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Ye Xiu-Lin - - 2002
Fertilization in flowering plants involves the fusion of one sperm with the egg cell and a second sperm with the central cell. In the Nun orchid, Phaius tankervilliae (Aiton) Bl., the pollen tube deposits two sperms in the "cytoplasmic mass" of the degenerating synergid. Initially both sperms stay close together. ...
Breinig F - - 2002
Fusion proteins for cell surface expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were constructed that consisted of the N-terminal leader sequence of Kre1p, followed by the nine amino acid viral epitope hemagglutinin (HA), and the carboxyterminal anchoring domain of either Cwp2p or Flo1p. All fusions were constitutively expressed under transcriptional control ...
Hercík K - - 2002
A new in situ hybridization technique was developed for identification of Bartonella henselae cells in cell suspension or in tissue sections. Use of highly specific probes labeled with either fluorescein or digoxigenin allows discrimination between B. henselae and closely related B. quintana cells. No cross-hybridization with other Bartonella or non-Bartonella ...
Desjardins A - - 2002
Previous work demonstrated that fluid liposomes developed in our laboratory are able to fuse with bacterial outer membranes. This fusion improved the penetration and activity of liposome-encapsulated antibiotics and antisense oligonucleotides into the bacterial cells. Because it is anticipated that fluid liposome encapsulated antibiotics will be administered by aerosols to ...
Hanaka Hiromi - - 2002
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolizes arachidonic acid to leukotriene A4, a key intermediate in leukotriene biosynthesis. To explore the molecular mechanisms of its cell-specific localization, a fusion protein between green fluorescent protein (GFP) and human 5-LO (GFP-5LO) was expressed in various cells. GFP-5LO was localized in the cytosol in HL-60 cells and ...
Huerta Leonor - - 2002
BACKGROUND: In vitro fusion of transfected cells expressing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope proteins gp120/gp41, with target cells expressing CD4, and a suitable chemokine coreceptor is used widely to investigate the mechanisms of molecular recognition and membrane fusion involved in the entry of the HIV genome into cells and ...
Saeed, A. M.
The present study examined the efficiency of different electrofusion treatments (A, B and C), in terms of fusion and lysis rates when fibroblasts or cumulus cells were used as nuclear donors. Regardless of nuclear donor cell used, treatment B (a pulse of 2.8 kVcm' for 60 usec, applied three times ...
Ama Masako - - 2002
Fused Ehlrich ascites tumor (EAT) cells induced by hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ; Sendai virus) had an irregular shape, reflecting the shape of cell aggregates before fusion. During subsequent culture, the fused cells gradually took on a spherical form within 60 min. Examination of the fused cells revealed a vigorous ...
Klapper Robert - - 2002
The visceral musculature of the Drosophila midgut consists of an inner layer of circular and an outer layer of longitudinal muscles. Here, we show that the circular muscles are organised as binucleate syncytia that persist through metamorphosis. At stage 11, prior to the onset of the fusion processes, we detected ...
Sodek Jaro - - 2002
Osteopontin (OPN) and osteonectin/SPARC (ON/SPARC) are prominent matricellular components of the extracellular matrix of mineralized tissues of bones and teeth in which they can regulate the formation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals and influence a variety of cell activities. OPN regulates cell responses through several integrin receptors and is also ...
Pells Steve - - 2002
Primary mouse brain cells were cultured with HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase)-deficient ES (embryonic stem) cells to see if the ES cells could provide cues sufficient to reprogram a pluripotential state. After 5 days of coculture, HPRT-deficient ES cells were killed by selection in HAT (hypoxanthine, aminopterin, thymidine) medium. We observed ...
Cans A S - - 2001
The quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation technique (QCM-D) is used in two different measurement strategies to monitor the mass change and rigidity of populations of excitable cells during exocytosis and subsequent retrieval of dense-core vesicles. Two cell lines, NG 108-15 and PC 12, were grown to confluence on piezoelectric quartz crystals and ...
Mastrobattista E - - 2001
Reconstituted influenza virus envelopes (virosomes) containing the viral hemagglutinin (HA) have attracted attention as delivery vesicles for cytosolic drug delivery as they possess membrane fusion activity. Here, we show that influenza virosomes can be targeted towards ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR-3) with preservation of fusion activity. This was achieved by incorporating ...
Derer Wolfgana - - 2002
During terminal differentiation, skeletal muscle cells permanently retract from the cell cycle. We and others have shown previously that this cell cycle withdrawal is an actively maintained state that can be reversed by transient expression of the SV40 large T antigen. In an attempt to avoid the hazards of gene ...
Bossart K N - - 2001
Hendra virus (HeV) is an emerging paramyxovirus first isolated from cases of severe respiratory disease that fatally affected both horses and humans. Understanding the mechanisms of host cell infection and cross-species transmission is an important step in addressing the risk posed by such emerging pathogens. We have initiated studies to ...
Piao C Q - - 2001
Although asbestos is carcinogenic to humans, the mechanism(s) by which it induces cancer is unknown. Using tumor cell lines generated previously by asbestos treatment of immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells, we examined alterations in p16 and p21(Cip1) genes together with their protein levels. Results were compared with untreated BEP2D ...
Finnegan C M - - 2001
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) fusion and entry involves sequential interactions between the viral envelope protein, gp120, cell surface CD4, and a G-protein-coupled coreceptor. Each interaction creates an intermediate gp120 structure predicted to display distinct antigenic features, including key functional domains for viral entry. In this study, we examined the disposition ...
Brazill D T - - 2001
In Dictyostelium, the RtoA protein links both initial cell-type choice and physiological state to cell-cycle phase. rtoA- cells (containing a disruption of the rtoA gene) generally do not develop past the mound stage, and have an abnormal ratio of prestalk and prespore cells. RtoA is also involved in fusion of ...
Brighty D W - - 2001
Entry of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) into cells is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins gp46 and gp21. The gp46 surface glycoprotein binds to a poorly characterized cell surface receptor, thereby promoting the gp21-dependent fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. Interestingly, a synthetic peptide (P-197) simulating ...
Estepa A M - - 2001
The fusion-related properties of segments p9, p3, p4, and p9 + p2 surrounding the p2 phospholipid-binding domain of the protein G (pG) of the salmonid rhabdovirus of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) (Nuñez, E., Fernandez, A. M., Estepa, A., Gonzalez-Ros, J. M., Gavilanes, F., and Coll, J. M. (1998) Virology 243, ...
Schreiber S - - 2001
Studies on fusion between cell pairs have provided evidence that opening and subsequent dilation of a fusion pore are stochastic events. Therefore, adequate modeling of fusion pore formation requires a stochastic approach. Here we present stochastic simulations of hemagglutinin (HA)-mediated fusion pore formation between HA-expressing cells and erythrocytes based on ...
Foster T P - - 2001
Previous studies from our laboratory indicated that a 28-amino-acid carboxyl-terminal truncation of gB caused extensive virus-induced cell fusion (Baghian et al., 1993, J Virol 67, 2396-2401). We tested the ability of additional truncations and mutations within gB to cause cell fusion in the recently established virus-free cell fusion assay (Turner ...
Koh K - - 2001
The C. elegans epidermis is a simple epithelium comprised of three major cell types, the seam, syncytial and P cells. While specification of all major epidermal cells is known to require the ELT-1 GATA transcription factor, little is known about how the individual epidermal cell types are specified. We report ...
Frendo J L - - 2001
The syncytiotrophoblast is the major component of the human placenta, involved in feto-maternal exchanges and secretion of pregnancy-specific hormones. Multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast arises from fusion of mononuclear cytotrophoblast cells. In trisomy 21-affected placentas, we recently have shown that there is a defect in syncytiotrophoblast formation and a decrease in the production ...
Brown A J - - 2001
Finding a compatible mating partner is an essential step in the life cycle of most sexually reproducing organisms. Fungi have two or more mating types, and only cells of different mating type combine to produce diploid cells. In mushrooms, this is taken to extremes, with the occurrence of many thousands ...
Velloso C P - - 2001
Cell cycle reentry and dedifferentiation of postmitotic cells are important aspects of the ability of an adult newt and other urodele amphibians to regenerate various tissues and appendages [1]. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts, newt A1 myotubes are able to reenter S phase after serum stimulation of a pathway ...
Huang M C - - 2001
A fusion construct for the human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme system termed F2 (H(2)N-P450scc-adrenodoxin reductase-adrenodoxin-COOH), was stably expressed in nonsteroidogenic COS-1 cells. Multiple clones were obtained and analyzed, identifying the clone COS-F2-130 as the most active in converting 22R-hydroxycholesterol (22R-OH-C) to pregnenolone. The F2 fusion construct was properly transcribed and ...
Bergmann D C - - 2001
Exquisitely regulated trafficking and fusion of vesicles is crucial for proper cell function. The molecules that regulate vesicle fusion are highly conserved among eukaryotes, but they have also undergone expansion and specialization within single genomes. With diversity comes the potential for functions in unique cell processes, and recent work in ...
Kruisbeek A M - - 2001
T cell hybridomas can be obtained by fusing activated T cells with tumor cells. A heterogeneous population of hybridomas can be cloned by limiting dilution to obtain hybridomas that express specificity to one T cell receptor (TCR). This unit describes cell fusion and selection of T cell hybridomas. A protocol ...
Fuller S A - - 2001
To maximize the yield of hybrids from fusion and cloning procedures, feeder cells are required to be cocultured with the hybrids, while hybrid cell density is low. Mouse peritoneal cells, most of which are macrophages, have been found to be convenient and effective feeder cells which are a source of ...
Re D - - 2001
The mechanism of multinucleated cell formation in Hodgkin's disease has not yet been elucidated. We asked whether the giant multinucleated cells of the H-RS cell line L1236 develop via fusion of the predominant smaller cells. As a positive control for the fusion assay, human B cells from the B-cell lymphoma ...
Alper S - - 2001
Hox genes control the choice of cell fates along the anteroposterior (AP) body axis of many organisms. In C. elegans, two Hox genes, lin-39 and mab-5, control the cell fusion decision of the 12 ventrally located Pn.p cells. Specific Pn.p cells fuse with an epidermal syncytium, hyp7, in a sexually ...
Fuller S A - - 2001
In this unit, myeloma cells are cultured to ensure their sensitivity to the HAT selection medium used after cell fusion. Cell culture conditions are adjusted such that the Sp2/0 cells are in the log phase of growth and exhibit high viability at the time of collection for fusion. A support ...
Cole E S - - 2001
Electric shock can create parabiotic fusions of living Tetrahymena cells. In this study, cells were mated and successful pairs were electrofused with either vegetatively growing cells or other mating pairs. In particular, we electrofused pairs from normal [diploid x diploid] matings with vegetatively dividing cells in G- or M-phase of ...
Marsh T C - - 2001
Rad51p, the eukaryotic homolog of the prokaryotic recA protein, catalyzes strand exchange between single- and double-stranded DNA and is involved in both genetic recombination and double-strand break repair in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. We have previously shown that disruption of the Tetrahymena RAD51 somatic macronuclear locus leads to defective germline ...
Parnaud G - - 2001
Polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000) is a potent cancer chemopreventive agent. This osmotic laxative polymer markedly suppresses colon cancer in rats. To explain the mechanism, we have tested the in vitro effect of PEG on four human cell lines. Two poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma lines (HT29 and COLO205), a fetal mucosa line ...
Rupper A C - - 2001
The Dictyostelium p110-related PI 3-kinases, PIK1 and PIK2, regulate the endosomal pathway and the actin cytoskeleton, but do not significantly regulate internalization of particles in D. discoideum. Bacteria internalized into delta ddpik1/ddpik2 cells or cells treated with PI 3-kinase inhibitors remained intact as single particles in phagosomes with closely associated ...
Terry-Allison T - - 2001
Two cell surface proteins (nectin-1/HveC and nectin-2/HveB) shown previously to serve as receptors for the entry of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) wild-type and/or mutant strains were found to serve also as receptors for HSV-1-induced cell fusion. Transfection with genomic DNA from a syncytial HSV-1 strain encoding wild-type gD resulted ...
da Cruz M T - - 2001
We investigated the mode of interaction of lipoplexes (DOTAP:DOPE/DNA) with HeLa cells, focusing on the analysis of the initial steps involved in the process of gene delivery. We evaluated the effect of different factors, namely the stoichiometry of cationic lipids and DNA, the presence of serum in the cell culture ...
Hirayama E - - 2001
In skeletal myogenic differentiation, myoblasts fuse with myogenic cells spontaneously, but do not fuse with non-myogenic cells either in vivo or in vitro, suggesting that the fusion of myoblasts with non-myogenic cells is unsuitable for differentiation. To understand the inevitability of the fusion among myoblasts, we prepared heterokaryons in crosses ...
Küppers R - - 2001
In most cases, Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of classical Hodgkin disease (HD) carry rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and thus derive from B cells. In rare cases, HRS cells originate from T cells. However, based on the unusual immunophenotype of HRS cells, often showing coexpression of markers typical for different ...
Pertel P E - - 2001
To characterize cellular factors required for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced cell fusion, we used an efficient and quantitative assay relying on expression of HSV-1 glycoproteins in transfected cells. We showed the following: (1) Cell fusion depended not only on expression of four viral glycoproteins (gB, gD, and gH-gL), ...
Bonvicino C R - - 2001
Hypoxanthine-phosphoribosyltransferase negative (Hprt-) cell lines derived from an Akodon cursor liposarcoma were obtained by induced mutagenesis. All but one Hprt- cell line lacked Hprt mRNA transcripts while one (AKO 3) coded for a truncated protein. Cell fusion and karyotypic analyses showed that one cell line (AKO 1-15) could be successfully ...
Kas-Deelen A M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia consists of the detection of CMV pp65 in the nucleus of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN), but it is unclear where and how PMN pick up virus particles or proteins. In an in vitro model for CMV antigenemia we investigated the mechanism of pp65 uptake by PMN ...
Sun D - - 2001
An hPepT1-GFP fusion construct was made to study drug inhibition of dipeptide uptake and apical, basolateral, or subcellular hPepT1 localization. The hPepT1 stop codon was mutated by polymerase chain reaction and was subsequently cloned into the pEGFP-N1 vector. The hPepT1-GFP fusion construct was then transfected into Caco-2 and HeLa cells, ...
Zou X - - 2001
This study was designed to produce cloned goats from cumulus cells. Cloning donor nuclei were from cumulus cells either freshly isolated or cultured in vitro. Enucleated oocytes were either injected with cumulus cell nuclei without piezo-driven manipulator (injection method) or fused with cumulus cells (fusion method). The survival rate of ...
Nakanishi M - - 2001
Proliferating mouse C2 myoblast cells resist haemagglutinating virus of Japan, Sendai virus (HVJ) mediated cell fusion. However, differentiating C2 cells can be induced to fuse by HVJ, suggesting that the rigid membrane of C2 cells changes during the differentiation. To investigate this phenomenon, changes in membrane lipids which affect fluidity ...
Xu X - - 2001
Nitrogen-deprived filaments of wild-type or hetC Anabaena sp. produce respectively, at semiregular intervals, heterocysts and weakly fluorescent cells. Unlike heterocysts, the latter cells can divide and elongate, producing a pattern of spaced series of small cells. Because a hetR::gfp fusion is expressed most strongly in the small cells, we propose ...
Su Jin - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To prepare anti-CD3 and anti-Igm&mgr; chain bispecific antibody (BsAb) by means of cell fusion and assess the stability and activity of the hybrid hybridoma. METHODS: Mouse hybridoma cell line secreting anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was trans formed into HAT-sensitive cells by 8-azaguanine, which was subsequently transfected by plasmid ...
Hirayama E - - 2001
In a previous study, it has been shown that presumptive mouse C2 myoblast cells are strongly resistant to HVJ (hemaglutinating virus of Japan, Sendai virus)-mediated cell fusion, but do become capable of fusion upon differentiation. Quail myoblasts transformed with a temperature-sensitive mutant of Rous sarcoma virus (QM-RSV cells) also become ...
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