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Matsuoka Satomi - - 2012
Environmental changes result in signaling events in cell membranes. To develop the means to understand these events at the molecular level, it is essential to become familiar with the stochastic nature of signaling molecules in living cells. Using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRFM), these signaling events can be directly ...
Sbrana Tommaso - - 2012
Cell culture is the workhorse of biologists, toxicologists, tissue engineers and a whole host of research fields in both academia and industry. Having explored individual molecular mechanisms inside cells for decades using traditional cell culture techniques, researchers have only just begun to appreciate that the intricate interconnectivity between cells and ...
Ismail Ismail Ahmed - - 2012
2'-Benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde (BCA) is a promising antitumor agent which induces cancer cells apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. BCA shows more effective antiproliferation in MDA-MB-435 than in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. DJ-1 has been known to protect cells against oxidative stress as an antioxidant because of its cysteine residues sensitive ...
Sugimoto Naotoshi - - 2012
The heat shock response has been extensively studied by a number of investigators to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the cellular response to severe heat stress (higher than 42°C). But, body or tissue temperature increases by only a few degrees Celsius during physiological events. Therefore, the physiological cellular response to ...
Deberardinis Ralph J - - 2012
Tumour cells undergo oncogene-regulated metabolic reprogramming that maximizes survival and growth. However, little is known about metabolic interactions between tumour cells and their non-malignant neighbours in the stroma. Bone-marrow-derived stromal cells are now shown to provide cysteine, an essential nutrient that enables leukaemia cells to resist oxidative stress.
Prommaban Adchara - - 2012
Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is a native herb found in Southeast Asia which features various pharmacological activities against allergy, inflammation, viral and bacterial infection, and cancer. The aims of this study were to determine the cytotoxic effect of 6 fractions obtained from silica gel column chromatography of alcoholic HCT extract ...
Gross Liza - - 2012
In response to sudden environmental stress, <i>B. subtilis</i> cells can defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles using a pulsed positive feedback loop.
Weiss Jamie L - - 2012
Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a crucial intracellular messenger in physiological aspects of cell signaling. Adrenal chromaffin cells are the secretory cells from the adrenal gland medulla that secrete catecholamines, which include epinephrine and norepinephrine important in the 'fight or flight' response. Bovine adrenal chromaffin cells have long been used as an ...
Gauthier Sebastien A - - 2012
Neuronal cell culture models have been used to demonstrate the protective effects of cystatin C against a variety of insults, including the toxicity induced by oligomeric and fibrillar amyloid β (Aβ). Here, we describe assays quantifying cystatin C protective effects against cytotoxicity induced by nutrient deprivation, oxidative stress, or cytotoxic ...
Matsuoka Satomi - - 2012
Environmental changes result in signaling events at cell membranes. To develop the means to understand these events at the molecular level, it is essential to become familiar with the stochastic nature of signaling molecules in living cells. Using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRFM), these signaling events can be directly ...
Chiou Kevin K - - 2012
Many morphogenetic processes involve mechanical rearrangements of epithelial tissues that are driven by precisely regulated cytoskeletal forces and cell adhesion. The mechanical state of the cell and intercellular adhesion are not only the targets of regulation, but are themselves the likely signals that coordinate developmental process. Yet, because it is ...
Wang Shiqi - - 2012
Mitochondria are highly-dynamic organelles, but it is challenging to monitor quantitatively their dynamics in a living cell. Here we developed a novel approach to determine the global occurrence of mitochondrial fission and fusion events in living human epithelial cells (Hela) and mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEF). Distinct patterns of sequential ...
Klingelhoeffer Christoph - - 2012
Ascorbic acid demonstrates a cytotoxic effect by generating hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in oxidative cell stress. A panel of eleven human cancer cell lines, glioblastoma and carcinoma, were exposed to serial dilutions of ascorbic acid (5-100 mmol/L). The purpose of this study was to analyse the ...
Schlatter Ivan D - - 2012
The novel protein Memo (Mediator of ErbB2 driven cell motility) was identified in a screen for ErbB2 interacting proteins and found to have an essential function in cell motility. Memo is evolutionarily conserved with homologs found in all branches of life; the human and yeast proteins have a similarity of ...
Huang Kuo-How - - 2012
Celecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor that has been reported to elicit anti-proliferative response in various tumors. In this study, we aim to investigate the antitumor effect of celecoxib on urothelial carcinoma (UC) cells and the role endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays in celecoxib-induced cytotoxicity. The cytotoxic effects were ...
Sreekumar Parameswaran G - - 2012
Absence of α-crystallins (αA and αB) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells renders them susceptible to oxidant-induced cell death. We tested the hypothesis that the protective effect of α-crystallin is mediated by changes in cellular glutathione (GSH) and elucidated the mechanism of GSH efflux. In α-crystallin overexpressing cells resistant to ...
Emad Ahmed - - 2012
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and manual scanning is a widely used strategy for retrieving rare cellular events such as fetal cells in maternal blood. In order to determine the efficiency of these techniques in detection of rare cells, slides of XX cells with predefined numbers (1-10) of XY cells ...
Kraning-Rush Casey M - - 2012
Cancer cells exist in a mechanically and chemically heterogeneous microenvironment which undergoes dynamic changes throughout neoplastic progression. During metastasis, cells from a primary tumor acquire characteristics that enable them to escape from the primary tumor and migrate through the heterogeneous stromal environment to establish secondary tumors. Despite being linked to ...
Chi Jingwei - - 2012
Mutations in Connexin-31 (Cx31) are associated with multiple human diseases including erythrokeratodermia variabilis (EKV). The molecular action of Cx31 pathogenic mutants remains largely elusive. We report here that expression of EKV pathogenic mutant Cx31R42P induces cell death with necrotic characteristics. Inhibition of hemichannel activity by a connexin hemichannel inhibitor or ...
Sokolov Mykyta V - - 2012
MicroRNAs (miRNA) comprise a group of short ribonucleic acid molecules implicated in regulation of key biological processes and functions at the post-transcriptional level. Ionizing radiation (IR) causes DNA damage and generally triggers cellular stress response. However, the role of miRNAs in IR-induced response in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has ...
Jabbour Anissa M - - 2012
p53 is critical in the normal response to a variety of cellular stresses including DNA damage and loss of p53 function is a common feature of many cancers. In hematological malignancies, p53 deletion is less common than in solid malignancies but is associated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy. ...
Raza Haider - - 2012
We have previously reported that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) induces cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells. In the present study, we have further elucidated that altered glutathione (GSH)-redox metabolism in HepG2 cells play a critical role in ASA-induced cytotoxicity. Using selected doses and time point ...
Khatau Shyam B - - 2012
The actin filament cytoskeleton mediates cell motility and adhesion in somatic cells. However, whether the function and organization of the actin network are fundamentally different in pluripotent stem cells is unknown. Here we show that while conventional actin stress fibers at the basal surface of cells are present before and ...
Thanasopoulou Angeliki - - 2012
In most cancers harboring Ccdc6 gene rearrangements, like papillary thyroid tumors or myeloproliferative disorders, the product of the normal allele is supposed to be functionally impaired or absent. To address the consequence of the loss of CCDC6 expression, we applied lentiviral shRNA in several cell lines. Loss of CCDC6 resulted ...
Brunner Jean-Marc - - 2012
Although the pathology of Morbillivirus in the central nervous system (CNS) is well described, the molecular basis of neurodegenerative events still remains poorly understood. As a model to explore Morbillivirus-mediated CNS dysfunctions, we used canine distemper virus (CDV) that we inoculated into two different cell systems: a monkey cell line ...
Tentner Andrea R - - 2012
Following DNA damage, cells display complex multi-pathway signaling dynamics that connect cell-cycle arrest and DNA repair in G1, S, or G2/M phase with phenotypic fate decisions made between survival, cell-cycle re-entry and proliferation, permanent cell-cycle arrest, or cell death. How these phenotypic fate decisions are determined remains poorly understood, but ...
Chiu Sheng-Chun - - 2012
Episodic cessation of airflow during sleep in patients with sleep apnea syndrome results in intermittent hypoxia (IH). Our aim was to investigate the effects of IH on cerebellar granule cells and to identify the mechanism of IH-induced cell death. Cerebellar granule cells were freshly prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. IH ...
Poirier Christopher C - - 2012
Cytokinesis occurs through the coordinated action of several biochemically-mediated stresses acting on the cytoskeleton. Here, we develop a computational model of cellular mechanics, and using a large number of experimentally measured biophysical parameters, we simulate cell division under a number of different scenarios. We demonstrate that traction-mediated protrusive forces or ...
Chen Meifan - - 2012
The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase that regulates exit from mitosis and G1 phase of the cell cycle. Although the regulation and function of APC/C(Cdh1) in the unperturbed cell cycle is well studied, little is known of its role in non-genotoxic stress responses. Here, we ...
Bankapur Aseefhali - - 2012
We report here results of a single-cell Raman spectroscopy study of stress effects induced by silver nanoparticles in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). A high-sensitivity, high-resolution Raman Tweezers set-up has been used to monitor nanoparticle-induced biochemical changes in optically-trapped single cells. Our micro-Raman spectroscopic study reveals that hMSCs treated with ...
Clouzeau Chloé - - 2012
Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), the most commonly used preservative in eye drops, is known to induce ocular irritation symptoms and dry eye in long-term treated patients and animal models. As tear film hyperosmolarity is diagnostic of some types of dry eye disease, we determined in vitro on conjunctival epithelial cells the ...
Atkinson Ross G - - 2012
While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1), there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in 'Royal Gala' apples, a ...
Phillips André W - - 2012
This is a protocol for derivation of glial restricted precursor (GRP) cells from the spinal cord of E13 mouse fetuses. These cells are early precursors within the oligodendrocytic cell lineage. Recently, these cells have been studied as potential source for restorative therapies in white matter diseases. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is ...
Barbati Cristiana - - 2012
In addition to the classical nuclear estrogen receptor, the expression of non-nuclear estrogen receptors localized to the cell surface membrane (mER) has recently been demonstrated. Estrogen and its receptors have been implicated in the development or progression of numerous neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, the pathogenesis of these diseases has been associated ...
Zhang Shu - - 2012
Mechanotransduction has demonstrated potential for regulating tissue adaptation in vivo and cellular activities in vitro. It is well documented that ultrasound can produce a wide variety of biological effects in biological systems. For example, pulsed ultrasound can be used to noninvasively accelerate the rate of bone fracture healing. Although a ...
Zhang Mianqiu - - 2012
Testicular heating suppresses spermatogenesis which is marked by germ cell loss via apoptotic pathways. Recently, it is reported that autophagy also can be induced by heat treatment in somatic cells. In this study, the status of autophagy in germ cells after heat treatment, as well as the partnership between autophagy ...
Zarrouk Amira - - 2012
In Alzheimer's disease, lipid alterations point towards peroxisomal dysfunctions. Indeed, a cortical accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs: C22:0, C24:0, C26:0), substrates for peroxisomal β-oxidation, has been found in Alzheimer patients. This study was realized to investigate the effects of VLCFAs at the mitochondrial level since mitochondrial ...
Coleman Michael D - - 2012
Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal ...
Barbi de Moura Michelle - - 2012
The importance of mitochondria as oxygen sensors as well as producers of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has recently become a focal point of cancer research. However, in the case of melanoma, little information is available to what extent cellular bioenergetics processes contribute to the progression of the disease ...
Zhang Jin Yu - - 2012
X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) is an important regulator of a subset of genes during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In the current study, we analyzed endogenous XBP-1 expression and localization, with a view to determining the effects of ER stress on the developmental competency of preimplantation embryos in mice. Fluorescence staining ...
Ren Haigang - - 2012
Mutations or deletions in DJ-1/PARK7 gene are causative for recessive forms of early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Wild-type DJ-1 has cytoprotective roles against cell death through multiple pathways. The most commonly studied mutant DJ-1(L166P) shifts its subcellular distribution to mitochondria and renders cells more susceptible to cell death under stress ...
Galluzzi Luca - - 2012
Indole-3-carbinol and its metabolic products are considered promising chemopreventive and anticancer agents. Previously we have shown that the indole-3-carbinol cyclic tetrameric derivative CTet induces autophagy and inhibits cell proliferation via inhibition of Akt activity and overexpression of p21/CDKN1A and GADD45A, in both estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and triple negative (MDA-MB-231) breast ...
Newick Kheng - - 2012
Thiostrepton (TS) is a thiazole antibiotic that inhibits expression of FOXM1, an oncogenic transcription factor required for cell cycle progression and resistance to oncogene-induced oxidative stress. The mechanism of action of TS is unclear and strategies that enhance TS activity will improve its therapeutic potential. Analysis of human tumor specimens ...
Chan Shih-Hung - - 2012
Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 is associated with tumorigenesis; its levels are elevated in several human cancers. IRS-1 protein binds to several oncogene proteins. Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the initiation and progression of cancers. Cancer cells produce greater levels of ROS than normal cells do ...
Tse Henry Tat Kwong - - 2012
As the microenvironment of a cell changes, associated mechanical cues may lead to changes in biochemical signaling and inherently mechanical processes such as mitosis. Here we explore the effects of confined mechanical environments on cellular responses during mitosis. Previously, effects of mechanical confinement have been difficult to optically observe in ...
Deng Wen - - 2012
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in Southeast Asia, particularly in southern regions of China. EBV infection is closely associated with NPC and has long been postulated to play an etiological role in the development of NPC. However, the role of EBV in malignant transformation of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells ...
Schäuble Sascha - - 2012
Primary human fibroblasts in tissue culture undergo a limited number of cell divisions before entering a non-replicative "senescent" state. At early population doublings (PD), fibroblasts are proliferation-competent displaying exponential growth. During further cell passaging, an increasing number of cells become cell cycle arrested and finally senescent. This transition from proliferating ...
Stanton Peter G - - 2012
The production of mature sperm is reliant on androgen action within the testis, and it is well established that androgens act on receptors within the somatic Sertoli cells to stimulate male germ cell development. Mice lacking Sertoli cell androgen receptors (AR) show late meiotic germ cell arrest, suggesting Sertoli cells ...
Postnikoff S D L - - 2012
The longevity of an organism depends on the health of its cells. Throughout life cells are exposed to numerous intrinsic and extrinsic stresses, such as free radicals, generated through mitochondrial electron transport, and ultraviolet irradiation. The cell has evolved numerous mechanisms to scavenge free radicals and repair damage induced by ...
Falugi Carla - - 2012
The biological function of the cholinesterase (ChE) enzymes has been studied since the beginning of the twentieth century. Acetylcholinesterase plays a key role in the modulation of neuromuscular impulse transmission in vertebrates, while in invertebrates pseudo cholinesterases are preeminently represented. During the last 40 years, awareness of the role of ...
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