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Krysan Damian J DJ Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology/Immunology; University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry; Rochester, NY - - 2009
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway that regulates the cellular response to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in eukaryotes. Our group has demonstrated that cell wall stress activates UPR in yeast through signals transmitted by the cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. The ...
Pereira Sandro F F SF Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica (ITQB) da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), 2780 Oeiras, - - 2009
Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) catalyse the synthesis of cell wall peptidoglycan. PBP1 of Staphylococcus aureus is a high-molecular-weight monofunctional transpeptidase (TPase) and previous studies with a conditional mutant showed that this protein was essential for bacterial growth and survival: cells in which PBP1 was depleted stopped dividing but continued to enlarge ...
Eldholm Vegard - - 2009
Pneumococci that have developed the competent state kill and lyse non-competent sister cells and members of closely related species during co-cultivation in vitro. The key component in this process, called fratricide, is the product of the late competence gene cbpD. In addition, the peptidoglycan hydrolases LytA and LytC are required ...
Levitz Stuart M - - 2009
Th17 cells are thought to play a pivotal role in defenses against Candida albicans. van de Veerdonk et al. (2009) investigate components of the fungal cell wall and their cognate receptors on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) responsible for IL-17 production and find a predominant role for mannan stimulation ...
Kim Jin Seob - - 2009
Bacterial cells exist in a wide variety of shapes. To understand the mechanism of bacterial shape maintenance, we investigate the morphology of Caulobacter crescentus, which is a Gram-negative bacterium that adopts a helical crescent shape. It is known that crescentin, an intermediate filament homolog of C. crescentus, is required for ...
Suo Zhiyong - - 2009
A bacterial cell wall is a highly dynamic multilayer structure interfacing the cytoplasm to the outside environment. It supports a multitude of chemical and biological processes necessary for life. It is therefore postulated that damage to the structure of bacterial cell wall would threaten cell integrity and result in cell ...
Moreno-Ruiz Emilia - - 2009
The fungal cell wall is essential in maintaining cellular integrity and plays key roles in the interplay between fungal pathogens and their hosts. The PGA59 and PGA62 genes encode two short and related glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell wall proteins and their expression has been previously shown to be strongly upregulated when the ...
Verbelen Claire - - 2009
Although the chemical composition of mycobacterial cell walls is well known, the 3D organization of the various constituents is not fully understood. In particular, it is unclear whether the major wall component lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is exposed on the outermost surface or hindered by other constituents such as mycolic acids. To ...
Ribalet Francois - - 2009
Diatoms have evolved a silicified cell wall that provides an efficient barrier against herbivores. These microalgae also produce chemical compounds such as polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) that can potentially impair recruitment and cause malformations in the offspring of such grazers. We measured silica content as an indication of cell wall thickness, ...
Hatfield Ronald D - - 2009
This study was undertaken to compare cell wall characteristics including levels of p-coumarate (pCA) and lignin in corn ( Zea mays L.) types. Five different types of corn, four commercial and Teosinte, were grown in the greenhouse in individual pots. For each corn type replicate stems were harvested at tassel ...
Vicens Anysia - - 2009
Polysaccharide modification is the most fundamental factor that affects firmness of fruit during ripening. In grape, because of the lack of information on the modifications occurring in cell wall polysaccharides in skins, but also because this tissue contains large amounts of organoleptic compounds for winemaking, a study was performed on ...
García-Angulo Penélope - - 2009
Suspension-cultured bean cells habituated to growth in a lethal concentration of dichlobenil were cultured for 3-5 years in a medium lacking the inhibitor in order to obtain long-term dehabituated cell lines. The growth parameters, cell morphology and ultrastructure of cells in the absence of dichlobenil reverted to that of non-habituated ...
Ueno Ryohei - - 2009
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using taxon-specific, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes is one of the most powerful tools for the rapid identification of harmful microorganisms. However, eukaryotic algal cells do not always allow FISH probes to permeate over their cell walls. Members of the pathogenic micro-algal genus Prototheca are characterized by ...
Blaize Jonathan - - 2009
Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental pollutants associated with endocrine disruption and peroxisome proliferation in experimental animals. In yeasts exposed to environmental chemicals, including phthalates, alterations in cell growth, cellular morphology, and H2O2 detoxification occur. Nutrient availability also influences diverse cellular processes. Differences in responses to environmental stress between Candida albicans and ...
Jöchl Christoph - - 2009
Aspergillus fumigatus is an ubiquitous, filamentous and opportunistic pathogenic fungus which causes fatal invasive aspergillosis among immuno-compromised patients. Since therapeutic strategies are currently limited, the mortality rate of invasive aspergillosis is high and thus, alternative antifungal strategies are required. In this study, we demonstrate that during vegetative growth Aspergillus fumigatus ...
Patti Gary J GJ Department of Chemistry, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, - - 2009
The molecular details of the biosynthesis and resulting architecture of the bacterial cell wall remain unclear but are essential to understanding the activity of glycopeptide antibiotics, the recognition of pathogens by hosts, and the processes of bacterial growth and division. Here we report a new strategy to elucidate bacterial cell-wall ...
Hudson, Laura Christine
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne sp.) are sedentary endoparasites that infect roots of a wide range of plant species and cause considerable economic loss to many crops. Root-knot nematodes (RKN) transform selected root vascular cells into enlarged, multinucleate feeding sites called giant-cells that arise from repeated karyokinesis without cytokinesis. Giant-cells undergo extensive ...
Orhan Mustafa - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to give information about the anatomy of agger nasi cell for the surgery of the nasal cavity lateral wall. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty mid-sagittal head sections were obtained at random from formalin fixed male Turkish cadavers (12 left sides, 8 right sides). The ...
Dörner Ursula - - 2009
As part of a comparative study of the cell wall of corynebacteria, a channel-forming protein was characterized in Corynebacterium amycolatum, a species devoid of corynemycolic acids. Corynebacterium amycolatum cells were disrupted and the cell envelope subjected to two different separation procedures, differential centrifugation to separate the different fractions of the ...
Schirner Kathrin - - 2009
Teichoic acids (TAs) are anionic polymers that constitute a major component of the cell wall in most Gram-positive bacteria. Despite decades of study, their function has remained unclear. TAs are covalently linked either to the cell wall peptidoglycan (wall TA (WTA)) or to the membrane (lipo-TA (LTA)). We have characterized ...
MISHIRO, Akiyoshi
Paraffin was impregnated into voids in the wood to prevent internal swelling into the lumen, and the swelling stress of the cell wall was measured. The results were: 1 The figure of 124/cm2 for the swelling stress of the cell wall in constant one-dimensional restraint was obtained. 2 Although the ...
Leaver M - - 2009
The cell wall is an essential structure for virtually all bacteria, forming a tough outer shell that protects the cell from damage and osmotic lysis. It is the target of our best antibiotics. L-form strains are wall-deficient derivatives of common bacteria that have been studied for decades. However, they are ...
Winder Monika - - 2009
Diatoms contribute to a substantial portion of primary production in the oceans and many lakes. Owing to their relatively heavy cell walls and high nutrient requirements, planktonic diatoms are expected to decrease with climate warming because of reduced nutrient redistribution and increasing sinking velocities. Using a historical dataset, this study ...
Das Sujoy K - - 2009
Alterations of cell surface properties accompanying the complex life cycle of Termitomyces clypeatus have been monitored using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A new hyphae/mycelium is developed on cell division, and the cell wall of the mycelium undergoes a process of internal reorganization (or maturation) followed by morphological and chemical alterations. ...
Wakabayashi Kazuyuki - - 2009
The effects of accelerated gravity stimuli on the cell wall-bound peroxidase activity and the lignin content were investigated along epicotyls of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) seedlings. The endogenous growth occurred primarily in the upper regions of the epicotyl, but no growth was detected in the middle or basal regions. Hypergravity ...
Voigt Jürgen - - 2009
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii wild-type cells are surrounded by the insoluble cell wall component, a sac-like framework of cross-linked glycoproteins containing 22% hydroxyproline. The chaotrope-soluble cell wall glycoprotein GP1 is the only polypeptide with an even higher proportion of hydroxyproline (35%) occurring in vegetative C. reinhardtii cells. Mass spectrometric analyses of peptides ...
Geitmann Anja - - 2009
In tip-growing plant cells such as pollen tubes and root hairs, surface expansion is confined to the cell apex. Vesicles containing pectic cell wall material are delivered to this apical region to provide the material necessarily to build the expanding cell wall. Quantification of wall expansion reveals that the surface ...
Kubo Takeaki - - 2009
The timely breakdown of the extracellular matrix by proteolytic enzymes is essential for development, morphogenesis and cell proliferation in plant and animal cells. Sporangin of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that mediates breakdown of the sporangial cell wall to liberate the daughter cells after cell division is characterized as ...
Olawole, OO; ;
Two transgenic potato lines, csr2-1 and csr4-8, containing two different antisense genes, csr2 and csr4, respectively, were crossed to investigate the possibility of achieving reduction in cellulose content in the tuber cell walls of the progeny. The progeny containing both transgenes (double csr2/csr4 transformant) exhibited reduction of 63% in cell ...
Kaneda, Minako
Lignin is a key component of plant secondary cell walls, providing strength to the plant and allowing water transport. Lignin is a polymer of monolignols that are synthesized in the cell and transported into the cellulose rich cell wall. The primary goal of this thesis is to understand the mechanism(s) ...
Duckett Jeffrey G - - 2009
The nineteenth century air-gun explanation for explosive spore discharge in Sphagnum has never been tested experimentally. Similarly, the function of the numerous stomata ubiquitous in the capsule walls has never been investigated. Both intact and pricked Sphagnum capsules, that were allowed to dry out, all dehisced over an 8-12 h ...
Chauhan Neeraj - - 2009
Proteomics is the term for the large-scale analysis of proteins. Such studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of gene function in the postgenomic era. Besides identification, the characterization of protein function is also a key objective of proteomic research. One of the major challenges for Candida biologists is how ...
Morais M M - - 2009
The hygienic behavior of honey bees is based on a two-step process, including uncapping and removing diseased, dead, damaged, or parasitized brood inside the cell. We evaluated during periods of 1 h the time that hygienic and non-hygienic colonies of Africanized honey bees spend to detect, uncap and remove pin-killed ...
Allan E J - - 2009
L-forms are "cell wall-deficient" bacteria which are able to grow as spheroplasts or protoplasts. They can be differentiated into four types depending on their ability to revert to the parental, cell-walled form and to the extent of their cell-wall modification. L-forms are significant in modern science because of their contributions ...
Suslov Dmitry - - 2009
To elucidate the role of cellulose microfibrils in the control of growth anisotropy, a link between their net orientation, in vitro cell wall extensibility, and anisotropic cell expansion was studied during development of the adaxial epidermis of onion (Allium cepa) bulb scales using polarization confocal microscopy, creep tests, and light ...
Gagnon Zachary - - 2009
We introduce a method for improved dielectrophoretic (DEP) discrimination and separation of viable and nonviable yeast cells. Due to the higher cell wall permeability of nonviable yeast cells compared with their viable counterpart, the cross-linking agent glutaraldehyde (GLT) is shown to selectively cross-link nonviable cells to a much greater extent ...
Sipponen Arno - - 2009
Resin salve prepared from Norway spruce (Picea abies) has been used for centuries in traditional medicine to treat skin diseases. The authors studied with transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and with electron physiology, changes in cell wall and cell membrane of Staphylococcus aureus after exposure of the bacterial cultures to ...
Doering Tamara Lea TL Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, Missouri, USA. - - 2009
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus responsible for severe opportunistic infections. The most prominent feature of this yeast is its elaborate polysaccharide capsule, a complex structure that is required for virulence. The capsule is intimately associated with the cell wall, which underlies the capsule and offers the organism strength and ...
Thiele Knut - - 2009
The primary plant cell wall is laid down over a brief period of time during cytokinesis. Initially, a membrane network forms at the equator of a dividing cell. The cross-wall is then assembled and remodeled within this membrane compartment. Callose is the predominant luminal component of the nascent cross-wall or ...
Peaucelle Alexis - - 2008
Plant organs are produced from meristems in a characteristic pattern. This pattern, referred to as phyllotaxis, is thought to be generated by local gradients of an information molecule, auxin. Some studies propose a key role for the mechanical properties of the cell walls in the control of organ outgrowth. A ...
Shen Junqing - - 2008
A single species, Candida albicans, causes half of all invasive fungal infections in humans. Unlike other fungal pathogens, this organism switches between growth as budding yeast and as pseudohyphal and hyphal filaments in host organs and in vitro. Both cell types play a role in invasive disease: while hyphal and ...
Toole G A - - 2009
Previous studies using spectroscopic imaging have allowed the spatial distribution of structural components in wheat endosperm cell walls to be determined. FT-IR microspectroscopy showed differing changes in arabinoxylan (AX) structure, during grain development under cool/wet and hot/dry growing conditions, for differing cultivars (Toole et al. in Planta 225:1393-1403, 2007). These ...
Hamann Thorsten - - 2009
Development, abiotic and biotic stress each affect the physical architecture and chemical composition of the plant cell wall, making maintenance of cell-wall integrity an important component of many plant processes. Cellulose biosynthesis inhibition (CBI) was employed to impair the functional integrity of the cell wall, and the plant's response to ...
Castro Nadya da Silva Nda - - 2009
The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic granulomatous mycosis prevalent in Latin America. In an effort to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in fungus cell wall assembly and morphogenesis, beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferase 3 (PbGel3p) is presented here. PbGel3p presented functional similarity to the glucan-elongating/glycophospholipid-anchored surface/pH-regulated /essential for pseudohyphal development protein families, ...
Mélida Hugo - - 2009
Growth of maize (Zea mays L.) callus-culture cells was inhibited using dichlobenil (2,6 dichlorobenzonitrile, DCB) concentrations > or =1 microM; I (50) value for the effect on inhibited fresh weight gain was 1.5 microM. By increasing the DCB concentration in the culture medium, DCB-habituated cells became 13 times more tolerant ...
Huang Kerwyn Casey - - 2008
In bacterial cells, the peptidoglycan cell wall is the stress-bearing structure that dictates cell shape. Although many molecular details of the composition and assembly of cell-wall components are known, how the network of peptidoglycan subunits is organized to give the cell shape during normal growth and how it is reorganized ...
Radotić K - - 2008
We used an atomic force microscope to image cell wall isolated from needles of Serbian spruce tree and that synthesized from cell wall components. We also observed the structure of lignin model polymer (DHP), as a best substitute for the natural lignin. A tendency of aggregate formation was observed in ...
van Loon Leendert C - - 2008
Colonization of roots by selected strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. can trigger induced systemic resistance (ISR) against foliar pathogens in a plant species-specific manner. It has been suggested that early responses in cell suspension cultures in response to rhizobacterial elicitors, such as generation of active oxygen species (AOS) and extracellular ...
Zhang Lei - - 2008
alpha-Glucosidase I regulates trimming of the terminal alpha-1,2-glucose residue in the N-glycan-processing pathway, which plays an important role in the quality control system in mammalian cells. However, the consequence of glucose trimming of the N-glycan in filamentous fungi is unclear. We identified the gene encoding alpha-glucosidase I in the human ...
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