stiffness of reconstituted cytoskeletal networks increases following the addition of alpha-actinin, but the effect of alpha-actinin on whole-cell mechanical behavior has not been investigated. The hypothesis of this study was that ...
Bennett Nelly - - 2008
Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor Attachment protein Receptors (SNAREs) participate in the specificity of membrane fusions in the cell. The mechanisms of specific SNARE sorting are still however poorly documented. We investigated the possible role of Adaptor Protein (AP) complexes in sorting of the Dictyostelium discoideum v-SNARE VAMP7. In live cells, GFP-VAMP7 is ...
Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A.
Surgery of the spine to fuse the vertebral bones is one of the most commonly performed operations with an estimated 350,000 Americans undergoing this surgery annually with estimated costs of $60 billion. Current procedures are highly invasive with limited success. The goal of this study is to develop a safe ...
Huh Yun Suk - - 2008
An active micromixer system utilizing the magnetic force was developed and examined for its ability to facilitate the mixing of more than two fluid flows. The mixing performance of the active micromixer was evaluated in aqueous-aqueous systems including dyes for visual observation. A complete analytical microfluidic system was developed by ...
Atreya Krishan B - - 2008
During insect myogenesis, myoblasts are organized into a pre-pattern by specialized organizer cells. In the Drosophila embryo, these cells have been termed founder cells and play important roles in specifying muscle identity and in serving as targets for myoblast fusion. A group of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal (flight) muscles, ...
Tsurudome Masato - - 2008
The monoclonal antibody M1-1A, specific for the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of human parainfluenza type 2 virus (HPIV2), blocks virus-induced cell-cell fusion without affecting the hemagglutinating and neuraminidase activities. F13 is a neutralization escape variant selected with M1-1A and contains amino acid mutations N83Y and M186I in the HN protein, with ...
Tsutsui Motomu - - 2008
Microprocessor, the complex of Drosha and DGCR8, promotes the processing of primary microRNA to precursor microRNA, which is a crucial step for microRNA maturation. So far, no convenient assay systems have been developed for observing this step in vivo. Here we report the establishment of highly sensitive cellular systems where ...
Kidder Benjamin L - - 2008
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are capable of differentiating into all embryonic and adult cell types following mouse chimera production. Although injection of diploid ES cells into tetraploid blastocysts suggests that tetraploid cells have a selective disadvantage in the developing embryo, tetraploid hybrid cells, formed by cell fusion between ES cells ...
Ganta Chanran - - 2008
Polyethylene glycol-polyethylenimine (PEG-PEI) nanogels have been used to deliver nucleic acids and oligonucleotides into cells. First, we synthesized PEG-PEI nanogels with methylene proton ratios (CH2O:CH2N) in PEG-PEI ranging from approximately 6.8:1 to 4:1 and less, as shown by 1H NMR spectra. We first synthesized various nanogels with varying ratios of ...
O'Connor Roddy S RS Emory University, Department of Pharmacology, 1510 Clifton Rd, Room 5027, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2008
Myoblast fusion is essential for muscle development, postnatal growth and muscle repair after injury. Recent studies have demonstrated roles for actin polymerization during myoblast fusion. Dynamic cytoskeletal assemblies directing cell-cell contact, membrane coalescence and ultimately fusion require substantial cellular energy demands. Various energy generating systems exist in cells but the ...
Seed Brian - - 2008
Extensive alterations in cellular organization are known to accompany the responses of sensitized T cells to target cells presenting an antigen of interest. Now, equally if not more dramatic changes are found to take place in cells presenting an antigen. With the help of a spinophilin-GFP fusion protein, Bloom et ...
Malinowsky Katharina - - 2008
The cytoplasmic tail of the HIV transmembrane protein plays an important role in viral infection. In this study we analyzed the role of retroviral cytoplasmic tails in modulating the cytoskeleton and interfering with virus-cell fusion. HeLaP4 cells expressing different HIV cytoplasmic tail constructs showed reduced acetylated tubulin levels whereas the ...
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