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Results 401 - 450 of 3355
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Zhang Lei - - 2008
alpha-Glucosidase I regulates trimming of the terminal alpha-1,2-glucose residue in the N-glycan-processing pathway, which plays an important role in the quality control system in mammalian cells. However, the consequence of glucose trimming of the N-glycan in filamentous fungi is unclear. We identified the gene encoding alpha-glucosidase I in the human ...
Canning Elizabeth U - - 2008
We undertook a detailed ultrastructural investigation to gain insight into the early stages of development of the vermiform myxozoan, Buddenbrockia plumnatellae Schröder, 1910 in two bryozoan hosts. Early cell complexes arise in the peritoneum after division and migration of isolated cells in the host body wall. The development of cell ...
Donohoe Bryon S - - 2008
Plant cell walls are composed primarily of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins, and pectins. Of these components, lignins exhibit unique chemistry and physiological functions. Although lignins can be used as a product feedstock or as a fuel, lignins are also generally seen as a barrier to efficient enzymatic breakdown of biomass to ...
Li Lin - - 2008
Polarity is a fundamental cell property essential for differentiation, proliferation and morphogenesis in unicellular and multicellular organisms. We have recently demonstrated that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity is required for the establishment of anterior-posterior axis, leading to asymmetrical localization of F-actin in migrating monospores of the red alga Porphyra yezoensis. We ...
Sarmah Bhaskarjyoti B Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, U-3209 MRBIII, Nashville, TN 37232-8240, - - 2009
The inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (IP(5)) 2-kinase (Ipk1) catalyzes the production of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)) in eukaryotic cells. Previous studies have shown that IP(6) is required for efficient nuclear mRNA export in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report the first functional analysis of ipk1(+) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. S. pombe Ipk1 ...
Harrison Matthew T - - 2009
Photosynthetic rate per unit nitrogen generally declines as leaf mass per unit area (LMA) increases. To determine how much of this decline was associated with allocating a greater proportion of leaf nitrogen into cell wall material, we compared two groups of plants. The first group consisted of two species from ...
Chen Shau-Yan - - 2009
This study addresses morphological changes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus cells during the initial period of stress. Drastic changes occurred in cells under starvation with/without concomitant cold treatment for one to a few days. Under carbon starvation, rod-shaped cells became coccoid by reductive division, which was influenced by glucose/amino acid in the ...
Kitamura Akihiro - - 2009
It is possible that antifungal drugs with novel modes of action will provide favorable options to treat fungal infections. In the course of our screening for antifungal compounds acting on the cell wall, a pyridobenzimidazole derivative with unique activities, named D75-4590, was discovered. During treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with D75-4590, ...
Haitani Yutaka - - 2009
Rsp5 is an essential ubiquitin-protein ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found previously that the Ala401Glu rsp5 mutant is hypersensitive to various stresses that induce protein misfolding, suggesting that Rsp5 is a key enzyme for yeast cell growth under stress conditions. To isolate new Rsp5 variants as suppressors of the A401E ...
Angiolella Letizia - - 2009
Several proteins are covalently bound to the cell wall glucan (glucan-associated proteins (GAPs)) in Candida albicans and different drugs may cause their modulation. Proteomic analysis is a suitable approach to study differential GAP patterns between control and drug-treated cells. Since antimycotics induce variation in GAP content, we investigated the effect ...
Bui Nhat Khai - - 2009
Upon nutrient limitation cells of the swarming soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus form a multicellular fruiting body in which a fraction of the cells develop into myxospores. Spore development includes the transition from a rod-shaped vegetative cell to a spherical myxospore and so is expected to be accompanied by changes in ...
Tanino Takanori - - 2009
A Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)-displaying yeast whole-cell biocatalyst was constructed with the integration of the CALB cell-surface display expression cassette in the yeast genome and cell fusion by mating. Lipase hydrolytic activity of the yeast whole-cell biocatalyst subsequently increased, in both a- and alpha-type yeast cells, with the number ...
Badrane Hassan - - 2008
We previously identified Candida albicans Irs4p as an epidermal growth factor substrate 15 homology (EH) domain-containing protein that is reactive with antibodies in the sera of patients with candidiasis and contributes to cell wall integrity, hyphal formation and virulence. In this study, we use a yeast two-hybrid method and co-immunoprecipitation ...
Fudali Sylwia - - 2008
Cyst nematodes are economically important pests. As obligatory biotrophic endoparasites they invade host roots and induce formation of syncytia, structures that serve them as the only source of nutrients. During syncytium development, extensive cell wall modifications take place. Cell wall dissolution occurs during cell wall opening formation, cell walls expand ...
Scrimale Thomas - - 2009
The yeast cell wall is an extracellular structure that is dependent on secretory and membrane proteins for its construction. We investigated the role of protein quality control mechanisms in cell wall integrity and found that the unfolded protein response (UPR) and, to a lesser extent, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) ...
Oku Yusuke - - 2009
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is one of two anionic polymers on the surface of the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. LTA is critical for the bacterium-host cell interaction and has recently been shown to be required for cell growth and division. To determine additional biological roles of LTA, we found it necessary ...
Huang Gaoshan - - 2009
Transparent oxide rolled-up microtube arrays were constructed on Si substrates by the deposition of a pre-stressed oxide layer on a patterned photoresist sacrificial layer and the subsequent removal of this sacrificial layer. These microtubes as well as their arrays can be well positioned onto a chip for further applications, while ...
Ahmed, Malik Nazir
A Constrained Torsional Analysis of Thin-Walled Variable Cross-Section Multi-Cell Laminated Composite Beams has been undertaken . The existing Isotopic theory has been modified using the effective engineering elastic constants to cater for the Composite structures under torsional loads. The relevant computer programs for the Composite structure analysis have also been ...
Ooume Kentaro - - 2009
Complete submergence severely reduces growth rate and productivity of terrestrial plants, but much remains to be elucidated regarding the mechanisms involved. The aim of this study was to clarify the cellular basis of growth suppression by submergence in stems. The effects of submergence on the viscoelastic extensibility of the cell ...
Tsuge Yota - - 2008
In previous work, random genome deletion mutants of Corynebacterium glutamicum R were generated using the insertion sequence (IS) element IS31831 and the Cre/loxP excision system. One of these mutants, C. glutamicum strain RD41, resulting from the deletion of a 10.1-kb genomic region (DeltacgR_1595 through cgR_1604) from the WT strain, showed ...
Muñoz Javier A - - 2008
Polyelectrolyte capsules with metal nanoparticles in their walls and fluorescently labeled polymers as cargo inside their cavity were prepared. Capsules were ingested by living cells with no uncontrolled release of the cargo upon the incorporation process. Photoinduced heating of the metal nanoparticles in the capsule walls lead to rupture of ...
Francius Grégory - - 2008
The advent of Staphylococcus aureus strains that are resistant to virtually all antibiotics has increased the need for new antistaphylococcal agents. An example of such a potential therapeutic is lysostaphin, an enzyme that specifically cleaves the S. aureus peptidoglycan, thereby lysing the bacteria. Here we tracked over time the structural ...
Chatterjee Subhadeep - - 2008
Cell-to-cell signaling mediated by a fatty acid diffusible signaling factor (DSF) is central to the regulation of the virulence of Xylella fastidiosa. DSF production by X. fastidiosa is dependent on rpfF and, although required for insect colonization, appears to reduce its virulence to grape. To understand what aspects of colonization ...
Kimoto-Nira H - - 2008
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis G50 has immunomodulatory activity and is a candidate for use as a probiotic strain. We investigated the factors that affect the immunomodulatory activity of this strain. The macrophage-like cell line J774.1A was exposed to live or dead cells of strain G50 grown in different media, and ...
Furukawa Ryohei - - 2009
Here we characterize starfish larval mesenchyme cells, in terms of not only their phagocytic behavior, but also their structural and functional properties as a defense system. Our study reveals the following: (1) most mesenchyme cells construct a dynamic network structure beneath the body wall; (2) mesenchyme cells phagocytically respond to ...
Gou Jin-Ying - - 2008
Acylesterification is one of the common modifications of cell wall non-cellulosic polysaccharides and/or lignin primarily in monocot plants. We analyzed the cell-wall acylesters of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy, and synchrotron infrared (IR) imaging facility. The results revealed that ...
Wilkinson Brendan L - - 2008
A series of arabino glycosyl triazoles with varying hydrophobic groups were synthesised as putative mimics of decaprenolphosphoarabinose (DPA) as potential inhibitors of mycobacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Biological testing against Mycobacterium bovis BCG revealed low to moderate anti-mycobacterial activity, with strong dependence on the identity of the hydrophobic side chain.
Inngjerdingen Marit - - 2008
The Malian medicinal plant Biophytum petersianum Klotzsch (Oxalidaceae) is used as a treatment against various types of illnesses related to the immune system, such as joint pains, inflammations, fever, malaria, and wounds. A pectic polysaccharide obtained from a hot water extract of the aerial parts of B. petersianum has previously ...
Hempel Antje Marie - - 2008
Time-lapse imaging of Streptomyces hyphae revealed foci of the essential protein DivIVA at sites where lateral branches will emerge. Overexpression experiments showed that DivIVA foci can trigger establishment of new zones of cell wall assembly, suggesting a key role of DivIVA in directing peptidoglycan synthesis and cell shape in Streptomyces.
Badreddine Ilham - - 2008
Chitin is an essential component of fungal cell walls, where it forms a crystalline scaffold, and chitooligosaccharides derived from it are signaling molecules recognized by the hosts of pathogenic fungi. Oomycetes are cellulosic fungus-like microorganisms which most often lack chitin in their cell walls. Here we present the first study ...
da Silva Moises Batista - - 2008
Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the main agent of chromoblastomycosis, a skin disease presenting verrucous lesions, in which round, thick-walled sclerotic cells are found. In vitro induction of sclerotic cells is time-consuming (20 to 45 days) and temperature dependent. We present two new natural media that reduce the sclerotic-cell induction time to ...
Hayhurst Emma J - - 2008
The bacterial cell wall is essential for viability and shape determination. Cell wall structural dynamics allowing growth and division, while maintaining integrity is a basic problem governing the life of bacteria. The polymer peptidoglycan is the main structural component for most bacteria and is made up of glycan strands that ...
Helfenstein Maria - - 2008
Evidence from epidemiological studies indicates that acute exposure to airborne pollutants is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the effects of combustion-derived ultrafine particles (diesel exhaust particles) as well as engineered nanoparticles (titanium dioxide and single-walled carbon nanotubes) on ...
Mandlik Anjali A Department of Molecular, Microbial, and Structural Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030, - - 2008
Cell surface pili in gram-positive bacteria orchestrate the colonization of host tissues, evasion of immunity, and the development of biofilms. Recent work revealed that pilus assembly is a biphasic process wherein pilus polymerization is catalyzed by a pilus-specific sortase followed by cell wall anchoring of the pilus that is promoted ...
Castillo Luis - - 2008
Considering the importance of proteins in the structure and function of the cell wall of Candida albicans, we analyzed the cell wall subproteome of this important human pathogen by LC coupled to MS (LC-MS) using different protein extraction procedures. The analyzed samples included material extracted by hydrogen fluoride-pyridine (HF-pyridine), and ...
Yamamoto Hiroki - - 2008
Three D,L-endopeptidases, LytE, LytF and CwlS, are involved in the vegetative cell separation in Bacillus subtilis. A novel cell surface protein, IseA, inhibits the cell wall lytic activities of these d,l-endopeptidases in vitro, and IseA negatively regulates the cell separation enzymes at the post-translational level. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that the ...
Yamamoto Hiroki - - 2008
Cell separation in Bacillus subtilis depends on specific activities of DL-endopeptidases CwlS, LytF and LytE. Immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) indicated that the localization of LytF depended on its N-terminal LysM domain. In addition, we revealed that the LysM domain efficiently binds to peptidoglycan (PG) prepared by chemically removing wall teichoic acids ...
Malaviya Alok - - 2008
Mycobacterial cell wall is rigid and offers a high resistance to the transport of sitosterol into cytosol. The effect of ethambutol, penicillin, polymixin and bacitracin on biotransformation of sitosterol to androstenedione by modification of cell wall permeability was examined. Drug sensitivity assay results established that bacitracin increased the permeability of ...
Hayashi Shimpei - - 2008
Despite the importance of extracellular events in cell wall organization and biogenesis, the mechanisms and related factors are largely unknown. We isolated an allele of the shaven3 (shv3) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which exhibits ruptured root hair cells during tip growth. SHV3 encodes a novel protein with two tandemly repeated ...
Yao Song-yi - - 2008
We examined the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipotechoic acid (LTA) on the regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) alpha on the MO3.13 cells, a human oligodendroglial cell line. Our study shows that MO3.13 cells express the toll like receptors (TLR's) but do not increase cellular levels of HIF-1 alpha ...
Sun X Z - - 2008
AIMS: Determine the susceptibility of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) to degradation by ruminal fibrolytic bacteria and measure the effects on cell-wall pectic polysaccharides. METHODS AND RESULTS: Large segments of fresh forage chicory were degraded in vitro by Lachnospira multiparus and Fibrobacter succinogenes, but not by Ruminococcus flavefaciens or Butyrivibrio ...
Plaine Armêl A Laboratoire de Microbiologie et Génétique Moléculaire, AgroParisTech, UMR-INRA 1238, UMR-CNRS 2585, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, - - 2008
The outer layer of the Candida albicans cell wall is enriched in highly glycosylated proteins. The major class, the GlycosylPhosphatidylInositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are tethered to the wall by GPI-anchor remnants and include adhesins, glycosyltransferases, yapsins and superoxide dismutases. In silico analysis suggested that C. albicans possesses 115 putative GPI anchored ...
Garcia-Olmo Damian - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Expanded adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) have been shown to be effective in treating Crohn's patients with enterocutaneous fistulas. It is possible that unexpanded cells corresponding to the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) may also be effective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A subpopulation of patients from a previous proof-of-concept phase I study ...
Codlin Sandra - - 2008
btn1, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe orthologue of the human Batten-disease gene CLN3, is involved in vacuole pH homeostasis. We show that loss of btn1 also results in a defective cell wall marked by sensitivity to zymolyase, a beta-glucanase. The defect can be rescued by expression of Btn1p or CLN3, and the ...
Cabib Enrico - - 2008
The cross-linking of polysaccharides to assemble new cell wall in fungi requires mechanisms by which a preexisting linkage is broken for each new one made, to allow for the absence of free energy sources outside the plasma membrane. Previous work showed that Crh1p and Crh2p, putative transglycosylases, are required for ...
Marks M David - - 2008
A new procedure has been developed for the isolation of wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis trichomes. The isolated trichomes maintained enzymatic activity and were used for DNA, protein, and RNA isolation. The RNA was used to generate probes suitable for Affymetrix analysis. The validity of the Affymetrix results was confirmed by ...
Bussy Cyrill - - 2008
X-ray fluorescence microscopy (microXRF) is applied for the first time to study macrophages exposed to unpurified and purified single-walled (SW) and multiwalled (MW) carbon nanotubes (CNT). Investigating chemical elemental distributions allows one to (i) image nanotube localization within a cell and (ii) detect chemical modification of the cell after CNT ...
Rodrigues Marcio L - - 2008
Fungal cells are encaged in rigid, complex cell walls. Until recently, there was remarkably little information regarding the trans-fungal cell wall transfer of intracellular macromolecules to the extracellular space. Recently, several studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms that fungal cells utilize to secrete a wide variety of macromolecules through ...
Liu D Y T - - 2008
The fluorescence patterns of proteins tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its derivatives are routinely used in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy to identify their sub-cellular localization in plant cells. GFP-tagged proteins localized to plasmodesmata, the intercellular junctions of plants, are often identified by single or paired ...
Jamme F - - 2008
Infrared microspectroscopy and immunolabeling techniques were employed in order to obtain deeper insight into the biochemical nature of aleurone cell walls of wheat grain. The use of a synchrotron source, thanks to its intrinsic brightness, has provided unprecedented information at the level of a few micrometers and has allowed the ...
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