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Limonciel Alice - - 2012
Potassium bromate (KBrO(3)) is an oxidising agent that has been widely used in the food and cosmetic industries. It has shown to be both a nephrotoxin and a renal carcinogen in in vivo and in vitro models. Here, we investigated the effects of KBrO(3) in the human and rat proximal ...
Wang Li-Ting - - 2012
Over the past several decades, there has been a considerable and still growing interest in discovering natural products with anticancer potential from traditional Chinese medicine and increasing their anticancer selectivity by chemical modification. In addition, total synthesis of active compounds from natural products can overcome problems related to poor resource ...
Kim Do-Sung - - 2012
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is closely connected to autophagy. When cells are exposed to ER stress, cells exhibit enhanced protein degradation and form autophagosomes. In this study, we demonstrate that the chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), regulates ER stressinduced cell death and autophagy in human gingival fibroblasts. We found that ...
Cenci Simone - - 2012
The ability of eukaryotic cells to adapt to changing environmental conditions, respond to stimuli, and differentiate relies on their capacity to control the concentration, conformation, localization, and interaction of proteins, thereby reshaping their proteome. Protein degradation plays a critical role in maintaining protein homeostasis, and hence is carefully regulated. During ...
Hideshima Teru - - 2012
The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) is a major protein degradation system that maintains homeostasis of intracellular proteins, involved in DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation, and drug resistance. Since numerous proteins are processed by proteasomes, their inhibition triggers dramatic disruption of protein homeostasis. Consequently, accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins triggers different ...
Desmarais Joëlle A JA Centre for Stem Cell Biology, Department of Biomedical Science, The University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, United - - 2012
Pluripotent cells of the early embryo, to which embryonic stem cells (ESCs) correspond, give rise to all the somatic cells of the developing fetus. Any defects that occur in their genome or epigenome would have devastating consequences. Genetic and epigenetic change in human ESCs appear to be an inevitable consequence ...
Semchyshyn Halyna M - - 2012
The negative effects of fructose due to its chronic consumption are well documented, while short-term application of fructose is found to protect different types of cells against oxidative stress. ROS are suggested to mediate both the cytotoxic and defensive effects. Here, we compare the influence of glucose and fructose on ...
Singh Vineet K - - 2012
The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus utilizes a variety of different mechanisms to survive unfavorable stress conditions that are critical for its persistence in the environment and for pathogenicity. The staphylococcal DnaK heat shock system functions as a major protein folding machine under stress conditions that cause aggregation and un-folding of proteins. ...
Dogra Nilambra - - 2012
In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in proteasome inhibitors as a novel class of anticancer drugs. We report that fenbendazole (FZ) (methyl N-(6-phenylsulfanyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)carbamate) exhibits a potent growth-inhibitory activity against cancer cell lines but not normal cells. We show here, using fluorogenic substrates, that FZ treatment ...
Grabias Bryan M - - 2012
Renal fibrosis (RF) is thought to be a direct consequence of dedifferentiation of resident epithelial cells via an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Increased glomerular flow is a critical initiator of fibrogenesis. Yet, the responses of proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) to fluid flow remain uncharacterized. Here, we investigate the effects of ...
Herrera-Luna Cv - - 2012
Glucocorticoids (GCs) as mediators of the stress response may affect Leydig cell function by inhibiting either luteinizing hormone receptor expression or testosterone biosynthesis. The isozymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) 1 and 11βHSD2 control the intracellular cortisol levels. Little is known about the effects of stress on fertility in the equine. The ...
Mahoney Emilia E Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University (OSU), Columbus, OH 43210, - - 2012
Cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, such as flavopiridol, demonstrate significant single-agent activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but the mechanism of action in these nonproliferating cells is unclear. Here we demonstrate that CLL cells undergo autophagy after treatment with therapeutic agents, including fludarabine, CAL-101, and flavopiridol as well as the ...
Gao Hui-Juan - - 2012
Early pregnancy loss (EPL) is one of the most common complications of human reproduction. Combined with our previous proteomic studies on villous and decidual tissues of EPL, we found that alterations of the proteins involved in oxidative stress (OS), unfolded protein response (UPR) and proteolysis presented a complex and dynamic ...
Mastroianni Simone - - 2012
Mismatched or shadowed individual cells in a module can operate in the reverse bias (RB) regime. We investigate and identify key mechanisms for RB operation and degradation in dye solar cells (DSCs). Current-voltage characteristics in RB are sensitive to the type of dye utilised and to TiCl(4) substrate treatment. Subjecting ...
Leopoldino Andréia M AM Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Café, s/n, 14040-930 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. - - 2012
Determination of the SET protein levels in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tissue samples and the SET role in cell survival and response to oxidative stress in HNSCC cell lineages. SET protein was analyzed in 372 HNSCC tissue samples by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray and HNSCC cell lineages. ...
Hu Huigang - - 2012
Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. 'Paris') is sensitive to low temperature and highly susceptible to blackheart during cold storage, which causes serious fruit decay. This work investigated the effect of wax treatment (Sta-Fresh 2952, 60 g/L) on blackheart of pineapple under chilling stress. Wax treatment significantly reduced blackheart symptoms ...
Shibanuma Motoko - - 2012
In most human cancers, somatic mutations have been identified in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); however, their significance remains unclear. We have recently discovered that NMuMG mouse mammary epithelial cells (NMuMG cells), when deprived of mitochondria or following inhibition of respiratory activity, undergo epithelial morphological disruption accompanied with irregular edging of ...
Bito Toshinori - - 2012
Human epidermal keratinocytes are located on the body surface, which is a specialized location for component cells of human skin tissue. Those cells are always exposed to external stimuli, which constantly generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells. Regulation of the redox state is a key for maintaining intracellular ...
Dalmasso Marion - - 2012
Seven Propionibacterium freudenreichii strains exhibited similar responses when placed at 4°C. They slowed down cell machinery, displayed cold stress responses, and rerouted their carbon metabolism toward trehalose and glycogen synthesis, both accumulated in cells. These results highlight the molecular basis of long-term survival of P. freudenreichii in the cold.
Beard Robert A - - 2012
Tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) is an equatorial perennial with a high basal thermotolerance. Cultured tree tobacco guard cell protoplasts (GCPs) are useful for studying the effects of heat stress on fate-determining hormonal signaling. At lower temperatures (32°C or less), exogenous auxin (1-naphthalene acetic acid) and cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine) cause GCPs to ...
Kang Yong Won YW Department of Systems Biology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, - - 2012
We previously showed that silencing of NbBPS1 encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protein results in pleiotrophic developmental defects and cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana [Kang et al. (2008)]. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of the cell death caused by NbBPS1 silencing. Affected leaf cells exhibited morphological markers of ...
Yin Qing-Qing - - 2012
Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are elevated in aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), and they can stimulate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) via NADPH oxidase, induce oxidative stress that lead to cell death. In the current study, we investigated the molecular events underlying the process ...
Kuipers Arthur J - - 2012
The ability of cells to respond to mechanical stimulation is crucial to a variety of biological processes, including cell migration, axonal outgrowth, perception of pain, cardiovascular responses and kidney physiology. The translation of mechanical cues into cellular responses, a process known as mechanotransduction, typically takes place in specialized multiprotein structures ...
Eastwood Michael D - - 2012
Autophagy controls cellular catabolism in diverse eukaryotes and modulates programmed cell death in plants and animals. While studies of the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided fundamental insights into the mechanisms of autophagy, the roles of cell death pathways in yeast are less well understood. Here, we describe widespread developmentally ...
Han Yang-Guang - - 2012
The present study aimed to evaluate the potential toxicity and the general mechanism involved in multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-induced cytotoxicity in C6 rat glioma cell line. Two kinds of MWCNT, which were coded as MWCNT1 (measured 10-20nm in diameter and 2μm in average length) and MWCNT2 (measured 40-100nm in diameter ...
Prodromou Natalia V - - 2012
Primary cilia are involved in important developmental and disease pathways, such as the regulation of neurogenesis and tumorigenesis. They function as sensory antennae and are essential in the regulation of key extracellular signalling systems. We have investigated the effects of cell stress on primary cilia. Exposure of mammalian cells in ...
Gu Yuan Y Department of Tumor Pharmacology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, - - 2012
To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to ...
de Lucena Rodrigo Mendonça - - 2012
AIMS: The present work aimed at identifying the metabolic response to acid stress and the mechanisms that lead to cell tolerance and adaptation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two strategies were used: screening deletion mutants for cell growth at neutral and acid pH compared to wild type and measurement by qPCR of ...
Podder Biswajit - - 2012
Paraquat (PQ) is not only widely used as a potent herbicide but also causes severe fatality to humans around the world due to accidental or intentional ingestion. Silymarin is a well-known phytochemical whose multi-functional effects in humans include anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The efficacy of silymarin in protecting against ...
Lee Wing-Kee - - 2012
Upon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induction, cells endeavor to survive by engaging the adaptive stress response known as the unfolded protein response or by removing aggregated proteins via autophagy. Chronic ER stress culminates in apoptotic cell death, which involves induction of pro-apoptotic CHOP. Here, we show that bestrophin-3 (Best-3), a ...
Lafontaine Julie - - 2012
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The finite replicative lifespan of cells, termed cellular senescence, has been proposed as a protective mechanism against the proliferation of oncogenically damaged cells, that fuel cancer. This concept is further supported by the induction of premature senescence, a process which is activated when an oncogene is expressed in ...
Desalvo Joanna - - 2012
The ability to pair the regulation of metabolism and cellular energetics with oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes provides cancer cells with a growth and survival advantage over normal cells. We investigated the mechanism of cell death induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a sugar analogue with dual activity of inhibiting glycolysis and ...
Wakao Shohei - - 2012
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have attracted a great deal of attention, although the mechanism by which they are generated is still not fully understood. Currently, two theories, the stochastic and elite models, have been proposed. Some reports provide theoretical support for the stochastic model. Other reports, however, support the ...
Lindholm Dan - - 2012
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional coactivator that favorably affects mitochondrial function. This concept is supported by an increasing amount of data including studies in PGC-1α gene-deleted mice, suggesting that PGC-1α is a rescue factor capable of boosting cell metabolism and promoting cell survival. However, this view has ...
Wang Jianqing - - 2012
Lignocellulosic biomass is regarded as the most viable source of feedstock for industrial biorefinery, but the harmful inhibitors generated from the indispensable pretreatments prior to fermentation remain a daunting technical hurdle. Using an exogenous regulator, irrE, from the radiation-resistant Deinococcus radiodurans, we previously showed that a novel global regulator engineering ...
Zeng Li - - 2012
Mutations in either EPM2A, the gene encoding a dual-specificity phosphatase named laforin, or NHLRC1, the gene encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase named malin, cause Lafora disease in humans. Lafora disease is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by progressive myoclonus epilepsy, severe neurological deterioration and accumulation of poorly branched glycogen inclusions, ...
Hoffmann Tamara - - 2012
Bacillus subtilis synthesizes large amounts of the compatible solute proline as a cellular defense against high osmolarity to ensure a physiologically appropriate level of hydration of the cytoplasm and turgor. It also imports proline for this purpose via the osmotically inducible OpuE transport system. Unexpectedly, an opuE mutant was at ...
Zhang Jin-Kang - - 2012
Oxidative stress can induce apoptosis and decrease activities of osteoblasts. 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydr-oxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), is a potent antioxidant derived from a Chinese herb Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. To evaluate the protective effect provided by TSG to osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, the cells were pretreated with TSG for 24h before being treated with 0.3mM hydrogen ...
Yadunandam Anandam Kasin - - 2012
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive malignant diseases and is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Therefore, HCC requires more effective prevention and treatment strategies. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) remains the most widely used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of gastrointestinal, breast, head and neck, and ovarian cancers. In pursuit ...
Murray Ashley R - - 2012
A number of commercially available metal/metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) such as superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPION) are utilized by the medical field for a wide variety of applications. These NPs may able to induce dermal toxicity via their physical nature and reactive surface properties. We hypothesize that SPION may be toxic ...
Kshitiz - - 2012
Tissue development and regeneration involve tightly coordinated and integrated processes: selective proliferation of resident stem and precursor cells, differentiation into target somatic cell type, and spatial morphological organization. The role of the mechanical environment in the coordination of these processes is poorly understood. We show that multipotent cells derived from ...
Ene Iuliana V IV Aberdeen Fungal Group, School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, - - 2012
The survival of all microbes depends upon their ability to respond to environmental challenges. To establish infection, pathogens such as Candida albicans must mount effective stress responses to counter host defences while adapting to dynamic changes in nutrient status within host niches. Studies of C. albicans stress adaptation have generally been ...
Italiano Francesca - - 2012
The response of the carotenoidless Rhodobacter sphaeroides mutant R26 to chromate stress under photosynthetic conditions is investigated by biochemical and spectroscopic measurements, proteomic analysis and cell imaging. Cell cultures were found able to reduce chromate within 3-4 days. Chromate induces marked changes in the cellular dimension and morphology, as revealed by ...
Nagai Kaoru - - 2012
Endoplasmic reticulum stress commonly causes neuronal damage in a lot of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined neuroprotective effect of bovine milk phospholipid fraction (mPL) on mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced cell death. Neuro2a cells were induced cell death by ER stressor tunicamycin (TM) ...
Bronner Christian - - 2012
Comment on: Macaluso M, et al. Cell Cycle 2012; 11:1841-50.
Yan Ling L Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, - - 2012
The FOXO1 (forkhead box O1) transcription factor influences many key cellular processes, including those important in metabolism, proliferation and cell death. Reversible phosphorylation of FOXO1 at Thr(24) and Ser(256) regulates its subcellular localization, with phosphorylation promoting cytoplasmic localization, whereas dephosphorylation triggers nuclear import and transcriptional activation. In the present study, ...
Jimenez-Sanchez Celia - - 2012
We tested the hypothesis whether chemically-induced motility patterns of bacteria may affect their transport in porous media. Naphthalene-degrading Pseudomonas putida G7 cells were exposed to glucose, salicylate and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and their motility assessed by computer-assisted, quantitative swimming and capillary-based taxis determinations. Exposure to salicylate induced smooth movement with ...
Horiguchi Kotaro - - 2012
Folliculostellate (FS) cells in the anterior pituitary gland appear to have multifunctional properties. FS cells connect to each other at gap junctions and thereby form a histological and functional network. We have performed a series of studies on network formation in FS cells and recently reported that FS cells markedly ...
Dengler Vanina - - 2012
The Staphylococcus aureus cell wall stress stimulon (CWSS) is activated by cell envelope-targeting antibiotics or depletion of essential cell wall biosynthesis enzymes. The functionally uncharacterized S. aureus LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP) proteins, MsrR, SA0908 and SA2103, all belong to the CWSS. Although not essential, deletion of all three LCP proteins severely impairs ...
Deng Zhong Z Gene Expression and Regulation Program, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2012
Telomeres play crucial roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and control of cellular senescence. Most eukaryotic telomeres can be transcribed to generate a telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) that persists as a heterogeneous nuclear RNA and can be developmentally regulated. However, the precise function and regulation of TERRA in normal ...
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