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de la Vega Laureano - - 2012
Moderate concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as coregulatory signaling molecules, whereas exceedingly high concentrations trigger cell death. Here, we identify ROS-induced acetylation of the proapoptotic kinase HIPK2 as a molecular mechanism that controls the threshold discerning sensitivity from resistance toward ROS-mediated cell death. SUMOylation of HIPK2 at permissive ...
Ozgür Emre - - 2012
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as new players in cancer as they are implicated in diverse biological processes and aberrantly expressed in a variety of human cancers. No data are available on their function under genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis. In this work, we assessed the behavior of some candidate lncRNAs ...
Wu Chu-Xin - - 2012
With homologous DNA probes, we had screened a grass carp heat shock protein 90 gene (CiHsp90). The full sequence of CiHsp90 cDNA was 2793bp, which could code a 798 amino acids peptide. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that CiHsp90 shared the high homology with Zebrafish Grp94. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that ...
Mo Chen - - 2012
Human MutS homologue 2 (hMSH2), a crucial element of the highly conserved DNA mismatch repair system, maintains genetic stability in the nucleus of normal cells. Our previous studies indicate that hMSH2 is ectopically expressed on the surface of epithelial tumor cells and recognized by both T cell receptor γδ (TCRγδ) ...
Kagias Konstantinos - - 2012
Differentiated cells can be forced to change identity, either to directly adopt another differentiated identity or to revert to a pluripotent state. Direct reprogramming events can also occur naturally. We recently characterized such an event in Caenorhabditis elegans, in which a rectal cell switches to a neuronal cell. Here we ...
Kviecinski M R - - 2012
The effects of juglone on T24 cells were assessed in the presence and absence of ascorbate. The EC(50) value for juglone at 24h decreased from 28.5μM to 6.3μM in the presence of ascorbate. In juglone-treated cells, ascorbate increased ROS formation (4-fold) and depleted GSH (65%). N-acetylcysteine or catalase restricted the ...
Pawlik Andrzej - - 2012
Hyperthermia is used in cancer therapy, however much remains to be discovered regarding its mechanisms of action at the cellular level. In this study, the effects of hyperthermia on cell death, survival, morphology and the cytoskeleton were investigated in a non-small cell lung cancer cell line, H1299. Despite the fact ...
Lee Yuan-Hao - - 2012
Certain phytochemicals, such as the stilbene, resveratrol (RES, found in red grapes and berries), and the triterpenoid, ursolic acid (UA, found in waxy berries and herbs such as rosemary and oregano), have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative effects. Two human-derived cell lines, hTERT-RPE with a non-malignant phenotype derived from retinal pigment ...
Shitara Yu - - 2012
P5, one of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members, catalyzes disulfide bond formation in proteins and exhibits molecular chaperone and calcium binding activities in vitro, whereas its physiological significance remains controversial. Recently we have reported that P5 localizes not only in the ER but also in mitochondria, although it ...
Muñoz M - - 2012
Hypericum perforatum is a medicinal herb possessing ability for protecting neurons from oxidative stress. Since nitric oxide (NO) may be protective against oxidative stress-induced cell death as occurs in glucose deprivation (GD)-induced neurotoxicity, whether a standardized extract of H. perforatum (HP) increases the NO- mediated neuroprotective effect in GD-PC12 cells ...
Yang Hongseok - - 2012
Objective: Grape seed extract (GSE) is a potent antioxidant. We examined the effect of GSE on oxidative stress-induced cell death in a transformed retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5. Methods: Staurosporine-differentiated RGC-5 (ssdRGC-5) cells obtained by treating RGC-5 cells with 1 µM staurosporine were incubated with GSE for 2 h and then ...
Forbes Monica M - - 2012
Sonoporation uses ultrasound, with the aid of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs), to enhance cell permeabilization, thereby allowing delivery of therapeutic compounds noninvasively into specific target cells. The objective of this study was to determine if a computational model describing shear stress on a cell membrane due to microstreaming would successfully ...
Betin Virginie M S - - 2012
The Atg4 cysteine proteases play crucial roles in the processing of Atg8 proteins during autophagy, but their regulation during cellular stress and differentiation remains poorly understood. We have found that two Atg4 family members--Atg4C and Atg4D--contain cryptic mitochondrial targeting sequences immediately downstream of their canonical (DEVD) caspase cleavage sites. Consequently, ...
Hu Wei W School of Dentistry, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2012
Exopolysaccharide (EPS) of Myxococcus xanthus is a well-regulated cell surface component. In addition to its known functions for social motility and fruiting body formation on solid surfaces, EPS has also been proposed to play a role in multi-cellular clumping in liquid medium, though this phenomenon has not been well studied. ...
Mohan Krithika K Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, - - 2012
Cytokinesis, the physical separation of a mother cell into two daughter cells, progresses through a series of well-defined changes in morphology. These changes involve distinct biochemical and mechanical processes. Here, we review the mechanical features of cells during cytokinesis, discussing both the material properties as well as sources of stresses, ...
Kalaji R - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Cell-cell adhesion and contraction play an essential role in the maintenance of geometric shape and polarization of epithelial cells. However, the molecular regulation of contraction during cell elongation leading to epithelial polarization and acquisition of geometric cell shape is not clear. RESULTS: Upon induction of cell-cell adhesion, we find ...
Ring Julia - - 2012
A cell's reaction to any change in the endogenous or exogenous conditions often involves a complex response that eventually either leads to cell adaptation and survival or to the initiation and execution of (programmed) cell death. The molecular decision whether to live or die, while depending on a cell's genome, ...
Paul Sangita Chowdhury - - 2012
A bacterial strain, designated as TSB-6, was isolated from the sediments of a Tantloi (India) hot spring at 65°C. The strain showed 98% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Anoxybacillus kualawohkensis strain KW12 and was found to grow optimally at 37°C. However, growing cells, cell suspensions and cell-free extracts from ...
Schweikert E-M - - 2012
To achieve malignancy, cancer cells convert numerous signaling pathways, with evasion from cell death being a characteristic hallmark. The cell death machinery represents an anti-cancer target demanding constant identification of tumor-specific signaling molecules. Control of mitochondrial radical formation, particularly superoxide interconnects cell death signals with appropriate mechanistic execution. Superoxide is ...
Chandrasekaran Karthikeyan - - 2012
High glucose mediated oxidative stress and cell death is a well documented phenomenon. Using VL-17A cells which are HepG2 cells over-expressing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and control HepG2 cells, the association of ADH and CYP2E1 with high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity in liver cells ...
Liu L - - 2012
Background.  Normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) and HaCaT cells are the most common models used to study the effects of various factors on skin cells. These cell lines share some common characteristics, but little is known about their differences in handling hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) )-induced oxidative stress. Aim.  To ...
Baldwin Aaron C - - 2012
Exposure of insulin-producing cells to elevated levels of the free fatty acid (FFA) palmitate results in the loss of β-cell function and induction of apoptosis. The induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one mechanism proposed to be responsible for the loss of β-cell viability in response to palmitate treatment; ...
Beillerot Adeline - - 2012
Reactive oxygen species regulate protein functionality. Cell cycle CDC25 phosphatases are targets of such oxidative regulation in vitro. We sought to evaluate if a thioredoxin (trx)-dependent redox regulation of CDC25 exists in cancer cells. For that purpose, we used MCF7 and MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells, which express trx1 differentially, ...
Ghisolfi Laura L Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, One Jimmy Fund Way, Smith 652, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2012
Hemoglobin is the major biosynthetic product of developing erythroid cells. Assembly of hemoglobin requires the balanced production of globin proteins and the oxygen-carrying heme moiety. The heme-regulated inhibitor kinase (HRI) participates in this process by phosphorylating eIF2α and inhibiting the translation of globin proteins when levels of free heme are ...
Amemiya Yosuke - - 2012
A nanoneedle, an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip etched to 200nm in diameter and 10μm in length, can be inserted into cells with the aid of an AFM and has been used to introduce functional molecules into cells and to analyze intracellular information with minimal cell damage. However, some cell ...
Barbosa António Daniel - - 2012
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isc1p, an orthologue of mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase 2, plays a key role in mitochondrial function, oxidative stress resistance and chronological lifespan. Isc1p functions upstream of the ceramide-activated protein phosphatase Sit4p through the modulation of ceramide levels. Here, we show that both ceramide and loss of Isc1p lead ...
Lackner Daniel H - - 2012
To counteract replication-dependent telomere shortening most eukaryotic cells rely on the telomerase pathway, which is crucial for the maintenance of proliferative potential of germ and stem cell populations of multicellular organisms. Likewise, cancer cells usually engage the telomerase pathway for telomere maintenance to gain immortality. However, in ∼10% of human ...
Cufí Sílvia - - 2012
We have tested the hypothesis that the antidiabetic biguanide metformin can be used to manipulate the threshold for stress-induced senescence (SIS), thus accelerating the onset of cancer-protective cellular senescence in response to oncogenic stimuli. Using senescence-prone murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we assessed whether metformin treatment modified the senescence phenotype that ...
Song Xiu-Ling - - 2012
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are being used widely and increasingly in various products and medical supplies due to their antibacterial activity. However, little is known about the impacts of the AgNPs. Herein, The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effect of AgNPs in the human liver cell ...
Morabito Rossana - - 2012
Marine toxins are a suitable research model and their mechanism of action is intriguing and still under debate. Either a pore formation mechanism or oxidative stress phenomena may explain the damage induced by toxins. The effect of crude venom from isolated nematocysts of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca on neuronal-like cells ...
Kang Sung-Myung - - 2012
Exposure of neurons to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) results in oxidative stress and the activation of a cascade of intracellular toxic events resulting in oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and Ca(2+) elevation, ultimately resulting in cell death. In this study, we attempted to characterize the neuroprotective effects of phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia cava, ...
Vázquez Esther - - 2012
Inclusion bodies (50-500 nm in diameter) produced in recombinant bacteria can be engineered to contain functional proteins with therapeutic potential. Upon exposure, these protein particles are efficiently internalized by mammalian cells and promote recovery from diverse stresses. Being fully biocompatible, inclusion bodies are a novel platform, as tailored nanopills, for ...
Murfuni I - - 2012
Oncogene-induced replication stress is recognized as the primary cause of accumulation of DNA damage and genome instability in precancerous cells. Although the molecular mechanisms responding to such type of replication perturbation are not fully characterized, it has been speculated that their dysfunction may enhance genome instability and accelerate tumor progression. ...
Yasaei H H Institute of Cancer Genetics and Pharmacogenomics, Division of Biosciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, - - 2013
Immortalization (senescence bypass) is a critical rate-limiting step in the malignant transformation of mammalian somatic cells. Human cells must breach at least two distinct senescence barriers to permit unfettered clonal evolution during cancer development: (1) stress- or oncogene-induced premature senescence (SIPS/OIS), mediated via the p16-Rb and/or ARF-p53-p21 tumour-suppressive pathways, and ...
Erman Andreja - - 2012
The urinary bladder urothelium is subjected to mechanical forces during cycles of distension and contraction, and its superficial cells are constantly flushed by toxic urine. Yet, the urothelium shows a very slow turnover of cells and superficial cells are extremely long lived. Autophagy has a well-known role in tissue homeostasis ...
Kerosuo Laura L Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, United - - 2012
Although the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is famous for its role in cancer metastasis, it also is a normal developmental event in which epithelial cells are converted into migratory mesenchymal cells. A prime example of EMT during development occurs when neural crest (NC) cells emigrate from the neural tube ...
Kim Younghwa - - 2012
Abstract In this study, a crude polyphenol extract (CPE) from defatted grape seeds was evaluated for antioxidant and cytoprotective effects in PC12 cells. The CPE was then fractionated into a catechin and oligomeric procyanidin fraction (F(cat+olig)) and a polymeric procyanidin fraction (F(pol)), and the bioactivities of the fractions were evaluated ...
Matsuo Junichi - - 2012
Biguanides, including metformin, buformin and phenformin, are potential antitumorigenic agents and induce cell death during glucose deprivation, a cell condition that occurs in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we show that this selective killing of glucose-deprived cells is coupled with hyperactivation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), a negative ...
Black William - - 2012
Evidence suggests that aldehydic molecules generated during lipid peroxidation (LPO) are causally involved in most pathophysiological processes associated with oxidative stress. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), the LPO-derived product, is believed to be responsible for much of the cytotoxicity. To counteract the adverse effects of this aldehyde, many tissues have evolved cellular defense ...
Ramkumar Kunga Mohan - - 2012
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are increasingly being used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The high aspect ratio of fibrous nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and TiO(2) nanofibers (TiO(2)NFs), similar to the one used in this study makes them an attractive structural material and has also attracted a lot of attention due ...
Yu J - - 2012
Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of fetal growth restriction and perinatal mortality, which involves oxidative stress and vasodilator signaling disorder. S-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC) is one of the most abundant compounds in garlic extracts, and possesses several biological activities. This research was designed to investigate the protective effects of SAC against ...
Pétremand Jannick - - 2012
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis alteration contributes to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and death and favors the development of diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate that HDLs protect β-cells against ER stress induced by thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, palmitate, insulin overexpression, and high glucose concentrations. ER stress marker induction and ER morphology disruption ...
Bahnan Wael - - 2012
Candida albicans is a common opportunistic pathogen that causes a wide variety of diseases in a human immunocompromised host leading to death. In a pathogen, cell wall proteins are important for stability as well as for acting as antigenic determinants and virulence factors. Pir32 is a cell wall protein and ...
Sokolow Adam A Physics Department, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, - - 2012
Programmed patterns of gene expression, cell-cell signaling, and cellular forces cause morphogenic movements during dorsal closure. We investigated the apical cell-shape changes that characterize amnioserosa cells during dorsal closure in Drosophila embryos with in vivo imaging of green-fluorescent-protein-labeled DE-cadherin. Time-lapsed, confocal images were assessed with a novel segmentation algorithm, Fourier ...
Brooks K - - 2012
There are few effective treatments for metastatic melanoma. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) inhibitors are being trialled for their efficacy in enhancing conventional chemotherapeutic agents, but their effectiveness as single agents is not known. We have examined the effectiveness of two novel Chk1 selective inhibitors, AR323 and AR678, in a panel ...
Uraji Misugi - - 2012
Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in responses to abiotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. To investigate the roles of two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PLDs, PLDα1 and PLDδ, in ABA signaling in guard cells, we analyzed ABA responses in guard cells using Arabidopsis wild type, pldα1 and pldδ single mutants, ...
Thevissen Karin - - 2012
The antifungal plant defensin RsAFP2 isolated from radish interacts with fungal glucosylceramides and induces apoptosis in Candida albicans. To further unravel the mechanism of RsAFP2 antifungal action and tolerance mechanisms, we screened a library of 2868 heterozygous C. albicans deletion mutants and identified 30 RsAFP2-hypersensitive mutants. The most prominent group of ...
Kwak Geun-Hee - - 2012
Methionine sulfoxide reductase B3A (MsrB3A), which catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of methionine-R-sulfoxide to methionine, is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we report a critical role of the ER-targeted MsrB3 in protection against ER stress in Drosophila and in mammalian cells. Flies overexpressing human MsrB3A exhibited significantly increased resistance ...
Stocco Bianca - - 2012
Over 6 million people die annually in the world because of cancer. Several groups are focused on studying cancer chemoprevention approaches. Resveratrol, a polyphenol, at high dosages, has been reported as antitumor and chemopreventive. However, it has a dose-dependent effect on cell death, even on some cancer cells. Our aim ...
Ermak Gennady - - 2012
Expression of the RCAN1 gene can be induced by multiple stresses. RCAN1 proteins (RCAN1s) have both protective and harmful effects and are implicated in common human pathologies. The mechanisms by which RCAN1s function, however, remain poorly understood. We identify RCAN1s as regulators of mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) and demonstrate that induction ...
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