Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1402
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >
Emad Ahmed - - 2012
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and manual scanning is a widely used strategy for retrieving rare cellular events such as fetal cells in maternal blood. In order to determine the efficiency of these techniques in detection of rare cells, slides of XX cells with predefined numbers (1-10) of XY cells ...
Zhang Jin Yu - - 2012
X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) is an important regulator of a subset of genes during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In the current study, we analyzed endogenous XBP-1 expression and localization, with a view to determining the effects of ER stress on the developmental competency of preimplantation embryos in mice. Fluorescence staining ...
Tse Henry Tat Kwong - - 2012
As the microenvironment of a cell changes, associated mechanical cues may lead to changes in biochemical signaling and inherently mechanical processes such as mitosis. Here we explore the effects of confined mechanical environments on cellular responses during mitosis. Previously, effects of mechanical confinement have been difficult to optically observe in ...
Postnikoff S D L - - 2012
The longevity of an organism depends on the health of its cells. Throughout life cells are exposed to numerous intrinsic and extrinsic stresses, such as free radicals, generated through mitochondrial electron transport, and ultraviolet irradiation. The cell has evolved numerous mechanisms to scavenge free radicals and repair damage induced by ...
Kapitulnik Jaime - - 2012
Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) is a neurotoxic degradation product of heme. Its toxic effects include induction of apoptosis, and ultimately neuronal cell death. However, at low concentrations, UCB is a potent antioxidant that may protect cells and tissues against oxidative stress by neutralizing toxic metabolites such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). ...
Zhang Shu - - 2012
Mechanotransduction has demonstrated potential for regulating tissue adaptation in vivo and cellular activities in vitro. It is well documented that ultrasound can produce a wide variety of biological effects in biological systems. For example, pulsed ultrasound can be used to noninvasively accelerate the rate of bone fracture healing. Although a ...
Raza Haider - - 2012
We have previously reported that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) induces cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells. In the present study, we have further elucidated that altered glutathione (GSH)-redox metabolism in HepG2 cells play a critical role in ASA-induced cytotoxicity. Using selected doses and time point ...
Huang Kuo-How - - 2012
Celecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor that has been reported to elicit anti-proliferative response in various tumors. In this study, we aim to investigate the antitumor effect of celecoxib on urothelial carcinoma (UC) cells and the role endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays in celecoxib-induced cytotoxicity. The cytotoxic effects were ...
Radley Jason J - - 2012
A network of interconnected cell groups in the limbic forebrain regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation during emotionally stressful experiences, and disruption of these systems is broadly implicated in the onset of psychiatric illnesses. A significant challenge has been to unravel the circuitry and mechanisms providing for regulation of HPA output, ...
Weiss Jamie L - - 2012
Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a crucial intracellular messenger in physiological aspects of cell signaling. Adrenal chromaffin cells are the secretory cells from the adrenal gland medulla that secrete catecholamines, which include epinephrine and norepinephrine important in the 'fight or flight' response. Bovine adrenal chromaffin cells have long been used as an ...
Zhu Guo-Yuan - - 2012
From the roots of Ardisia brevicaulis DIELS, two new alkylphenol derivatives, named ardisiphenol E (2) and F (3), have been isolated together with a known alkylphenol, ardisiphenol D (1). The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited strong cytotoxicities on two human ...
Gauthier Sebastien A - - 2012
Neuronal cell culture models have been used to demonstrate the protective effects of cystatin C against a variety of insults, including the toxicity induced by oligomeric and fibrillar amyloid β (Aβ). Here, we describe assays quantifying cystatin C protective effects against cytotoxicity induced by nutrient deprivation, oxidative stress, or cytotoxic ...
Chen Meifan M Signal Transduction Program, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of - - 2012
The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase that regulates exit from mitosis and G1 phase of the cell cycle. Although the regulation and function of APC/C(Cdh1) in the unperturbed cell cycle is well studied, little is known of its role in non-genotoxic stress responses. Here, we ...
Zarrouk Amira - - 2012
In Alzheimer's disease, lipid alterations point towards peroxisomal dysfunctions. Indeed, a cortical accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs: C22:0, C24:0, C26:0), substrates for peroxisomal β-oxidation, has been found in Alzheimer patients. This study was realized to investigate the effects of VLCFAs at the mitochondrial level since mitochondrial ...
Hosoki Ayaka - - 2012
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a mediator of ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage. Previous studies have indicated that MnSOD (SOD2) plays a critical role in protection against ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. In this study, we constructed two types of stable HeLa cell lines overexpressing SOD2, HeLa S3/SOD2 and T-REx ...
Barbi de Moura Michelle - - 2012
The importance of mitochondria as oxygen sensors as well as producers of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has recently become a focal point of cancer research. However, in the case of melanoma, little information is available to what extent cellular bioenergetics processes contribute to the progression of the disease ...
Jabbour Anissa M - - 2012
p53 is critical in the normal response to a variety of cellular stresses including DNA damage and loss of p53 function is a common feature of many cancers. In hematological malignancies, p53 deletion is less common than in solid malignancies but is associated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy. ...
Deng Wen - - 2012
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in Southeast Asia, particularly in southern regions of China. EBV infection is closely associated with NPC and has long been postulated to play an etiological role in the development of NPC. However, the role of EBV in malignant transformation of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells ...
Schäuble Sascha - - 2012
Primary human fibroblasts in tissue culture undergo a limited number of cell divisions before entering a non-replicative "senescent" state. At early population doublings (PD), fibroblasts are proliferation-competent displaying exponential growth. During further cell passaging, an increasing number of cells become cell cycle arrested and finally senescent. This transition from proliferating ...
Sharifmoghadam Mohammad Reza MR Departamento de Microbiología y Genética/Instituto de Biología Funcional y Genómica, Universidad de Salamanca/Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Salamanca, - - 2012
In yeast, cytokinesis requires coordination between nuclear division, acto-myosin ring contraction, and septum synthesis. We studied the role of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Bgs1p and Cfh3p proteins during cytokinesis under stress conditions. Cfh3p formed a ring in the septal area that contracted during mitosis; Cfh3p colocalized and co-immunoprecipitated with Cdc15p, showing ...
Chiu Sheng-Chun - - 2012
Episodic cessation of airflow during sleep in patients with sleep apnea syndrome results in intermittent hypoxia (IH). Our aim was to investigate the effects of IH on cerebellar granule cells and to identify the mechanism of IH-induced cell death. Cerebellar granule cells were freshly prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. IH ...
Chan Shih-Hung - - 2012
Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 is associated with tumorigenesis; its levels are elevated in several human cancers. IRS-1 protein binds to several oncogene proteins. Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the initiation and progression of cancers. Cancer cells produce greater levels of ROS than normal cells do ...
Kraning-Rush Casey M - - 2012
Cancer cells exist in a mechanically and chemically heterogeneous microenvironment which undergoes dynamic changes throughout neoplastic progression. During metastasis, cells from a primary tumor acquire characteristics that enable them to escape from the primary tumor and migrate through the heterogeneous stromal environment to establish secondary tumors. Despite being linked to ...
Chi Jingwei - - 2012
Mutations in Connexin-31 (Cx31) are associated with multiple human diseases including erythrokeratodermia variabilis (EKV). The molecular action of Cx31 pathogenic mutants remains largely elusive. We report here that expression of EKV pathogenic mutant Cx31R42P induces cell death with necrotic characteristics. Inhibition of hemichannel activity by a connexin hemichannel inhibitor or ...
Ismail Ismail Ahmed - - 2012
2'-Benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde (BCA) is a promising antitumor agent which induces cancer cells apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. BCA shows more effective antiproliferation in MDA-MB-435 than in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. DJ-1 has been known to protect cells against oxidative stress as an antioxidant because of its cysteine residues sensitive ...
Prommaban Adchara - - 2012
Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is a native herb found in Southeast Asia which features various pharmacological activities against allergy, inflammation, viral and bacterial infection, and cancer. The aims of this study were to determine the cytotoxic effect of 6 fractions obtained from silica gel column chromatography of alcoholic HCT extract ...
Yin Xuewen - - 2012
In this study, we simulated multiple red blood cells flowing through straight microvessels with the immersed-boundary lattice-Boltzmann model to examine the shear stress variation on the microvessel surface and its relation to the properties of cell-free layer. Significant variation in shear stress has been observed due to the irregular configuration ...
Ren Haigang - - 2012
Mutations or deletions in DJ-1/PARK7 gene are causative for recessive forms of early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Wild-type DJ-1 has cytoprotective roles against cell death through multiple pathways. The most commonly studied mutant DJ-1(L166P) shifts its subcellular distribution to mitochondria and renders cells more susceptible to cell death under stress ...
Bankapur Aseefhali - - 2012
We report here results of a single-cell Raman spectroscopy study of stress effects induced by silver nanoparticles in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). A high-sensitivity, high-resolution Raman Tweezers set-up has been used to monitor nanoparticle-induced biochemical changes in optically-trapped single cells. Our micro-Raman spectroscopic study reveals that hMSCs treated with ...
Matsuoka Satomi - - 2012
Environmental changes result in signaling events at cell membranes. To develop the means to understand these events at the molecular level, it is essential to become familiar with the stochastic nature of signaling molecules in living cells. Using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRFM), these signaling events can be directly ...
Wang Shiqi - - 2012
Mitochondria are highly-dynamic organelles, but it is challenging to monitor quantitatively their dynamics in a living cell. Here we developed a novel approach to determine the global occurrence of mitochondrial fission and fusion events in living human epithelial cells (Hela) and mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEF). Distinct patterns of sequential ...
Akashi Soichiro - - 2012
Treatment of PC12 cells with fungus-derived alkaloid neoechinulin A for more than 12 h renders the cells resistant to subsequent superoxide (O<inf>2</inf><sup>-</sup>)/nitric oxide (NO) insults derived from 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1). However, the underlying mechanism(s) remains largely unclear. To elucidate the mechanism(s), we assessed the specificity of the cytoprotection afforded by neoechinulin A ...
Burczynski Frank J - - 2012
Objective: To determine the hepatoprotective effect of silymarin with Chang cell cultures. Specifically, to investigate the antioxidant properties of silymarin and its protective function in reducing pro-apoptotic markers. Methods: Intracellular free radical levels were assessed with dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence after exposing cells to an oxidative stress of 400 μmol/L H2O2 ...
Deberardinis Ralph J - - 2012
Tumour cells undergo oncogene-regulated metabolic reprogramming that maximizes survival and growth. However, little is known about metabolic interactions between tumour cells and their non-malignant neighbours in the stroma. Bone-marrow-derived stromal cells are now shown to provide cysteine, an essential nutrient that enables leukaemia cells to resist oxidative stress.
Galluzzi Luca - - 2012
Indole-3-carbinol and its metabolic products are considered promising chemopreventive and anticancer agents. Previously we have shown that the indole-3-carbinol cyclic tetrameric derivative CTet induces autophagy and inhibits cell proliferation via inhibition of Akt activity and overexpression of p21/CDKN1A and GADD45A, in both estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and triple negative (MDA-MB-231) breast ...
Evrard Aurelie A Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, SA, - - 2012
Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) provides a rapid means of isolating large numbers of fluorescently tagged cells from a heterogeneous mixture of cells. Collections of transgenic plants with cell type-specific expression of fluorescent marker genes such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) are ideally suited for FACS-assisted studies of individual cell types. ...
Brunner Jean-Marc - - 2012
Although the pathology of Morbillivirus in the central nervous system (CNS) is well described, the molecular basis of neurodegenerative events still remains poorly understood. As a model to explore Morbillivirus-mediated CNS dysfunctions, we used canine distemper virus (CDV) that we inoculated into two different cell systems: a monkey cell line ...
Sreekumar Parameswaran G - - 2012
Absence of α-crystallins (αA and αB) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells renders them susceptible to oxidant-induced cell death. We tested the hypothesis that the protective effect of α-crystallin is mediated by changes in cellular glutathione (GSH) and elucidated the mechanism of GSH efflux. In α-crystallin overexpressing cells resistant to ...
Phillips André W - - 2012
This is a protocol for derivation of glial restricted precursor (GRP) cells from the spinal cord of E13 mouse fetuses. These cells are early precursors within the oligodendrocytic cell lineage. Recently, these cells have been studied as potential source for restorative therapies in white matter diseases. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is ...
Barbati Cristiana - - 2012
In addition to the classical nuclear estrogen receptor, the expression of non-nuclear estrogen receptors localized to the cell surface membrane (mER) has recently been demonstrated. Estrogen and its receptors have been implicated in the development or progression of numerous neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, the pathogenesis of these diseases has been associated ...
Matsuoka Satomi - - 2012
Environmental changes result in signaling events at cell membranes. To develop the means to understand these events at the molecular level, it is essential to become familiar with the stochastic nature of signaling molecules in living cells. Using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRFM), these signaling events can be directly ...
Kim Hee Soo - - 2012
In this study, we explored whether phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) exerts protective effects against oxidative stress&ndash;induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells, a neuroblastoma cell line. The central nervous system is especially vulnerable to oxidative stress because the brain consumes large amounts of energy to perform its complicated functions, but contains a lower level ...
Klingelhoeffer Christoph - - 2012
Ascorbic acid demonstrates a cytotoxic effect by generating hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in oxidative cell stress. A panel of eleven human cancer cell lines, glioblastoma and carcinoma, were exposed to serial dilutions of ascorbic acid (5-100 mmol/L). The purpose of this study was to analyse the ...
Sugimoto Naotoshi - - 2012
The heat shock response has been extensively studied by a number of investigators to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the cellular response to severe heat stress (higher than 42°C). But, body or tissue temperature increases by only a few degrees Celsius during physiological events. Therefore, the physiological cellular response to ...
Newick Kheng - - 2012
Thiostrepton (TS) is a thiazole antibiotic that inhibits expression of FOXM1, an oncogenic transcription factor required for cell cycle progression and resistance to oncogene-induced oxidative stress. The mechanism of action of TS is unclear and strategies that enhance TS activity will improve its therapeutic potential. Analysis of human tumor specimens ...
Cho Tamaki - - 2012
Elevation in the temperature induces heat stress to both host cells and the invading pathogen. This study aimed to determine whether continuous mild heat stress (increased temperature without causing significant damage to host cells) can increase susceptibility of biofilm formation of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans to low concentrations ...
Coleman Michael D - - 2012
Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal ...
Ren Qun - - 2012
Cell division in yeast is a highly regulated and well studied event. Various checkpoints are placed throughout the cell cycle to ensure faithful segregation of sister chromatids. Unexpected events, such as DNA damage or oxidative stress, cause the activation of checkpoint(s) and cell cycle arrest. Malfunction of the checkpoints may ...
Tentner Andrea R - - 2012
Following DNA damage, cells display complex multi-pathway signaling dynamics that connect cell-cycle arrest and DNA repair in G1, S, or G2/M phase with phenotypic fate decisions made between survival, cell-cycle re-entry and proliferation, permanent cell-cycle arrest, or cell death. How these phenotypic fate decisions are determined remains poorly understood, but ...
Poirier Christopher C - - 2012
Cytokinesis occurs through the coordinated action of several biochemically-mediated stresses acting on the cytoskeleton. Here, we develop a computational model of cellular mechanics, and using a large number of experimentally measured biophysical parameters, we simulate cell division under a number of different scenarios. We demonstrate that traction-mediated protrusive forces or ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >