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Results 451 - 500 of 1351
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Bossart K N - - 2001
Hendra virus (HeV) is an emerging paramyxovirus first isolated from cases of severe respiratory disease that fatally affected both horses and humans. Understanding the mechanisms of host cell infection and cross-species transmission is an important step in addressing the risk posed by such emerging pathogens. We have initiated studies to ...
Brighty D W - - 2001
Entry of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) into cells is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins gp46 and gp21. The gp46 surface glycoprotein binds to a poorly characterized cell surface receptor, thereby promoting the gp21-dependent fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. Interestingly, a synthetic peptide (P-197) simulating ...
Piao C Q - - 2001
Although asbestos is carcinogenic to humans, the mechanism(s) by which it induces cancer is unknown. Using tumor cell lines generated previously by asbestos treatment of immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells, we examined alterations in p16 and p21(Cip1) genes together with their protein levels. Results were compared with untreated BEP2D ...
Finnegan C M - - 2001
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) fusion and entry involves sequential interactions between the viral envelope protein, gp120, cell surface CD4, and a G-protein-coupled coreceptor. Each interaction creates an intermediate gp120 structure predicted to display distinct antigenic features, including key functional domains for viral entry. In this study, we examined the disposition ...
Brazill D T - - 2001
In Dictyostelium, the RtoA protein links both initial cell-type choice and physiological state to cell-cycle phase. rtoA- cells (containing a disruption of the rtoA gene) generally do not develop past the mound stage, and have an abnormal ratio of prestalk and prespore cells. RtoA is also involved in fusion of ...
Estepa A M - - 2001
The fusion-related properties of segments p9, p3, p4, and p9 + p2 surrounding the p2 phospholipid-binding domain of the protein G (pG) of the salmonid rhabdovirus of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) (Nuñez, E., Fernandez, A. M., Estepa, A., Gonzalez-Ros, J. M., Gavilanes, F., and Coll, J. M. (1998) Virology 243, ...
Schreiber S - - 2001
Studies on fusion between cell pairs have provided evidence that opening and subsequent dilation of a fusion pore are stochastic events. Therefore, adequate modeling of fusion pore formation requires a stochastic approach. Here we present stochastic simulations of hemagglutinin (HA)-mediated fusion pore formation between HA-expressing cells and erythrocytes based on ...
Foster T P - - 2001
Previous studies from our laboratory indicated that a 28-amino-acid carboxyl-terminal truncation of gB caused extensive virus-induced cell fusion (Baghian et al., 1993, J Virol 67, 2396-2401). We tested the ability of additional truncations and mutations within gB to cause cell fusion in the recently established virus-free cell fusion assay (Turner ...
Frendo J L - - 2001
The syncytiotrophoblast is the major component of the human placenta, involved in feto-maternal exchanges and secretion of pregnancy-specific hormones. Multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast arises from fusion of mononuclear cytotrophoblast cells. In trisomy 21-affected placentas, we recently have shown that there is a defect in syncytiotrophoblast formation and a decrease in the production ...
Koh K - - 2001
The C. elegans epidermis is a simple epithelium comprised of three major cell types, the seam, syncytial and P cells. While specification of all major epidermal cells is known to require the ELT-1 GATA transcription factor, little is known about how the individual epidermal cell types are specified. We report ...
Brown A J - - 2001
Finding a compatible mating partner is an essential step in the life cycle of most sexually reproducing organisms. Fungi have two or more mating types, and only cells of different mating type combine to produce diploid cells. In mushrooms, this is taken to extremes, with the occurrence of many thousands ...
Velloso C P - - 2001
Cell cycle reentry and dedifferentiation of postmitotic cells are important aspects of the ability of an adult newt and other urodele amphibians to regenerate various tissues and appendages [1]. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts, newt A1 myotubes are able to reenter S phase after serum stimulation of a pathway ...
Huang M C - - 2001
A fusion construct for the human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme system termed F2 (H(2)N-P450scc-adrenodoxin reductase-adrenodoxin-COOH), was stably expressed in nonsteroidogenic COS-1 cells. Multiple clones were obtained and analyzed, identifying the clone COS-F2-130 as the most active in converting 22R-hydroxycholesterol (22R-OH-C) to pregnenolone. The F2 fusion construct was properly transcribed and ...
Bergmann D C - - 2001
Exquisitely regulated trafficking and fusion of vesicles is crucial for proper cell function. The molecules that regulate vesicle fusion are highly conserved among eukaryotes, but they have also undergone expansion and specialization within single genomes. With diversity comes the potential for functions in unique cell processes, and recent work in ...
Fuller S A - - 2001
To maximize the yield of hybrids from fusion and cloning procedures, feeder cells are required to be cocultured with the hybrids, while hybrid cell density is low. Mouse peritoneal cells, most of which are macrophages, have been found to be convenient and effective feeder cells which are a source of ...
Cole E S - - 2001
Electric shock can create parabiotic fusions of living Tetrahymena cells. In this study, cells were mated and successful pairs were electrofused with either vegetatively growing cells or other mating pairs. In particular, we electrofused pairs from normal [diploid x diploid] matings with vegetatively dividing cells in G- or M-phase of ...
Re D - - 2001
The mechanism of multinucleated cell formation in Hodgkin's disease has not yet been elucidated. We asked whether the giant multinucleated cells of the H-RS cell line L1236 develop via fusion of the predominant smaller cells. As a positive control for the fusion assay, human B cells from the B-cell lymphoma ...
Alper S - - 2001
Hox genes control the choice of cell fates along the anteroposterior (AP) body axis of many organisms. In C. elegans, two Hox genes, lin-39 and mab-5, control the cell fusion decision of the 12 ventrally located Pn.p cells. Specific Pn.p cells fuse with an epidermal syncytium, hyp7, in a sexually ...
Kruisbeek A M - - 2001
T cell hybridomas can be obtained by fusing activated T cells with tumor cells. A heterogeneous population of hybridomas can be cloned by limiting dilution to obtain hybridomas that express specificity to one T cell receptor (TCR). This unit describes cell fusion and selection of T cell hybridomas. A protocol ...
Fuller S A - - 2001
In this unit, myeloma cells are cultured to ensure their sensitivity to the HAT selection medium used after cell fusion. Cell culture conditions are adjusted such that the Sp2/0 cells are in the log phase of growth and exhibit high viability at the time of collection for fusion. A support ...
Rupper A C - - 2001
The Dictyostelium p110-related PI 3-kinases, PIK1 and PIK2, regulate the endosomal pathway and the actin cytoskeleton, but do not significantly regulate internalization of particles in D. discoideum. Bacteria internalized into delta ddpik1/ddpik2 cells or cells treated with PI 3-kinase inhibitors remained intact as single particles in phagosomes with closely associated ...
Marsh T C - - 2001
Rad51p, the eukaryotic homolog of the prokaryotic recA protein, catalyzes strand exchange between single- and double-stranded DNA and is involved in both genetic recombination and double-strand break repair in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. We have previously shown that disruption of the Tetrahymena RAD51 somatic macronuclear locus leads to defective germline ...
Terry-Allison T - - 2001
Two cell surface proteins (nectin-1/HveC and nectin-2/HveB) shown previously to serve as receptors for the entry of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) wild-type and/or mutant strains were found to serve also as receptors for HSV-1-induced cell fusion. Transfection with genomic DNA from a syncytial HSV-1 strain encoding wild-type gD resulted ...
Parnaud G - - 2001
Polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000) is a potent cancer chemopreventive agent. This osmotic laxative polymer markedly suppresses colon cancer in rats. To explain the mechanism, we have tested the in vitro effect of PEG on four human cell lines. Two poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma lines (HT29 and COLO205), a fetal mucosa line ...
da Cruz M T - - 2001
We investigated the mode of interaction of lipoplexes (DOTAP:DOPE/DNA) with HeLa cells, focusing on the analysis of the initial steps involved in the process of gene delivery. We evaluated the effect of different factors, namely the stoichiometry of cationic lipids and DNA, the presence of serum in the cell culture ...
Hirayama E - - 2001
In skeletal myogenic differentiation, myoblasts fuse with myogenic cells spontaneously, but do not fuse with non-myogenic cells either in vivo or in vitro, suggesting that the fusion of myoblasts with non-myogenic cells is unsuitable for differentiation. To understand the inevitability of the fusion among myoblasts, we prepared heterokaryons in crosses ...
Küppers R - - 2001
In most cases, Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of classical Hodgkin disease (HD) carry rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and thus derive from B cells. In rare cases, HRS cells originate from T cells. However, based on the unusual immunophenotype of HRS cells, often showing coexpression of markers typical for different ...
Pertel P E - - 2001
To characterize cellular factors required for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced cell fusion, we used an efficient and quantitative assay relying on expression of HSV-1 glycoproteins in transfected cells. We showed the following: (1) Cell fusion depended not only on expression of four viral glycoproteins (gB, gD, and gH-gL), ...
Bonvicino C R - - 2001
Hypoxanthine-phosphoribosyltransferase negative (Hprt-) cell lines derived from an Akodon cursor liposarcoma were obtained by induced mutagenesis. All but one Hprt- cell line lacked Hprt mRNA transcripts while one (AKO 3) coded for a truncated protein. Cell fusion and karyotypic analyses showed that one cell line (AKO 1-15) could be successfully ...
Zou X - - 2001
This study was designed to produce cloned goats from cumulus cells. Cloning donor nuclei were from cumulus cells either freshly isolated or cultured in vitro. Enucleated oocytes were either injected with cumulus cell nuclei without piezo-driven manipulator (injection method) or fused with cumulus cells (fusion method). The survival rate of ...
Nakanishi M - - 2001
Proliferating mouse C2 myoblast cells resist haemagglutinating virus of Japan, Sendai virus (HVJ) mediated cell fusion. However, differentiating C2 cells can be induced to fuse by HVJ, suggesting that the rigid membrane of C2 cells changes during the differentiation. To investigate this phenomenon, changes in membrane lipids which affect fluidity ...
Markgraf K - - 2001
Virosomes derived from different fusogenic enveloped viruses have been generated for potential application in gene targeting to sperm cells. Comparative characterization of reconstitution products revealed that virosomes derived from influenza viruses are superior to those generated from Sendai viruses, with respect to the fusion rates with cryopreserved bull sperm cells ...
Xu X - - 2001
Nitrogen-deprived filaments of wild-type or hetC Anabaena sp. produce respectively, at semiregular intervals, heterocysts and weakly fluorescent cells. Unlike heterocysts, the latter cells can divide and elongate, producing a pattern of spaced series of small cells. Because a hetR::gfp fusion is expressed most strongly in the small cells, we propose ...
Hirayama E - - 2001
In a previous study, it has been shown that presumptive mouse C2 myoblast cells are strongly resistant to HVJ (hemaglutinating virus of Japan, Sendai virus)-mediated cell fusion, but do become capable of fusion upon differentiation. Quail myoblasts transformed with a temperature-sensitive mutant of Rous sarcoma virus (QM-RSV cells) also become ...
Hei T K - - 2001
Carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process with sequence of genetic events governing the phenotypic expression of a series of transformation steps leading to the development of metastatic cancer. In the present study, immortalized human bronchial (BEP2D) and breast (MCF-10F) cells were irradiated with graded doses of either 150 keV/micrometer alpha particles ...
Sun D - - 2001
An hPepT1-GFP fusion construct was made to study drug inhibition of dipeptide uptake and apical, basolateral, or subcellular hPepT1 localization. The hPepT1 stop codon was mutated by polymerase chain reaction and was subsequently cloned into the pEGFP-N1 vector. The hPepT1-GFP fusion construct was then transfected into Caco-2 and HeLa cells, ...
Su Jin - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To prepare anti-CD3 and anti-Igm&mgr; chain bispecific antibody (BsAb) by means of cell fusion and assess the stability and activity of the hybrid hybridoma. METHODS: Mouse hybridoma cell line secreting anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was trans formed into HAT-sensitive cells by 8-azaguanine, which was subsequently transfected by plasmid ...
Kas-Deelen A M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia consists of the detection of CMV pp65 in the nucleus of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN), but it is unclear where and how PMN pick up virus particles or proteins. In an in vitro model for CMV antigenemia we investigated the mechanism of pp65 uptake by PMN ...
Bae W - - 2000
A novel strategy using synthetic phytochelatins is described for the purpose of developing microbial agents for enhanced bioaccumulation of toxic metals. Synthetic genes encoding for several metal-chelating phytochelatin analogs (Glu-Cys)(n)Gly (EC8 (n = 8), EC11 (n = 11), and EC20 (n = 20)) were synthesized, linked to a lpp-ompA fusion ...
Saupe S J - - 2000
In filamentous fungi, vegetative cell fusion between genotypically distinct individuals leads to a cell-death reaction known as vegetative or heterokaryon incompatibility. Genes involved in this reaction have been characterised molecularly. We can now begin to get a better understanding of the mechanism and the biological significance of this intriguing phenomenon.
Roth A F - - 2000
The inappropriate expression of the a-factor pheromone receptor (Ste3p) in the MATa cell leads to a striking inhibition of the yeast pheromone response, the result of a functional interaction between Ste3p and some MATa-specific protein. The present work identifies this protein as Asg7p. Normally, expression of Ste3p and Asg7p is ...
Daenke S - - 2000
Infection with human T cell leukemia virus type 1 is detected by screening programs and contact follow-up procedures. Where chronic infection results in overt pathology, this is treated largely symptomatically and control of transmission relies on physical and educational constraints. The poor infectious transmission rate of HTLV-1 has long been ...
DeLong C J - - 2000
To address the recent controversy about the subcellular localization of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase alpha (CTalpha), this study was designed to visualize green fluorescent protein (GFP). CTalpha fusion proteins directly and continuously under different conditions of cell cycling and in various cell lines. The GFP. CTalpha fusion proteins were enzymatically active and ...
Lai Z - - 2000
Effective gene therapy depends on the efficient transfer of therapeutic genes and their protein products to target cells. Lentiviral vectors appear promising for virus-mediated gene delivery and long-term expression in nondividing cells. The herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument protein VP22 has recently been shown to mediate intercellular transport of ...
Koh D S - - 2000
We asked if the mechanisms of exocytosis and its regulation in epithelial cells share features with those in excitable cells. Cultured dog pancreatic duct epithelial cells were loaded with an oxidizable neurotransmitter, dopamine or serotonin, and the subsequent release of these exogenous molecules during exocytosis was detected by carbon-fiber amperometry. ...
Kullak-Ublick G A - - 2000
Sodium-dependent uptake of bile acids from blood is aliver-specific function which is mediated by theNa(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide(Ntcp). We report the stable expression of aNa(+)-taurocholate cotransporting green fluorescentfusion protein in the human hepatoblastoma cell lineHepG2, normally lacking Ntcp expression. Ntcp-EGFPassociated green fluorescence colocalized with Ntcpimmunofluorescence in the plasma membrane. Intransfected HepG2 ...
Downs K M - - 2000
Prior to fusion with the chorion, the extraembryonic mesoderm of the murine (Mus musculus) allantois differentiates with distal-to-proximal polarity into at least two cell lineages: a chorio-adhesive cell lineage called mesothelium, and the endothelium of the umbilical vasculature. How the allantois grows is less clear, but cell proliferation and addition ...
Wolf C - - 2000
The Drosophila tracheal system, a tubular network, is formed from isolated ectodermal metameres by guided branch outgrowth and branch fusion. Branch outgrowth is triggered by the localized and transient activity of Branchless (Bnl/dFGF). Here, we report the discovery of a mesodermal cell that links the leading cells of outgrowing main ...
Remstein E D - - 2000
Mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) has a poorer prognosis than other small B-cell lymphomas, thus a definitive diagnosis is essential. The t(11;14)(q13;q32) associated with MCL juxtaposes portions of CCND1 (11q13) and IGH (14q32), resulting in over-expression of cyclin D1. In this study, a highly sensitive two-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method ...
Usui K - - 2000
The eversion, migration, spreading, and fusion of the thoracic imaginal discs during metamorphosis of Drosophila are described using timed whole-mount preparations and several molecular markers. The leading edge of the migrating disc epithelia consists of two groups of cells, stalk cells (S cells) and specialized imaginal cells (I cells), that ...
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