Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 3355
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Fontaine Thierry - - 2010
The germination of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia can be divided into four stages: breaking of dormancy, isotropic swelling, establishment of cell polarity, and formation of a germ tube. Swelling of conidia is associated in liquid medium with a multi-cellular aggregation that produced large clumps of conidia. Conidial aggregation can be specifically ...
Alonso Ana P - - 2010
The biosynthesis of cell wall polymers involves enormous fluxes through central metabolism that are not fully delineated and whose regulation is poorly understood. We have established and validated a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using multiple reaction monitoring mode to separate and quantify the levels of plant cell wall ...
Wang Siyuan - - 2010
A filamentous cytoskeleton largely governs the physical shape and mechanical properties of eukaryotic cells. In bacteria, proteins homologous to all three classes of eukaryotic cytoskeletal filaments have recently been discovered. These proteins are essential for the maintenance of bacterial cell shape and have been shown to guide the localization of ...
Wu Liqun - - 2010
Continuous microfluidic magneto-affinity cell separator combines unique microscale flow phenomenon with advantageous nanobead properties, to isolate cells with high specificity. Owing to the comparable size of the cell-bead complexes and the microchannels, the walls of the microchannel exert a strong influence on the separation of cells by this method. We ...
Hofmann Julia - - 2010
Infective second-stage juveniles of the obligate plant-parasitic root-knot and cyst nematodes invade plant roots to induce specialized feeding structures. Here, we present data on the distribution of plasmodesmata in cell walls of syncytia and giant cells induced by cyst and root-knot nematodes. An Arabidopsis and a tobacco line were used, ...
Kaida Rumi - - 2010
The incorporation of xyloglucan oligosaccharide (XXXG) into the walls of suspension-cultured tobacco cells accelerated cell expansion followed by cell division, changed cell shape from cylindrical to spherical, decreased cell size, and caused cell aggregation. Fluorescent XXXG added to the culture medium was found to be incorporated into the surface of ...
Alonso-Simón A - - 2010
Bean cells that have been habituated to grow in a lethal concentration (12 μM) of 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dichlobenil or DCB, a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor) are known to have decreased cellulose content in their cell walls. Xyloglucan, which is bound to cellulose and together with it forms the main loading network of ...
Cabeen Matthew T - - 2010
Bacterial cell morphogenesis requires coordination among multiple cellular systems, including the bacterial cytoskeleton and the cell wall. In the vibrioid bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, the intermediate filament-like protein crescentin forms a cell envelope-associated cytoskeletal structure that controls cell wall growth to generate cell curvature. We undertook a genetic screen to find ...
Bychkov Alexey Leonidovich - - 2010
A new method of obtaining biologically active mannanoligosaccharides is proposed. It involves mechanical activation of the enzymatic hydrolysis of components forming the supramolecular structure of the cell wall. Processes that take place during mechanical treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of yeast biomass and lead to an increase in the availability of ...
Sato Kanna - - 2010
The plant secondary cell wall is a highly ordered structure composed of various polysaccharides, phenolic components and proteins. Its coordinated regulation of a number of complex metabolic pathways and assembly has not been resolved. To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate secondary cell wall synthesis, we isolated a novel rice ...
Zhang Mu - - 2010
Kinesins are encoded by a large gene family involved in many basic processes of plant development. However, the number of functionally identified kinesins in rice is very limited. Here, we report the functional characterization of Brittle Culm12 (BC12), a gene encoding a kinesin-4 protein. bc12 mutants display dwarfism resulting from ...
Vermerris Wilfred - - 2010
The hydrophobic cell wall polymer lignin is deposited in specialized cells to make them impermeable to water and prevent cell collapse as negative pressure or gravitational force is exerted. The variation in lignin subunit composition that exists among different species, and among different tissues within the same species suggests that ...
Jiang Tianjia - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Firmness in shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) is an important textural attribute affecting consumer attitudes toward freshness and quality. In this study, the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) treatments on structure and composition changes in cell walls in relation to the texture of mushrooms were investigated. RESULTS: Shiitake mushrooms ...
Dichtl Karl - - 2010
Farnesol is known for inducing apoptosis in some fungi and mammalian cells. To evaluate its potential role as an antifungal agent, we studied its impact on the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. We found that growth of A. fumigatus wild type is inhibited, but two cell wall mutants, Deltamnt1 andDeltaglfA, are ...
Sass Vera - - 2010
Human beta-defensin 3 (hBD3) is a highly charged (+11) cationic host defense peptide, produced by epithelial cells and neutrophils. hBD3 retains antimicrobial activity against a broad range of pathogens, including multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus, even under high-salt conditions. Whereas antimicrobial host defense peptides are assumed to act by permeabilizing cell membranes, ...
Hirano Ko - - 2010
"Brittle culm" mutants found in Gramineae crops are suitable materials to study the mechanism of secondary cell wall formation. Through positional cloning, we have identified a gene responsible for the brittle culm phenotype in rice, brittle culm 3 (bc3). BC3 encodes a member of the classical dynamin protein family, a ...
Bárány Ivett - - 2010
Plant cell wall polymers are regulated during development, but the specific roles of their different molecular components and the functional meaning of cell wall changes in different cell types and cell processes are still unclear. In the present work the presence and distribution of different cell wall components in Capsicum ...
Gilbert Nicole M NM Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63104, - - 2010
The polysaccharide beta-1,6-glucan is a major component of the cell wall of Cryptococcus neoformans, but its function has not been investigated in this fungal pathogen. We have identified and characterized seven genes, belonging to the KRE family, which are putatively involved in beta-1,6-glucan synthesis. The H99 deletion mutants kre5Delta and ...
S?nchez-Rodr?guez Clara - - 2010
Cell wall biosynthesis, and remodelling, is a prerequisite for plant growth; from cell plate formation in dividing cells, to the strengthening of the vascular tissue by secondary cell wall deposits. Many plant hormones are also essential for plant growth and development, such as auxin that controls cell proliferation and differentiation. ...
Stork Jozsef - - 2010
Herein, we sought to explore the contribution of cellulose biosynthesis to the shape and morphogenesis of hexagonal seed coat cells in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Consistent with seed preferential expression of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE9 (CESA9), null mutations in CESA9 caused no change in cellulose content in leaves or stems, but caused a ...
Déjardin Annabelle - - 2010
Wood formation is a complex biological process, involving five major developmental steps, including (1) cell division from a secondary meristem called the vascular cambium, (2) cell expansion (cell elongation and radial enlargement), (3) secondary cell wall deposition, (4) programmed cell death, and (5) heartwood formation. Thanks to the development of ...
Uehara Tsuyoshi T Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2010
During bacterial cytokinesis, hydrolytic enzymes are used to split wall material shared by adjacent daughter cells to promote their separation. Precise control over these enzymes is critical to prevent breaches in wall integrity that can cause cell lysis. How these potentially lethal hydrolases are regulated has remained unknown. Here, we ...
Eder Magdalena - - 2010
The formation of defined shapes by cells is one of the challenging questions in biology. Due to the anisotropy of cell walls and of certain biominerals, the LC-PolScope represents a promising tool for tracking dynamic structural changes in vivo non-invasively and, to some extent, quantitatively. A complex three-dimensional biogenic system, ...
Boughanmi Néziha - - 2010
We studied the distribution of wall ingrowth (WI) polymers by probing thin sections of companion cells specialized as transfer cells in minor veins of Medicago sativa cv Gabès blade with affinity probes and antibodies specific to polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The wall polymers in the controls were similar in WIs and ...
Busch Sebastian - - 2010
This study reveals in detail the mechanism of self-repair during secondary growth in the vines Aristolochia macrophylla and Aristolochia ringens based on morphological data. For a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms during the self-repair of lesions in the sclerenchymatous cylinder of the stem, which are caused by internal growth ...
Stentz Régis - - 2010
Overexpression of the lactococcal CsiA protein affects the cell wall integrity of growing cells and leads to leakage of intracellular material. This property was optimized and exploited for the targeted release of biologically active compounds into the extracellular environment, thereby providing a new delivery system for bacterial proteins and peptides. ...
Nguyen Hoa T - - 2010
The MtrAB signal transduction system, which participates in multiple cellular processes related to growth and cell wall homeostasis, is the only two-component system known to be essential in Mycobacterium. In a screen for antibiotic resistance determinants in Mycobacterium smegmatis, we identified a multidrug-sensitive mutant with a transposon insertion in lpqB, ...
Chiaramonte Fabrizio - - 2010
We recently showed that Lactobacillus sakei, a natural meat-borne lactic acid bacterium, can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) of axenic mice but that this colonization in the intestinal environment selects L. sakei mutants showing modified colony morphology (small and rough) and cell shape, most probably resulting from the accumulation of ...
Bennett Tom - - 2010
The root cap has a central role in root growth, determining the growth trajectory and facilitating penetration into the soil. Root cap cells have specialized functions and morphologies, and border cells are released into the rhizosphere by specific cell wall modifications. Here, we demonstrate that the cellular maturation of root ...
Chi Zhen-Ming - - 2010
As some species of marine yeasts can colonize intestine of marine animals, they can be used as probiotics. It has been reported that beta-glucans from marine yeast cells can be utilized as immuno-stimulants in marine animals. Some siderophores or killer toxins produced by marine yeasts have ability to inhibit growth ...
Camiade Emilie - - 2010
This work reports the characterization of the first known peptidoglycan hydrolase (Acp) produced mainly during vegetative growth of Clostridium perfringens. Acp has a modular structure with three domains: a signal peptide domain, an N-terminal domain with repeated sequences, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The purified recombinant catalytic domain of Acp ...
Bindon Keren A - - 2010
Insoluble cell wall material was prepared from the skin and flesh of commercially ripe Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz berries and then combined in suspension with preveraison skin and seed proanthocyanidin containing solutions. Analysis of proanthocyanidins before and after fining with cell wall material by phloroglucinolysis provided information on recovery ...
Ponce Nora M A - - 2010
Climacteric Japanese plums were harvested at six developmental stages with no intermediate storage period, and cell wall compositional changes were analyzed. Arabinose proved to be the principal neutral monosaccharide constituent in cell walls during growth and the most dynamic neutral sugar in pectic fractions. Arabinose loss from tightly bound pectins ...
Liu Xiangyong - - 2010
Here we report that deletion of SOD1, the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is sensitive to cell wall-perturbing agents, such as Calcofluor white and Congo red. The sensitivity was restored by retransformation with wild type SOD1 or the addition of N-acetylcysteine or reduced glutathione to the medium. Additionally, the accumulation ...
Mora-Montes Héctor M - - 2010
The cell wall proteins of fungi are modified by N- and O-linked mannosylation and phosphomannosylation, resulting in changes to the physical and immunological properties of the cell. Glycosylation of cell wall proteins involves the activities of families of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi-located glycosyl transferases whose activities are difficult to infer ...
Morlot Cecile C Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2010
How proteins catalyze morphogenesis is an outstanding question in developmental biology. In bacteria, morphogenesis is intimately linked to remodeling the cell wall exoskeleton. Here, we investigate the mechanisms by which the mother cell engulfs the prospective spore during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. A membrane-anchored protein complex containing two cell wall ...
Baltzley Michael J MJ Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 3119 Pacific Hall, 9500 Gilman Drive, #0357, La Jolla, CA 92093-0357, USA. - - 2010
We characterized the behavioral responses of two leech species, Hirudo verbana and Erpobdella obscura, to mechanical skin stimulation and examined the interactions between the pressure mechanosensory neurons (P cells) that innervate the skin. To quantify behavioral responses, we stimulated both intact leeches and isolated body wall preparations from the two ...
Chen Ying-Lien - - 2010
Phospholipid biosynthetic pathways play crucial roles in the virulence of several pathogens; however, little is known about how phospholipid synthesis affects pathogenesis in fungi such as Candida albicans. A C. albicans phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase mutant, cho1 Delta/Delta, lacks PS, has decreased phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and is avirulent in a mouse model ...
Moreno Inmaculada - - 2010
The Cwt1 transcription factor is involved in cell wall architecture of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. We demonstrate here that deficiency of Cwt1 leads to decreased beta1,6-glucan in the cell wall, while mannoproteins are increased in the cell wall of exponentially growing cells and are released into the medium ...
Schneider Tanja - - 2010
Bacterial cell wall biosynthesis represents an antibiotic target pathway for therapeutic intervention. An increasing number of natural antibiotic compounds have been demonstrated to inhibit the membrane-associated steps of cell wall biosynthesis by targeting bactoprenol-mediated precursor cycling, particularly at the stage of the completed building block Lipid II. These antibiotic compounds ...
van der Merwe Margaretha J - - 2010
Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneymaker') plants independently expressing fragments of various genes encoding enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in antisense orientation have previously been characterized as exhibiting altered root growth. In this study, we evaluate the rates of respiration of roots from these lines in addition to determining their ...
Lee Seok-Myung - - 2010
RamA plays a regulatory role for acetate utilization and S-layer biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Looking for any additional role, the function of RamA was analyzed in Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, which is closely related to C. glutamicum. In this study, we showed that the DeltaramA mutant constructed by a markerless knockout strategy ...
Chapot-Chartier Marie-Pierre - - 2010
In Gram-positive bacteria, the functional role of surface polysaccharides (PS) that are not of capsular nature remains poorly understood. Here, we report the presence of a novel cell wall PS pellicle on the surface of Lactococcus lactis. Spontaneous PS-negative mutants were selected using semi-liquid growth conditions, and all mutations were ...
de Jong Marein A W P - - 2010
Langerhans cells (LCs) lining the stratified epithelia and mucosal tissues are the first antigen presenting cells to encounter invading pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria and fungi. Fungal infections form a health threat especially in immuno-compromised individuals. LCs express C-type lectin Langerin that has specificity for mannose, fucose and GlcNAc structures. ...
Miyazaki Taiga - - 2010
A Candida glabrata calcineurin mutant exhibited increased susceptibility to both azole antifungal and cell wall-damaging agents and was also attenuated in virulence. Although a mutant lacking the downstream transcription factor Crz1 displayed a cell wall-associated phenotype intermediate to that of the calcineurin mutant and was modestly attenuated in virulence, it ...
Bárány Ivett - - 2010
Plant cell walls and their polymers are regulated during plant development, but the specific roles of their molecular components are still unclear, as well as the functional meaning of wall changes in different cell types and processes. In this work the in situ analysis of the distribution of different cell ...
Buanafina Marcia M de O - - 2010
In the cell walls of grasses, ferulic acid is esterified to arabinoxylans and undergoes oxidative reactions to form ferulates dimers, trimers and oligomers. Feruloylation of arabinoxylan is considered important not only because it leads to cross-linked xylans but also because ferulates may act as a nucleating site for the formation ...
Zhou Yuchan - - 2010
*Transfer cells (TCs) trans-differentiate by developing extensive wall ingrowths that facilitate enhanced plasma membrane transport of nutrients. Signal(s) and signalling cascades responsible for initiating this trans-differentiation event are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that ethylene functions as a key inductive signal for wall ingrowth formation in epidermal cells of ...
Rodoni Luis - - 2010
We evaluated the effect of short-term gaseous ozone treatment (10 microL/L; 10 min) on tomato fruit quality and cell wall degradation. The treatments did not modify fruit color, sugar content, acidity, or antioxidant capacity but reduced fruit damage and weight loss and induced the accumulation of phenolic compounds. In addition, ...
Bisicchia Paola - - 2010
Summary In Bacillus subtilis, the WalRK (YycFG) two-component system controls peptidoglycan metabolism in exponentially growing cells while PhoPR controls the response to phosphate limitation. Here we examine the roles of WalRK and PhoPR in peptidoglycan metabolism in phosphate-limited cells. We show that B. subtilis cells remain viable in a phosphate-limited ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >