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Melamed Daniel - - 2010
The yeast ribosomal protein Asc1 is a WD-protein family member. Its mammalian ortholog, RACK1 was initially discovered as a receptor for activated protein C kinase (PKC) that functions to maintain the active conformation of PKC and to support its movement to target sites. In the budding yeast though, a connection ...
Traven Ana - - 2010
Recent evidence indicates considerable cross-talk between genome maintenance and cell integrity control pathways. The RNA recognition motif (RRM)- and SQ/TQ cluster domain (SCD)-containing protein Mdt1 is required for repair of 3'-blocked DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and efficient recombinational maintenance of telomeres in budding yeast. Here we show that deletion of ...
Fagan Robert - - 2010
The bacterial cell surface is an important structure as it mediates interactions with the external environment. In the case of pathogens like Clostridium difficile, the cell wall and its components also have to mediate interactions with the host cells and their products. In this chapter we discuss the various methods ...
Araki Yuko - - 2010
Endoglucanase Cel5A from Clostridium josui contains a family 17 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) (CjCBM17) and a family 28 CBM (CjCBM28) in tandem. These two CBMs bound to non-crystalline cellulose and beta-1,3-1,4-glucan. Our results indicate that the CBMs recognized different components on the cell wall of a sweet potato root. The root ...
Hao Yuqing - - 2010
Bacterial virulence could be altered by the antimicrobial agents of the host. Our aim was to identify the damage and survival of Streptococcus sanguinis induced by lysozymes in vitro and to analyse the potential of oral microorganisms to shirk host defences, which cause infective endocarditis. S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 received ...
Günl Markus - - 2010
The direct contact of cells to the environment is mediated in many organisms by an extracellular matrix. One common aspect of extracellular matrices is that they contain complex sugar moieties in form of glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and/or polysaccharides. Examples include the extracellular matrix of humans and animal cells consisting mainly of ...
Grabber John H - - 2010
Recent discoveries highlighting the metabolic malleability of plant lignification indicate that lignin can be engineered to dramatically alter its composition and properties. Current plant biotechnology efforts are primarily aimed at manipulating the biosynthesis of normal monolignols, but in the future apoplastic targeting of phenolics from other metabolic pathways may provide ...
Hett Erik C - - 2010
Bacterial cell growth and division require coordinated cell wall hydrolysis and synthesis, allowing for the removal and expansion of cell wall material. Without proper coordination, unchecked hydrolysis can result in cell lysis. How these opposing activities are simultaneously regulated is poorly understood. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the resuscitation-promoting factor B (RpfB), ...
Montagna Thiago S - - 2010
Tis study examined the nest architecture, colony productivity, and duration of the immature stages of the social wasp Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The study was carried out under field conditions. Nests of M. consimilis consist of a single uncovered comb, which is attached to the substratum by a single ...
Shoji Jun-ya - - 2010
Filamentous fungi consist of continuum of multinucleate cells called hyphae, and proliferate by means of hyphal tip growth. Accordingly, research interest has been focusing on hyphal tip cells, but little is known about basal cells in colony interior that do not directly contribute to proliferation. Here, we show that autophagy ...
Andre Guillaume - - 2010
The spatial organization of peptidoglycan, the major constituent of bacterial cell-walls, is an important, yet still unsolved issue in microbiology. In this paper, we show that the combined use of atomic force microscopy and cell wall mutants is a powerful platform for probing the nanoscale architecture of cell wall peptidoglycan ...
Camp?s Otger - - 2009
Walled cells have the ability to remodel their shape while sustaining an internal turgor pressure that can reach values up to 10 atmospheres [1-7]. Although it is undisputed that this requires a tight and simultaneous regulation of cell wall assembly and mechanics, previous theoretical studies on tip growth focused either ...
Chu Li-Qiang - - 2010
Confocal raman microscopy has been used to monitor the structural and chemical changes upon NaOH treatment of Miscanthus x giganteus, a potential energy crop and a model lignocellulosic material. Longitudinal and transversal-section images of the parenchyma cells in raw miscanthus samples reveal that lignin and cellulose are collocated in the ...
Ritch J J - - 2010
Deletion of the Saccharomyces gene, UTH1, a founding member of the SUN family of fungal genes, has pleiotropic effects. Several phenotypes of Deltauth1 cells including their decreased levels of mitochondrial proteins, their impaired autophagic degradation of mitochondria, and their increased viability in the presence of mammalian BAX, a proapoptotic regulator ...
Winn Michael - - 2010
The quest for new antibiotics, especially those with activity against Gram-negative bacteria, is urgent; however, very few new antibiotics have been marketed in the last 40 years, with this limited number falling into only four new structural classes. Several nucleoside natural product antibiotics target bacterial translocase MraY, involved in the ...
Bramkamp Marc - - 2010
Cell wall synthesis in bacteria is spatially organized by cytoskeletal structures. Common to all cell wall-bearing bacteria, the cytokinetic machinery localizes the cell wall synthesis to the site of septation. Recently, MinJ, a new component of the cytokinetic machinery, or divisome, of Bacillus subtilis has been described. MinJ is part ...
Chen Li - - 2009
Plant cells have been reported to play an important role in the uptake of organic contaminants. This study was undertaken to provide an insight into the role of the root cell walls and their subfractions on sorption of phenanthrene to roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Root cell walls were ...
Schneider Tanja - - 2010
Bacterial cell wall biosynthesis represents the target pathway for penicillin, the first antibiotic that was clinically applied on a large scale. Penicillin, by means of its beta-lactam ring, inhibits a number of enzymes which participate in inserting monomeric cell wall building blocks into the cell wall polymer and which have ...
Anderson Charles T - - 2010
Cellulose forms the major load-bearing network of the plant cell wall, which simultaneously protects the cell and directs its growth. Although the process of cellulose synthesis has been observed, little is known about the behavior of cellulose in the wall after synthesis. Using Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4B, a dye that ...
Mukhopadhyay Ranjan - - 2009
Bacterial cells come in a variety of shapes, determined by the stress-bearing cell wall. Though many molecular details about the cell wall are known, our understanding of how a particular shape is produced during cell growth is at its infancy. Experiments on curved Escherichia coli grown in microtraps, and on ...
Shu Qinke - - 2009
A hybrid solar cell model composed of a heterojunction cell and a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell has been proposed and characterized. In the hybrid cell, a thin film of double-walled carbon nanotubes forms a heterojunction with the silicon nanowire (SiNW) array and also functions as the transparent counter electrode of the ...
Saad N - - 2009
The aim of this study was to provide new insight into the mechanism whereby the housekeeping enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) locates to cell walls of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v. After purification, cytosolic and cell wall GAPDH (cw-GAPDH) forms were characterized and shown to be identical homotetrameric active enzymes. GAPDH concentration on ...
Legland David - - 2010
The cellular structure of fleshy fruits is of interest to study fruit shape, size, mechanical behaviour or sensory texture. The cellular structure is usually not observed in the whole fruit but, instead, in a sample of limited size and volume. It is therefore difficult to extend measurements to the whole ...
Ehlers Katrin - - 2010
Frequency, density and branching of plasmodesmata were counted in successive tangential and transverse walls in the cambial zone of tomato stems in order to examine development of the plasmodesmal network in a chronological order. Coincident with progress of cell development, plasmodesmal connectivity increased, both at the xylem- and phloem-side. In ...
Eicher S D - - 2010
The objectives were to ascertain whether a yeast cell-wall derivative that was 1.8% beta-glucan in combination with ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate could improve innate immunity and mediate transportation stress in neonatal calves, and to compare the 1.8% beta-glucan yeast cell-wall derivative with a more purified yeast cell-wall derivative (70% beta-glucan). Treatments were 1) ...
Geitmann Anja - - 2010
Expansive growth in plant cells is a formidable problem for biophysical studies, and the mechanical principles governing the generation of complex cellular geometries are still poorly understood. Pollen, the male gametophyte stage of the flowering plants, is an excellent model system for the investigation of the mechanics of complex growth ...
Szymanski Daniel B - - 2009
The slow and irreversible changes in plant cell shape include the cytoplasmic control of cell wall yielding in response to turgor pressure and the genesis of intracellular trafficking routes to the cell cortex. However, we lack a clear understanding of how interactions between cytoskeletal arrays and endomembrane compartments influence the ...
Saito Akihiro - - 2010
To evaluate Ni dynamics at the subcellular level, the distribution and speciation of Ni were determined in wild-type (WT) and Ni-tolerant (NIT) tobacco BY-2 cell lines. When exposed to low but toxic levels of Ni, NIT cells were found to contain 2.5-fold more Ni (14% of whole-cell Ni values) in ...
Liu Yajun - - 2009
Histochemical staining using vanillin-HCl is a potential tool to identify the site-specific accumulation of catechins in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). Using this technique revealed that catechins existed ubiquitously in all inspected tissues in young tea leaf, but the distribution was concentrated in the vascular bundle and ...
Kralj Kuncic Marjetka - - 2010
The basidiomycetous genus Wallemia is an active inhabitant of hypersaline environments, and it has recently been described as comprising three halophilic and xerophilic species: Wallemia ichthyophaga, Wallemia muriae, and Wallemia sebi. Considering the important protective role the fungal cell wall has under fluctuating physicochemical environments, this study was focused on ...
Wang L - - 2009
The acquisition of desiccation tolerance in dicotyledonous angiosperms requires the induction of a co-ordinated programme of genetic and biochemical processes during drying and the adaptive mechanisms are primarily protoplasmic in nature. Recent studies have shown that changes in cell wall structure and composition are also important for recovery after drying, ...
Sayin Ismail - - 2009
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is used for the characterization of six yeast species and six isolates. The sample for SERS analysis is prepared by mixing the yeast cells with a four times concentrated silver colloidal suspension. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the strength of the interaction between ...
García-Angulo Penélope - - 2009
The habituation of cell cultures to cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors constitutes a valuable method for learning more about the plasticity of plant cell wall composition and structure. The subculture of habituated cells in the absence of an inhibitor (dehabituation) offers complementary information: some habituation-associated modifications revert, whereas others remain, even after ...
Pl?sek Jarom?r - - 2010
Fluorescence spectral properties of calcofluor (a popular stain used to visualize cell walls of bacteria, yeast and fungi) has been studied. The analysis of calcofluor fluorescence emission spectra measured in a wide range of solvents (including media containing chitin), and in yeast cell suspensions has revealed that the solvatochromic properties ...
Currie Heather A - - 2009
This contribution provides the first detailed chemical evidence for the association of 'Si' with soluble carbohydrate and proteinaceous components of Equisetum arvense cell walls. For Equisetum telmateia and E. arvense, the presence of intrasilica organics trapped within phytolithic silica deposits and organics packaged within silica coated particles on the outside ...
Mart?nez-Bono B?rbara - - 2010
The characterization of mutant strains in the gene encoding karyopherin Kap123 has revealed several morphogenetic defects. Inactivation of KAP123 caused alterations in the actin cytoskeleton, resulting in hyperpolarization and resistance to the actin polymerization inhibitor latrunculin B. In fact, the level of actin filaments is increased in kap123 mutant cells. ...
Konno Haruyoshi - - 2010
The growth kinetics in the presence of copper (Cu) of the protonema of the moss Scopelophila cataractae and the matrix polysaccharides of its cell walls have been analyzed in this study. Protonemal cells cultured in a medium containing 0.2mM CuSO(4) showed a rapid accumulation of Cu, reaching a maximum between ...
Ma Xiao-jie - - 2009
Controlled invasion of the uterine wall by the trophoblast cells is pivotal for the successful pregnancy, and various kinds of protease are involved in this process. Serine protease prostasin has been shown to participate in the proteolytic activation of epithelial sodium channel as well as cleavage of epidermal growth factor ...
Lavi Iris - - 2010
Mushroom polysaccharides are potent substances that exhibit antitumor and immunomodulatory properties. Studies comparing the chemical composition and antitumor-related activities of polysaccharides released by fungal strains under different growth conditions are not available. Thus, the present study compared polysaccharides extracts produced by Pleurotus pulmonarius from mycelium grown in liquid culture (ME) ...
Pereyra Cintia M - - 2010
We previously reported that Azospirillum brasilense induced a more elastic cell wall and a higher apoplastic water fraction in both wheat coleoptile and flag leaf. These biophysical characteristics could permit increased growth. Knowledge of the biochemical effects the bacteria could elicit in plant cell walls and how these responses change ...
Teixeira Rita Teresa - - 2009
The ultrastructure of phellem cells of Quercus suber L. (cork oak) and Calotropis procera (Ait) R. Br. were analyzed using electron transmission microscopy to determine the presence or absence of plasmodesmata (PD). Different types of Q. suber cork samples were studied: one year shoots; virgin cork (first periderm), reproduction cork ...
Aohara Tsutomu - - 2009
Several brittle culm (bc) mutants known in grasses are considered excellent materials to study the process of secondary cell wall formation. The brittle phenotype of the rice bc5 (brittle node) mutant appears exclusively in the developed nodes, which is distinct from other bc mutants (bc1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and ...
Tam Pui-Hang - - 2009
The cell wall of mycobacteria, including the causative agents of the human diseases tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and leprosy (M. leprae), is composed of an array of carbohydrate-containing molecules. These glycoconjugates are assembled by glycosyltransferases (GTs) that work in tandem through pathways that are only now beginning to be fully understood. ...
La Vu Dang - - 2009
Recent studies brought evidence regarding the potential beneficial effects of cranberry polyphenols for periodontal infections. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of a proanthocyanidin-rich cranberry fraction to protect macrophages and oral epithelial cells against cytotoxicity induced by bacterial components. U937 cells, differentiated into adherent macrophage-like cells, as well as ...
Palankar Raghavendra - - 2009
To understand the time course of action of any small molecule inside a single cell, one would deposit a defined amount inside the cell and initiate its activity at a defined moment. An elegant way to achieve this is to encapsulate the molecule in a micrometer-sized reservoir, introduce it into ...
McKenna Sylvester T - - 2009
We examined exocytosis during oscillatory growth in lily (Lilium formosanum and Lilium longiflorum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen tubes using three markers: (1) changes in cell wall thickness by Nomarski differential interference contrast (DIC), (2) changes in apical cell wall fluorescence in cells stained with propidium iodide (PI), and (3) ...
Rolli Eleonora - - 2009
Gas1p is a glucan-elongase that plays a crucial role in yeast morphogenesis. It is predominantly anchored to the plasma membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol, but a fraction was also found covalently bound to the cell wall. We have used fusions with the green fluorescent protein or red fluorescent protein (RFP) to ...
Villegas Leah R - - 2010
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is an opportunistic fungal infection that causes severe respiratory impairment in immunocompromised patients. The viability of Pneumocystis organisms is dependent on the cyst cell wall, a structural feature that is regulated by essential cell wall-associated enzymes. The formation of the glucan-rich cystic wall has been previously characterized, ...
Walker Louise A LA School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, - - 2010
The echinocandins are the newest class of antifungal agents in the clinical armory. These secondary metabolites are non-competitive inhibitors of the synthesis of beta-(1,3)-glucan, a major structural component of the fungal cell wall. Recent work has shown that spontaneous mutations can arise in two hot spot regions of Fks1 the ...
Margolin William W Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, 6431 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2009
Prokaryotes come in a wide variety of shapes, determined largely by natural selection, physical constraints, and patterns of cell growth and division. Because of their relative simplicity, bacterial cells are excellent models for how genes and proteins can directly determine morphology. Recent advances in cytological methods for bacteria have shown ...
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