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Results 301 - 350 of 1402
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Atkinson Ross G - - 2012
While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1), there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in 'Royal Gala' apples, a ...
Matsuoka Satomi - - 2012
Environmental changes result in signaling events in cell membranes. To develop the means to understand these events at the molecular level, it is essential to become familiar with the stochastic nature of signaling molecules in living cells. Using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRFM), these signaling events can be directly ...
Khatau Shyam B - - 2012
The actin filament cytoskeleton mediates cell motility and adhesion in somatic cells. However, whether the function and organization of the actin network are fundamentally different in pluripotent stem cells is unknown. Here we show that while conventional actin stress fibers at the basal surface of cells are present before and ...
Zhang Mianqiu - - 2012
Testicular heating suppresses spermatogenesis which is marked by germ cell loss via apoptotic pathways. Recently, it is reported that autophagy also can be induced by heat treatment in somatic cells. In this study, the status of autophagy in germ cells after heat treatment, as well as the partnership between autophagy ...
Thanasopoulou Angeliki - - 2012
In most cancers harboring Ccdc6 gene rearrangements, like papillary thyroid tumors or myeloproliferative disorders, the product of the normal allele is supposed to be functionally impaired or absent. To address the consequence of the loss of CCDC6 expression, we applied lentiviral shRNA in several cell lines. Loss of CCDC6 resulted ...
Gross Liza - - 2012
In response to sudden environmental stress, <i>B. subtilis</i> cells can defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles using a pulsed positive feedback loop.
Chiou Kevin K - - 2012
Many morphogenetic processes involve mechanical rearrangements of epithelial tissues that are driven by precisely regulated cytoskeletal forces and cell adhesion. The mechanical state of the cell and intercellular adhesion are not only the targets of regulation, but are themselves the likely signals that coordinate developmental process. Yet, because it is ...
Sokolov Mykyta V - - 2012
MicroRNAs (miRNA) comprise a group of short ribonucleic acid molecules implicated in regulation of key biological processes and functions at the post-transcriptional level. Ionizing radiation (IR) causes DNA damage and generally triggers cellular stress response. However, the role of miRNAs in IR-induced response in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has ...
Sbrana Tommaso - - 2012
Cell culture is the workhorse of biologists, toxicologists, tissue engineers and a whole host of research fields in both academia and industry. Having explored individual molecular mechanisms inside cells for decades using traditional cell culture techniques, researchers have only just begun to appreciate that the intricate interconnectivity between cells and ...
Schlatter Ivan D - - 2012
The novel protein Memo (Mediator of ErbB2 driven cell motility) was identified in a screen for ErbB2 interacting proteins and found to have an essential function in cell motility. Memo is evolutionarily conserved with homologs found in all branches of life; the human and yeast proteins have a similarity of ...
Li Yan - - 2011
Microcystins (MCs) are produced by cyanobacteria. The most toxic and widely distributed MC is microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to MC-LR could induce oxidative stress, leading the further toxicity effects on Sertoli cells in vitro. Sertoli cells obtained from rats were cultured with ...
Staudt Michael D - - 2011
Introduction.  A population of lumbar spinothalamic cells (LSt cells) has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in ejaculatory behavior and comprise a critical component of the spinal ejaculation generator. LSt cells are hypothesized to regulate ejaculation via their projections to autonomic and motor neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord. ...
Novitskiy V V - - 2011
The effects of chelating agents dithizone and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate on zinc content in Paneth cells and prostate gland cells were studied on rats preliminary exposed to stress factors (exercise and immobilization). Dithizone induced irreversible triphasic and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate reversible biphasic changes in zinc metabolism in cells. Preliminary stress potentiated the ...
Chang Hana - - 2011
In the preceding study (Part A), we showed that prescribed seeding conditions as well as seeding density can be used to subject multipotent stem cells (MSCs) to volume changing stresses and that changes in volume of the cell are associated with changes in shape, but not volume, of the cell ...
Chen Bo - - 2011
To investigate in vitro cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response induced by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Cultured macrophages (murine RAW264.7 cells) and alveolar epithelium cells type II (human A549 lung cells) were exposed to the blank control, DNA salt control, and the MWCNTs suspensions at 2.5, 10, 25, and 100 μg/mL ...
Chung Jin Wei - - 2011
The signaling molecule DHH, secreted by Sertoli cells has essential regulatory functions in testicular differentiation. DHH is required for the differentiation of peritubular myoid cells that line the seminiferous cords and steroidogenic Leydig cells. The testicular cords in Dhh-null male mice lack a basal lamina and develop abnormally. To date, ...
van Berge Laura - - 2011
Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) is an autosomal recessive white matter disorder with slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, spasticity and dorsal column dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging shows characteristic abnormalities in the cerebral white matter and specific brain stem and spinal cord tracts. LBSL is ...
Chang Tammy - - 2011
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders in humans and a common genetic cause of infant mortality. The disease is caused by loss of the survival of motoneuron (SMN) protein, resulting in the degeneration of alpha motoneurons in spinal cord and muscular atrophy in ...
Kudryavtseva N N - - 2011
The effects of chronic social defeat stress on the percentage of cells in different phases of the cell cycle and in apoptosis in the thymus and spleen of male mice were studied by the method of flow cytofluorometry. In stressed males, thymus weight decreased, the percent of proliferating thymocytes was ...
Lukaszewicz Agnès I AI Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, - - 2011
Neural stem and progenitor cells undergo an important transition from proliferation to differentiation in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The mechanisms coordinating this transition are incompletely understood. Cyclin D proteins promote proliferation in G1 and typically are down-regulated before differentiation. Here we show that motoneuron progenitors in the ...
Battistella Maxime - - 2011
Merkel cell (primary cutaneous neuroendocrine) carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the skin. Its occurrence has been reported in association with other cutaneous neoplasms (Bowen disease, squamous cell carcinoma) in cases regarded as collision tumors. It has recently been described in association with cysts of the follicle apparatus. We present ...
Almeida Fernanda Martins - - 2011
Strategies aiming to improve spinal cord regeneration after trauma are still challenging neurologists and neuroscientists throughout the world. Many cell-based therapies have been tested, with limited success in terms of the functional outcome. In this study, we investigated the effects of human dental-pulp cells in a mouse model of compressive ...
Le Bourhis Lionel - - 2011
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a population of T cells that display a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and are restricted by the evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility complex related molecule, MR1. Here, we review recent knowledge of this T cell population. MAIT cells are abundant in human blood, gut ...
Krasagakis Konstantin - - 2011
The co-expression of KIT receptor and its ligand stem cell factor (SCF) has been reported in biopsy specimens of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). However, the functional role of SCF/KIT in the pathogenesis of this aggressive tumor has not been elucidated. The present study reports expression and effects of SCF and ...
Kurmayer Rainer - - 2011
The understanding of how environmental factors regulate toxic secondary metabolite production in cyanobacteria is important to guarantee water quality. Very little is known on the regulation of toxic secondary metabolite production in benthic cyanobacteria. In this study the physiological regulation of the production of the toxic heptapeptide microcystin (MC) and ...
Kumar Navin - - 2011
YLR162W is an uncharacterized Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORF whose transcript level is elevated in cells under environmental stress, during α-factor response and in stationary phase. We obtained a partial cDNA clone of YLR162W by subtractive hybridization cloning of genes that were not expressed in a CoCl(2) resistant DNA synthesis mutant but ...
Meena Ramesh C - - 2011
Pma1p is an essential plasma membrane H(+)-pump in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that pumps out H(+) at the expense of cellular ATP. Its activity is induced by glucose at 30°C and is inhibited by Hsp30 during exposure to heat shock conditions. To further investigate the regulation of Pma1 function by glucose and ...
Ludford-Menting Mandy J - - 2011
Many infectious agents utilize CD46 for infection of human cells, and therapeutic applications of CD46-binding viruses are now being explored. Besides mediating internalization to enable infection, binding to CD46 can directly alter immune function. In particular, ligation of CD46 by antibodies or by measles virus can prevent activation of T ...
Sikander Mohammad - - 2011
Dietary flavonoids have attracted attention as chemopreventive agents. Chalcones are abundantly present in nature starting from ferns to higher plants. Chemically 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-ones, these are often cytotoxic in vitro. The cellular defense system (including glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and antioxidant and redox enzymes) plays a crucial role in cell survival and growth ...
Kuzhandaivel Anujaianthi - - 2011
Understanding the pathophysiological changes triggered by an acute spinal cord injury is a primary goal to prevent and treat chronic disability with a mechanism-based approach. After the primary phase of rapid cell death at the injury site, secondary damage occurs via autodestruction of unscathed tissue through complex cell-death mechanisms that ...
Ren Lina - - 2011
(-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) is a potent antioxidant polyphenol in green tea that acts as an anticancer agent via both direct and indirect pathways. Although the relationship between EGCG's anticancer effects and its antioxidant activity is not fully understood, it is known that EGCG stimulates production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ...
Wei Wei - - 2012
Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) never exists in the environment as a single compound but always coexists with other chemicals. These chemicals may affect the toxicity of BaP. Our previous study confirmed that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which were recently found coexisting with BaP in various environmental media, dramatically enhanced the genotoxicity of BaP. ...
Woodard Jennifer J Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center and Division of Hematology-Oncology, Northwestern University Medical School and Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL, - - 2010
AMPK is a cellular energy sensor that negatively regulates the mTOR signaling pathway. As mTOR plays critical roles in cell growth and tumorigenesis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we examined whether exogenous induction of AMPK activity exhibits inhibitory effects on growth and survival of renal cell carcinoma cells. Activation of ...
Gerullis H - - 2010
The potent inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, temsirolimus, comprises for cell cycle, angiogenesis and proliferation and has proven beneficial in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Temsirolimus is officially approved for first line therapy in high risk previously untreated mRCC patients. This review summarizes the current ...
Gammon Bryan Leigh - - 2010
Metastasis stemming from a distant malignancy is far less common than an oropharyngeal primary and represents only 1% of all oral neoplasms. The difficulty in diagnosing a metastasis in the oropharynx may be compounded if the lesion is poorly differentiated and bears little resemblance to the primary tumor. We present ...
Li Yufa - - 2010
FMNL2 is a member of diaphanous-related formins that control actin-dependent processes such as cell motility and invasion. Its overexpression in metastatic cell lines and tissues of colorectal carcinoma has been associated with aggressive tumor development in our previous study. But its specific role in cancer is largely unknown. Here we ...
Hirokawa Mitsuyoshi - - 2010
The purpose of this article is to describe the cytologic findings of intrathyroidal epithelial thymoma/carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (ITET/CASTLE) in detail and discuss its differential diagnoses. We examined cytologic specimens taken from eight ITET/CASTLE cases, who underwent fine needle aspiration. Cytologic features of ITET/CASTLE include (1) hypercellularity, (2) large cell ...
Makhlin Igor I Cancer Biology Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, - - 2011
To investigate whether mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition by rapamycin is therapeutically efficacious in combination with cisplatin for bladder cancer. Using a panel of human urothelial carcinoma cell lines, we determined the effect of rapamycin on cell viability, cell-cycle progression, signalling and apoptosis. The effect of mTOR inhibition on ...
Wong Hannah H - - 2010
Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, highly aggressive neuroendocrine cutaneous neoplasm with a variable clinical presentation. Histologically, it is a predominantly dermal-based lesion composed of monotonous small round cells with scanty cytoplasm, often difficult to differentiate from small round cell tumors, metastatic small cell carcinoma, blastic hematologic malignancies, and melanoma. ...
Hughes Caryn C Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester, UK M1 - - 2010
It is hypothesized that cells with stem cell-like properties may be influential in carcinogenesis, possessing the ability to self-renew, produce differentiated daughter cells and resist environmental or therapeutic injury. This has led to a surge in interest in identifying and characterizing the tumour initiating or cancer stem cell (CSC) with ...
Tong Qiang - - 2011
Abstract Objective. Radioresistance is considered the main reason for therapeutic failure in radiotherapy of esophageal carcinoma. However, the underlying mechanisms of radioresistance remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between p27(kip1) expression and the change of radiosensitivity of esophageal carcinoma cells. Material and methods. Radioresistant ...
Parks Michele - - 2011
Colon carcinoma represents a major problem in oncology, since this type of cancer responds poorly to conventional chemotherapy. Many groups are actively involved in the search of new experimental strategies to bypass this problem. We investigated the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), which derives from the NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 metabolism of ...
Kang Yun Hee - - 2011
Endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 (ESM-1) is a secretory proteoglycan comprising a mature polypeptide of 165 amino acids and a single dermatan sulfate. The aim of this study was to evaluate endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 (ESM-1) as a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) marker and to analyze the effect of ESM-1 gene silencing in hepatocellular ...
Cottonham Charisa L - - 2010
TGF-β promotes cell migration and invasion, an attribute that is linked to the pro-metastasis function of this cytokine in late stage cancers. The LIM 1863 colon carcinoma organoid undergoes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to TGF-β. This process is markedly accelerated by TNF-α, and we found that the levels of ...
D'Eliseo Donatella - - 2010
Granzyme B (GrB) is a serine proteinase known to be expressed by cytotoxic lymphocytes and to induce, in presence of perforin (Pf), apoptosis in target cells. Recently, GrB expression has been shown (often in absence of Pf) in nonlymphoid cells, but its function is not defined. In our study, we ...
Nakamura Masaru - - 2010
Signet-ring cell carcinoma is a distinct subtype of mucin-producing adenocarcinoma that originates in various organs, particularly the stomach. However, primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the lung is an extremely rare condition. The preoperative identification of signet-ring cells by cytologic examination is vital because signet-ring cell carcinoma of the lung has ...
Weifeng Tan - - 2011
Artemisinin (ART) is isolated from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. To determine its effects on the invasion and metastasis of tumors, the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines HepG2 and SMMC-7721 were treated with different concentrations of ART. Starting at 12.5μM, ART had inhibitory effects in migration and invasion ...
Rose A - - 2010
Sorafenib is an inhibitor of several intracellular signalling kinases with anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects in tumour cells. Sorafenib is used in the therapy of advanced renal cell carcinoma, and several phase II clinical trials are being carried out in patients with urothelial carcinomas. Using a panel of human bladder ...
Mertz Kirsten D - - 2010
Polyomaviruses have been linked to diseases of immunosuppressed patients. We sought to determine the prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in benign epithelial skin neoplasms and nonmelanoma skin cancer of immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients and long-term dialysis patients. Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 2 ...
Clark Peter E PE Department of Urologic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2765, USA. - - 2010
Despite modern targeted therapy metastatic renal cell carcinoma remains a deadly disease. Interferon-alpha (Calbiochem(R)) is currently used to treat this condition, mainly combined with the targeted anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab. TRAIL (Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand) (Calbiochem) is a novel antineoplastic agent now in early ...
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