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Results 201 - 250 of 1396
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Gerondakis Steve - - 2012
Summary:  Although the diverse functions served by the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in virtually all cell types are typically employed to deal with stress responses, NF-κB transcription factors also play key roles in the development of hemopoietic cells. This review focuses on how NF-κB transcription factors control various aspects of ...
Tang C - - 2012
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in glucose-induced beta cell dysfunction. However, its causal role has not been established in vivo. Our objective was to determine the causal role of ER stress and its link to oxidative stress in glucose-induced beta cell dysfunction in vivo. METHODS: Healthy Wistar ...
Jiang Qian - - 2012
Autophagy has been suggested as a possible mechanism for non-apoptotic death despite evidence from many species that autophagy represents a survival strategy of cells under stress. From our previous findings that supranutritional doses of sodium selenite induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells, now we show autophagic cell death occurred after ...
Futagami Taiki - - 2012
The cell wall integrity (CWI) signal transduction pathway, which has been well-studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an important role in the regulation of cell wall biogenesis. Recently, we characterized the CWI stress sensor orthologs WscA and WscB in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Disruption of the wscA and ...
Rimessi Alessandro A Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Section of General Pathology, Interdisciplinary Center for the Study of Inflammation (ICSI), Laboratory for Technologies of Advanced Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, Ferrara, - - 2012
The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform zeta (PKCζ) has been implicated in the intracellular transduction of mitogenic and apoptotic signals by acting on different signaling pathways. The key role of these processes in tumorigenesis suggests a possible involvement of PKCζ in this event. PKCζ is activated by cytotoxic treatments, ...
Catanzaro Irene - - 2012
Here, we report the effects of exposure of mammalian cells to α-pinene, a bicyclic monoterpene used in insecticides, solvents and perfumes. Morphological analysis, performed in V79-Cl3 cells exposed for 1 h to increasing concentrations (25 up to 50 μM) of α-pinene, indicated a statistically significant increase in micronucleated and multinucleated ...
Ho Theresa D - - 2012
The bacterial cell envelope is essential for cell viability and is a target for numerous antibiotics and host immune defenses. Thus bacteria must sense and respond to damage to the cell envelope. Many bacteria utilize alternative σ factors such as extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors to respond to cell envelope ...
Tsuruma Kazuhiro - - 2012
This study aimed to investigate whether oxidative stress contributes to retinal cell death in a mouse model of photoreceptor degeneration induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). We measured in vitro MNU-induced radical production in retinal cell cultures of murine 661W photoreceptor-derived cells; RGC-5, a mouse ganglion cell line; and primary retinal cells. ...
Nagayama Kazuaki - - 2012
Actin stress fibers (SFs) of cells cultured on cyclically stretched substrate tend to reorient in the direction in which a normal strain of substrate becomes zero. However, little is known about the mechanism of this reorientation. Here we investigated the effects of cyclic stretch waveform on SF reorientation in osteoblastic ...
De Siddharth - - 2012
Mutations in RECQL4 helicase are associated with Rothmund Thomson Syndrome (RTS). A subset of RTS patients is predisposed to cancer and is sensitive to DNA damaging agents. The enhanced sensitivity of RTS cells correlates with the accumulation of transcriptionally active nuclear p53. We found that in untreated normal human cells ...
Sheppard Daniel - - 2012
A generalized solid-state nudged elastic band (G-SSNEB) method is presented for determining reaction pathways of solid-solid transformations involving both atomic and unit-cell degrees of freedom. We combine atomic and cell degrees of freedom into a unified description of the crystal structure so that calculated reaction paths are insensitive to the ...
Vannini Candida - - 2012
Plant programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically controlled process that plays an important role in development and stress responses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key inducers of PCD. The addition of 50 mM H₂O₂ to tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (TBY-2) cell cultures induces PCD. A comparative proteomic analysis of TBY-2 ...
Rehfeldt Florian - - 2012
Physical features of microenvironments such as matrix elasticity E can clearly influence cell morphology and cell phenotype, but many differences between model matrices raise questions as to whether a standard biological scale for E exists, especially in 3D as well as in 2D. An E-series of two distinct types of ...
Leidal Andrew M - - 2012
Acute oncogenic stress can activate autophagy and facilitate permanent arrest of the cell cycle through a failsafe mechanism known as oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) proteins are known to subvert autophagic pathways, but the link to Kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis is unclear. We find that oncogenic assault caused by ...
Zhang Yong-Yu - - 2012
The arsenic metabolism in different biological organisms has been studied extensively. However, little is known about protozoa. Herein, we investigated the cell stress responses of the freshwater ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis to arsenate toxicity. An acute toxicity assay revealed an 18-h EC(50) arsenate concentration of ca. 40μM, which caused significant changes ...
Kashima Lisa - - 2012
The mitotic checkpoint gene CHFR (checkpoint with forkhead-associated (FHA) and RING finger domains) is silenced by promoter hypermethylation or mutated in various human cancers, suggesting that CHFR is an important tumor suppressor. Recent studies have reported that CHFR functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, resulting in the degradation of target ...
Aakre Christopher D CD Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2012
Heterogeneity within a clonal population of cells can increase survival in the face of environmental stress. In a recent issue of Science, Aldridge et al. (2012) demonstrate that cell division in mycobacteria is asymmetric, producing daughter cells that differ in size, growth rate, and susceptibility to antibiotics.
Heng Yi-Wen - - 2012
The actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells undergoes drastic rearrangement during mitosis. The actin cytoskeleton changes are most obvious in the adherent cells where the actin stress fibres are disassembled and the cortical actin network becomes more prominent with concomitant increase in cell rigidity as cells round up and enter mitosis. ...
Wang Juntao - - 2012
  Melatonin, an indolamine produced and secreted predominately by the pineal gland, exhibits a variety of physiological functions, possesses antioxidant and antitumor properties. In this study, we have shown that pharmacologic concentration (1 mm) of melatonin significantly reduced cell migration and invasion of T98G and U251 glioma cells after 24-hr treatment ...
El Sayed S M - - 2012
Oxidative stress-energy depletion therapy using oxidative stress induced by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and energy depletion induced by 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) was reported recently (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther., 19, 1-18, 2012). Even in the presence of oxygen, cancer cells oxidize glucose preferentially to produce lactate (Warburg effect) which ...
Wong Daniel Zin Hua - - 2012
Loranthus parasiticus, a Chinese folk medicine, has been widely used for the treatment of brain diseases, particularly in southwest China. Hence, the present neuroprotection model was designed to investigate its neuroprotective properties against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in NG108-15 cells. L. parasiticus aqueous fraction (LPAF), which was selected in the present ...
Falco A - - 2012
BAG3 is a co-chaperone of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, is expressed in many cell types upon cell stress, however, its expression is constitutive in many tumours. We and others have previously shown that in neoplastic cells BAG3 exerts an anti-apoptotic function thus favoring tumour progression. As a consequence ...
Kan C-Y - - 2012
The immortalization process is a fundamental step in the development of most (if not all) human cancers, including the aggressive endothelial cell (EC)-derived malignancy angiosarcoma. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor p16(INK4a) and the development of multiple chromosomal abnormalities are features of angiosarcoma that are recapitulated during telomerase-mediated immortalization of human ...
Ngo Dai-Nghiep - - 2012
The aim of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effects of aminoethyl-chitooligosaccharides (AE-COS) on oxidative stress in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells). The inhibitory effects of AE-COS on DNA and protein oxidation were studied in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, free radical scavenging effect of AE-COS were determined in RAW264.7 ...
Jin Yang Y Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2012
Oxygen (O 2), while essential for aerobic life, can also cause metabolic toxicity through the excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pathological changes in ROS production can originate through the partial reduction of O 2 during mitochondrial electron transport, as well as from enzymatic sources. This phenomenon, termed the ...
Abe Naomi - - 2012
In the present study, we examined the toxicity of benzyl ITC (BITC) and its urinary mercapturic acid metabolite (BITC-NAC), using a normal renal proximal tubular cell line, pig LLC-PK1. BITC increased cell death with an IC50 value of about 7 μM, whereas the cytotoxic effect of BITC-NAC was five times ...
Suchaoin Wongsakorn - - 2012
Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in cancer progression. In lung cancer, increasing expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has been found in both primary and metastatic carcinomas and may be critical in the regulation of the oxidative status of cancer cells. Using molecular and pharmacological manipulations, the ...
Surana Uttam - - 2012
Checkpoint controls, the surveillance pathways that impose "an order of execution" on the major cell cycle events, are critical to the maintenance of genome stability. When cells fail to execute a cellular event or do so erroneously due to misregulation or exposure to genotoxic stresses, these evolutionarily conserved regulatory circuits ...
Ulker Hayriye Esra - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic reaction of transfected human pulp derived cells (tHPDC) and transfected bovine pulp derived cells (tBPDC) after exposure to resin cements [RelyX UnicemClicker (RX), MaxCem (MC), Panavia F 2.0 (PF), BisCem (BC), and Bistite II DC (BII)] and to compare ...
Guolla Louise - - 2012
It is becoming clear that mechanical stimuli are crucial factors in regulating the biology of the cell, but the short-term structural response of a cell to mechanical forces remains relatively poorly understood. We mechanically stimulated cells transiently expressing actin-EGFP with controlled forces (0-20 nN) in order to investigate the structural ...
Choi Woong Ki - - 2012
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortex (HPA) axis is the central mediator of the stress response. The supramammillary (SuM) region is relatively unique among the hypothalamic structures in that it sends a large, direct projection to the hippocampal formation. It has been shown that mild stress could activate the SuM cells that project to ...
Meng Fanjie - - 2012
Mechanical stress is an unmapped source of free energy in cells. Mapping the stress fields in a heterogeneous time-dependent environment like that found in cells requires probes that are specific for different proteins and respond to biologically relevant forces with minimal disturbance to the host system. To meet these goals, ...
Cheung Florence W K - - 2012
Geoditin A, an isomalabaricane triterpene isolated from marine sponge Geodia japonica, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in leukemia HL60 cells and human colon HT29 cancer cells through an oxidative stress, a process also interfering with normal melanogenesis in pigment cells. Treatment of murine melanoma B16 cells with geoditin A ...
Qiang Xiaoyu - - 2012
In Arabidopsis thaliana roots, the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica initially colonizes living cells, which die as the colonization proceeds. We aimed to clarify the molecular basis of this colonization-associated cell death. Our cytological analyses revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) swelling and vacuolar collapse in invaded cells, indicative of ER stress and ...
Icreverzi Amalia A Basic Science Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, - - 2012
Drosophila cyclinD (CycD) is the single fly ortholog of the mammalian cyclin D1 and promotes both cell cycle progression and cellular growth. However, little is known about how CycD promotes cell growth. We show here that CycD/Cdk4 hyperactivity leads to increased mitochondrial biogenesis (mitobiogenesis), mitochondrial mass, NRF-1 activity (Tfam transcript ...
Campbell Jennifer - - 2012
Wall teichoic acids (WTAs) are phosphate-rich, sugar-based polymers attached to the cell walls of most Gram-positive bacteria. In Staphylococcus aureus, these anionic polymers regulate cell division, protect cells from osmotic stress, mediate host colonization, and mask enzymatically susceptible peptidoglycan bonds. Although WTAs are not required for survival in vitro, blocking ...
Dohi Eisuke - - 2012
Autophagy is a conserved mechanism responsible for the continuous clearance of unnecessary organelles or misfolded proteins in lysosomes. Three types of autophagy have been reported in the difference of substrate delivery to lysosome: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Among these types, CMA is a unique autophagy system that selectively ...
Ponti Jessica - - 2012
Abstract In this work we investigated the toxicological effects of nude and chemically functionalised (-NH(2), -OH and -COOH groups) multiwall carbon nanotubes (mwCNTs) using immortalised mouse fibroblasts cell line (Balb/3T3) as in vitro model, alternative to the use of animals, to assess basal cytotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, genotoxicity and cell interaction ...
Lefevre Sophie - - 2012
Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most common recessive neurodegenerative disease. It is caused by deficiency in mitochondrial frataxin, which participates in iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Yeast cells lacking frataxin (Δyfh1 mutant) showed an increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria compared to wild-type. In addition, oxidative stress induced complete fragmentation of mitochondria in ...
Cheng Ya-Hsin YH Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, - - 2012
Environmental cigarette smoke has been suggested to promote lung adenocarcinoma progression through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-signaled metabolism. However, whether AhR facilitates metabolic activation or detoxification in exposed adenocarcinoma cells remains ambiguous. To address this question, we have modified the expression level of AhR in two human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines ...
Wei Jyh-Ding - - 2012
Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2 (SATB2), a nuclear matrix attachment region-binding protein, can regulate embryonic development, cell differentiation, and cell survival. Previous studies showed that SATB2 is involved in osteoblast differentiation and skeletal development. In this study, we evaluated the role of SATB2 in oxidative stress-induced apoptotic insults to ...
Matsuoka Satomi - - 2012
Environmental changes result in signaling events at cell membranes. To develop the means to understand these events at the molecular level, it is essential to become familiar with the stochastic nature of signaling molecules in living cells. Using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRFM), these signaling events can be directly ...
Evrard Aurelie - - 2012
Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) provides a rapid means of isolating large numbers of fluorescently tagged cells from a heterogeneous mixture of cells. Collections of transgenic plants with cell type-specific expression of fluorescent marker genes such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) are ideally suited for FACS-assisted studies of individual cell types. ...
Hosoki Ayaka - - 2012
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a mediator of ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage. Previous studies have indicated that MnSOD (SOD2) plays a critical role in protection against ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. In this study, we constructed two types of stable HeLa cell lines overexpressing SOD2, HeLa S3/SOD2 and T-REx ...
Burczynski Frank J - - 2012
Objective: To determine the hepatoprotective effect of silymarin with Chang cell cultures. Specifically, to investigate the antioxidant properties of silymarin and its protective function in reducing pro-apoptotic markers. Methods: Intracellular free radical levels were assessed with dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence after exposing cells to an oxidative stress of 400 μmol/L H2O2 ...
Yin Xuewen - - 2012
In this study, we simulated multiple red blood cells flowing through straight microvessels with the immersed-boundary lattice-Boltzmann model to examine the shear stress variation on the microvessel surface and its relation to the properties of cell-free layer. Significant variation in shear stress has been observed due to the irregular configuration ...
Zhu Guo-Yuan - - 2012
From the roots of Ardisia brevicaulis DIELS, two new alkylphenol derivatives, named ardisiphenol E (2) and F (3), have been isolated together with a known alkylphenol, ardisiphenol D (1). The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited strong cytotoxicities on two human ...
Akashi Soichiro - - 2012
Treatment of PC12 cells with fungus-derived alkaloid neoechinulin A for more than 12 h renders the cells resistant to subsequent superoxide (O<inf>2</inf><sup>-</sup>)/nitric oxide (NO) insults derived from 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1). However, the underlying mechanism(s) remains largely unclear. To elucidate the mechanism(s), we assessed the specificity of the cytoprotection afforded by neoechinulin A ...
Cho Tamaki - - 2012
Elevation in the temperature induces heat stress to both host cells and the invading pathogen. This study aimed to determine whether continuous mild heat stress (increased temperature without causing significant damage to host cells) can increase susceptibility of biofilm formation of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans to low concentrations ...
Kim Hee Soo - - 2012
In this study, we explored whether phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) exerts protective effects against oxidative stress&ndash;induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells, a neuroblastoma cell line. The central nervous system is especially vulnerable to oxidative stress because the brain consumes large amounts of energy to perform its complicated functions, but contains a lower level ...
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