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Results 301 - 350 of 1396
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Kapitulnik Jaime - - 2012
Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) is a neurotoxic degradation product of heme. Its toxic effects include induction of apoptosis, and ultimately neuronal cell death. However, at low concentrations, UCB is a potent antioxidant that may protect cells and tissues against oxidative stress by neutralizing toxic metabolites such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). ...
Radley Jason J - - 2012
A network of interconnected cell groups in the limbic forebrain regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation during emotionally stressful experiences, and disruption of these systems is broadly implicated in the onset of psychiatric illnesses. A significant challenge has been to unravel the circuitry and mechanisms providing for regulation of HPA output, ...
Sharifmoghadam Mohammad Reza MR Departamento de Microbiología y Genética/Instituto de Biología Funcional y Genómica, Universidad de Salamanca/Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Salamanca, - - 2012
In yeast, cytokinesis requires coordination between nuclear division, acto-myosin ring contraction, and septum synthesis. We studied the role of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Bgs1p and Cfh3p proteins during cytokinesis under stress conditions. Cfh3p formed a ring in the septal area that contracted during mitosis; Cfh3p colocalized and co-immunoprecipitated with Cdc15p, showing ...
Chen Meifan M Signal Transduction Program, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of - - 2012
The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase that regulates exit from mitosis and G1 phase of the cell cycle. Although the regulation and function of APC/C(Cdh1) in the unperturbed cell cycle is well studied, little is known of its role in non-genotoxic stress responses. Here, we ...
Li Yan - - 2011
Microcystins (MCs) are produced by cyanobacteria. The most toxic and widely distributed MC is microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to MC-LR could induce oxidative stress, leading the further toxicity effects on Sertoli cells in vitro. Sertoli cells obtained from rats were cultured with ...
Staudt Michael D - - 2011
Introduction.  A population of lumbar spinothalamic cells (LSt cells) has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in ejaculatory behavior and comprise a critical component of the spinal ejaculation generator. LSt cells are hypothesized to regulate ejaculation via their projections to autonomic and motor neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord. ...
Chen Bo - - 2011
To investigate in vitro cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response induced by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Cultured macrophages (murine RAW264.7 cells) and alveolar epithelium cells type II (human A549 lung cells) were exposed to the blank control, DNA salt control, and the MWCNTs suspensions at 2.5, 10, 25, and 100 μg/mL ...
Novitskiy V V - - 2011
The effects of chelating agents dithizone and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate on zinc content in Paneth cells and prostate gland cells were studied on rats preliminary exposed to stress factors (exercise and immobilization). Dithizone induced irreversible triphasic and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate reversible biphasic changes in zinc metabolism in cells. Preliminary stress potentiated the ...
Chang Hana - - 2011
In the preceding study (Part A), we showed that prescribed seeding conditions as well as seeding density can be used to subject multipotent stem cells (MSCs) to volume changing stresses and that changes in volume of the cell are associated with changes in shape, but not volume, of the cell ...
Chung Jin Wei - - 2011
The signaling molecule DHH, secreted by Sertoli cells has essential regulatory functions in testicular differentiation. DHH is required for the differentiation of peritubular myoid cells that line the seminiferous cords and steroidogenic Leydig cells. The testicular cords in Dhh-null male mice lack a basal lamina and develop abnormally. To date, ...
van Berge Laura - - 2011
Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) is an autosomal recessive white matter disorder with slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, spasticity and dorsal column dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging shows characteristic abnormalities in the cerebral white matter and specific brain stem and spinal cord tracts. LBSL is ...
Chang Tammy - - 2011
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders in humans and a common genetic cause of infant mortality. The disease is caused by loss of the survival of motoneuron (SMN) protein, resulting in the degeneration of alpha motoneurons in spinal cord and muscular atrophy in ...
Kudryavtseva N N - - 2011
The effects of chronic social defeat stress on the percentage of cells in different phases of the cell cycle and in apoptosis in the thymus and spleen of male mice were studied by the method of flow cytofluorometry. In stressed males, thymus weight decreased, the percent of proliferating thymocytes was ...
Lukaszewicz Agnès I AI Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, - - 2011
Neural stem and progenitor cells undergo an important transition from proliferation to differentiation in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The mechanisms coordinating this transition are incompletely understood. Cyclin D proteins promote proliferation in G1 and typically are down-regulated before differentiation. Here we show that motoneuron progenitors in the ...
Battistella Maxime - - 2011
Merkel cell (primary cutaneous neuroendocrine) carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the skin. Its occurrence has been reported in association with other cutaneous neoplasms (Bowen disease, squamous cell carcinoma) in cases regarded as collision tumors. It has recently been described in association with cysts of the follicle apparatus. We present ...
Almeida Fernanda Martins - - 2011
Strategies aiming to improve spinal cord regeneration after trauma are still challenging neurologists and neuroscientists throughout the world. Many cell-based therapies have been tested, with limited success in terms of the functional outcome. In this study, we investigated the effects of human dental-pulp cells in a mouse model of compressive ...
Le Bourhis Lionel - - 2011
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a population of T cells that display a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and are restricted by the evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility complex related molecule, MR1. Here, we review recent knowledge of this T cell population. MAIT cells are abundant in human blood, gut ...
Krasagakis Konstantin - - 2011
The co-expression of KIT receptor and its ligand stem cell factor (SCF) has been reported in biopsy specimens of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). However, the functional role of SCF/KIT in the pathogenesis of this aggressive tumor has not been elucidated. The present study reports expression and effects of SCF and ...
Kurmayer Rainer - - 2011
The understanding of how environmental factors regulate toxic secondary metabolite production in cyanobacteria is important to guarantee water quality. Very little is known on the regulation of toxic secondary metabolite production in benthic cyanobacteria. In this study the physiological regulation of the production of the toxic heptapeptide microcystin (MC) and ...
Kumar Navin - - 2011
YLR162W is an uncharacterized Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORF whose transcript level is elevated in cells under environmental stress, during α-factor response and in stationary phase. We obtained a partial cDNA clone of YLR162W by subtractive hybridization cloning of genes that were not expressed in a CoCl(2) resistant DNA synthesis mutant but ...
Meena Ramesh C - - 2011
Pma1p is an essential plasma membrane H(+)-pump in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that pumps out H(+) at the expense of cellular ATP. Its activity is induced by glucose at 30°C and is inhibited by Hsp30 during exposure to heat shock conditions. To further investigate the regulation of Pma1 function by glucose and ...
Sikander Mohammad - - 2011
Dietary flavonoids have attracted attention as chemopreventive agents. Chalcones are abundantly present in nature starting from ferns to higher plants. Chemically 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-ones, these are often cytotoxic in vitro. The cellular defense system (including glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and antioxidant and redox enzymes) plays a crucial role in cell survival and growth ...
Ren Lina - - 2011
(-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) is a potent antioxidant polyphenol in green tea that acts as an anticancer agent via both direct and indirect pathways. Although the relationship between EGCG's anticancer effects and its antioxidant activity is not fully understood, it is known that EGCG stimulates production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ...
Ludford-Menting Mandy J - - 2011
Many infectious agents utilize CD46 for infection of human cells, and therapeutic applications of CD46-binding viruses are now being explored. Besides mediating internalization to enable infection, binding to CD46 can directly alter immune function. In particular, ligation of CD46 by antibodies or by measles virus can prevent activation of T ...
Kuzhandaivel Anujaianthi - - 2011
Understanding the pathophysiological changes triggered by an acute spinal cord injury is a primary goal to prevent and treat chronic disability with a mechanism-based approach. After the primary phase of rapid cell death at the injury site, secondary damage occurs via autodestruction of unscathed tissue through complex cell-death mechanisms that ...
Wei Wei - - 2012
Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) never exists in the environment as a single compound but always coexists with other chemicals. These chemicals may affect the toxicity of BaP. Our previous study confirmed that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which were recently found coexisting with BaP in various environmental media, dramatically enhanced the genotoxicity of BaP. ...
Gerullis H - - 2010
The potent inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, temsirolimus, comprises for cell cycle, angiogenesis and proliferation and has proven beneficial in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Temsirolimus is officially approved for first line therapy in high risk previously untreated mRCC patients. This review summarizes the current ...
Gammon Bryan Leigh - - 2010
Metastasis stemming from a distant malignancy is far less common than an oropharyngeal primary and represents only 1% of all oral neoplasms. The difficulty in diagnosing a metastasis in the oropharynx may be compounded if the lesion is poorly differentiated and bears little resemblance to the primary tumor. We present ...
Woodard Jennifer - - 2010
AMPK is a cellular energy sensor that negatively regulates the mTOR signaling pathway. As mTOR plays critical roles in cell growth and tumorigenesis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we examined whether exogenous induction of AMPK activity exhibits inhibitory effects on growth and survival of renal cell carcinoma cells. Activation of ...
Li Yufa - - 2010
FMNL2 is a member of diaphanous-related formins that control actin-dependent processes such as cell motility and invasion. Its overexpression in metastatic cell lines and tissues of colorectal carcinoma has been associated with aggressive tumor development in our previous study. But its specific role in cancer is largely unknown. Here we ...
Hirokawa Mitsuyoshi - - 2010
The purpose of this article is to describe the cytologic findings of intrathyroidal epithelial thymoma/carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (ITET/CASTLE) in detail and discuss its differential diagnoses. We examined cytologic specimens taken from eight ITET/CASTLE cases, who underwent fine needle aspiration. Cytologic features of ITET/CASTLE include (1) hypercellularity, (2) large cell ...
Makhlin Igor - - 2011
To investigate whether mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition by rapamycin is therapeutically efficacious in combination with cisplatin for bladder cancer. Using a panel of human urothelial carcinoma cell lines, we determined the effect of rapamycin on cell viability, cell-cycle progression, signalling and apoptosis. The effect of mTOR inhibition on ...
Wong Hannah H - - 2010
Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, highly aggressive neuroendocrine cutaneous neoplasm with a variable clinical presentation. Histologically, it is a predominantly dermal-based lesion composed of monotonous small round cells with scanty cytoplasm, often difficult to differentiate from small round cell tumors, metastatic small cell carcinoma, blastic hematologic malignancies, and melanoma. ...
Hughes Caryn C Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester, UK M1 - - 2010
It is hypothesized that cells with stem cell-like properties may be influential in carcinogenesis, possessing the ability to self-renew, produce differentiated daughter cells and resist environmental or therapeutic injury. This has led to a surge in interest in identifying and characterizing the tumour initiating or cancer stem cell (CSC) with ...
Tong Qiang - - 2011
Abstract Objective. Radioresistance is considered the main reason for therapeutic failure in radiotherapy of esophageal carcinoma. However, the underlying mechanisms of radioresistance remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between p27(kip1) expression and the change of radiosensitivity of esophageal carcinoma cells. Material and methods. Radioresistant ...
Parks Michele - - 2011
Colon carcinoma represents a major problem in oncology, since this type of cancer responds poorly to conventional chemotherapy. Many groups are actively involved in the search of new experimental strategies to bypass this problem. We investigated the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), which derives from the NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 metabolism of ...
Kang Yun Hee - - 2011
Endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 (ESM-1) is a secretory proteoglycan comprising a mature polypeptide of 165 amino acids and a single dermatan sulfate. The aim of this study was to evaluate endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 (ESM-1) as a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) marker and to analyze the effect of ESM-1 gene silencing in hepatocellular ...
Cottonham Charisa L - - 2010
TGF-β promotes cell migration and invasion, an attribute that is linked to the pro-metastasis function of this cytokine in late stage cancers. The LIM 1863 colon carcinoma organoid undergoes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to TGF-β. This process is markedly accelerated by TNF-α, and we found that the levels of ...
D'Eliseo Donatella - - 2010
Granzyme B (GrB) is a serine proteinase known to be expressed by cytotoxic lymphocytes and to induce, in presence of perforin (Pf), apoptosis in target cells. Recently, GrB expression has been shown (often in absence of Pf) in nonlymphoid cells, but its function is not defined. In our study, we ...
Nakamura Masaru - - 2010
Signet-ring cell carcinoma is a distinct subtype of mucin-producing adenocarcinoma that originates in various organs, particularly the stomach. However, primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the lung is an extremely rare condition. The preoperative identification of signet-ring cells by cytologic examination is vital because signet-ring cell carcinoma of the lung has ...
Weifeng Tan - - 2011
Artemisinin (ART) is isolated from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. To determine its effects on the invasion and metastasis of tumors, the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines HepG2 and SMMC-7721 were treated with different concentrations of ART. Starting at 12.5μM, ART had inhibitory effects in migration and invasion ...
Rose A - - 2010
Sorafenib is an inhibitor of several intracellular signalling kinases with anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects in tumour cells. Sorafenib is used in the therapy of advanced renal cell carcinoma, and several phase II clinical trials are being carried out in patients with urothelial carcinomas. Using a panel of human bladder ...
Mertz Kirsten D - - 2010
Polyomaviruses have been linked to diseases of immunosuppressed patients. We sought to determine the prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in benign epithelial skin neoplasms and nonmelanoma skin cancer of immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients and long-term dialysis patients. Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 2 ...
Clark Peter E - - 2010
Despite modern targeted therapy metastatic renal cell carcinoma remains a deadly disease. Interferon-alpha (Calbiochem(R)) is currently used to treat this condition, mainly combined with the targeted anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab. TRAIL (Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand) (Calbiochem) is a novel antineoplastic agent now in early ...
Sari Aysegul - - 2010
Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) is the second most common carcinoma of the kidney, which is classified into two types. Type 1 displays single layer of cells with scanty pale cytoplasm and type 2 has pseudostratified high-grade nuclei with eosinophilic cytoplasm. Recently, apart from these two types, oncocytic PRCC and ...
Rotellini Matteo - - 2010
Clear cell transitional carcinoma of the bladder is a subtype of transitional carcinoma that morphologically resembles a clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Although kidney tumors do not frequently metastasize to the bladder, the recurrence after a clear cell renal cell carcinoma has been reported even several years after nephrectomy. We ...
Fenton Jenifer I - - 2010
Obesity results in increased circulating levels of specific adipokines, which are associated with colon cancer risk. The disease state is associated with increased leptin, insulin, IGF-1, and IL-6. Conversely, adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals. Previously, we demonstrated adipokine-enhanced cell proliferation in preneoplastic, but not normal, colon epithelial cells, ...
Wang Xize - - 2010
We have previously reported that by inducing calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, promoted the sensitivity of the human colon carcinoma cells to anticancer drugs. In the current study we tested several other potential CaSR modulators, calcipotriol and the effective components of Chinese herbal medicine ...
Shen De-Qing - - 2010
A series of novel indolizinophthalazine-5,12-dione derivatives were designed and synthesized by the reaction of 6,7-dichlorophthalazine-5,8-dione with active methylene reagents (AMR) and pyridine derivatives. Some of synthesized compounds exhibited significant in vitro antiproliferative activity at micromolar level toward four human tumor cell lines, including lung adenocarcinoma cell, large-cell lung carcinoma cell, ...
Ohtsuki Yuji - - 2010
Characterization of the signet-ring cell carcinoma (sig) component of a urothelial carcinoma (UC) in the urinary bladder of a 64-year-old man, obtained by transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT), is reported. In the present case, a characteristic sig component was detected in approximately 20% of UC, G2 tissues. The sig ...
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