Search Results
Results 151 - 200 of 3353
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Elbaz Maya - - 2010
Synchronizing cell growth, division and DNA replication is an essential property of all living cells. Accurate coordination of these cellular events is especially crucial for bacteria, which can grow rapidly and undergo multifork replication. Here we show that the metabolic protein ManA, which is a component of mannose phosphotransferase system, ...
Marcus Susan E - - 2010
How the diverse polysaccharides present in plant cell walls are assembled and interlinked into functional composites is not known in detail. Here, using two novel monoclonal antibodies and a carbohydrate-binding module directed against the mannan group of hemicellulose cell wall polysaccharides, we show that molecular recognition of mannan polysaccharides present ...
Teixeira Rita Teresa - - 2010
Plants have suberized cells that act as protective interfaces with the environment or between different plant tissues. A lamellar structure of alternating dark and light bands has been found upon transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of cork cells and considered a typical feature of the suberized secondary wall. We observed ...
Thellmann Martha - - 2010
At the end of the cell cycle, the nascent cross wall is laid down within a transient membrane compartment referred to as the cell plate. Tethering factors, which act by capturing vesicles and holding them in the vicinity of their target membranes, are likely to play an important role in ...
Kern Thomas - - 2010
The bacterial cell wall maintains a cell's integrity while allowing growth and division. It is made up of peptidoglycan (PG), a biopolymer forming a multigigadalton bag-like structure, and, additionally in gram-positive bacteria, of covalently linked anionic polymers collectively called teichoic acids. These anionic polymers are thought to play important roles ...
Hervé Cécile - - 2010
Cell wall degrading enzymes have a complex molecular architecture consisting of catalytic modules and noncatalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). The function of CBMs in cell wall degrading processes is poorly understood. Here, we have evaluated the potential enzyme-targeting function of CBMs in the context of intact primary and secondary cell wall ...
Albert Béatrice - - 2010
In flowering plants, microsporogenesis is accompanied by various types of cytoplasmic partitioning (cytokinesis). Patterns of male cytokinesis are suspected to play a role in the diversity of aperture patterns found in pollen grains of angiosperms. The relationships between intersporal wall formation, tetrad shape and pollen aperture pattern ontogeny are studied. ...
Rodicio Rosaura - - 2010
The integrity of the fungal cell wall is ensured by a signal transduction pathway, the so-called CWI pathway, which has best been studied in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this context, environmental stress and other perturbations at the cell surface are detected by a small set of plasma membrane-spanning ...
Roncero Cesar - - 2010
The cell division programme included in each cell specifies that, after anaphase, cytokinesis completes the process of producing two cells. With the exception of plant cells, whose peculiarities are out of the scope of this review, in all eukaryotic cells the cleavage furrow that forms late in anaphase bisects the ...
Dague Etienne - - 2010
Yeast cells are surrounded by a thick cell wall, the composition and structure of which have been characterized by biochemical and genetic methods. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize the cell surface topography and to determine cell wall nanomechanical properties of yeast mutants defective in ...
Backhaus Katja - - 2010
In many ascomycetous yeasts, the cell wall is composed of two main types of macromolecules: (a) polysaccharides, with a high content of beta-1,6- and beta-1,3-linked glucan chains and minor amounts of chitin; and (b) cell wall proteins of different types. Synthesis and maintenance of these macromolecules respond to environmental changes, ...
Dufrêne Yves F - - 2010
Although the chemical composition of many fungal cell walls is known, the spatial organization and interactions of the individual macromolecules remain mysterious. In this context, single-cell and single-molecule atomic force microscopy techniques offer new opportunities for probing the surface of fungal cells down to molecular resolution. Recent breakthroughs include the ...
Negishi Takahiro - - 2010
The cell wall is an essential cellular component for the survival of fungi. The cell wall of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes remodelling during the cell cycle. Evidence is accumulating that there are regulatory mechanisms that link cell wall remodelling and cell cycle progression. Here, we review one such ...
Salvucci E - - 2010
AIMS: To evaluate the inhibition effectiveness of enterocin CRL35 in combination with cell wall, membrane-acting antibiotics and muranolytic enzymes against the foodborne pathogen Listeria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Synthetic enterocin CRL35 alone and in combination with monensin, bacitracin, gramicidin, mutanolysin and lysozyme were used in this study. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ...
Fayant Pierre - - 2010
Cellular protuberance formation in walled cells requires the local deformation of the wall and its polar expansion. In many cells, protuberance elongation proceeds by tip growth, a growth mechanism shared by pollen tubes, root hairs, and fungal hyphae. We established a biomechanical model of tip growth in walled cells using ...
Levdansky Emma - - 2010
cspA (for cell surface protein A) encodes a repeat-rich glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell wall protein (CWP) in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The number of repeats in cspA varies among isolates, and this trait is used for typing closely related strains of A. fumigatus. We have previously shown that deletion of ...
Kapu Nuwan U Sella - - 2010
In response to pollination maize silks undergo an accelerated process of senescence which involves an inhibition of elongation. To gain insight into the mechanism underlying this growth response, the relationships among silk elongation kinetics, cell wall biophysical properties, pollen tube growth, and expansin protein abundance were investigated. The inhibition of ...
Wilk Sabrina - - 2010
The response to cell surface stress in yeast is mediated by a set of five plasma membrane sensors. We here address the relation of intracellular localization of the sensors Wsc1, Wsc2, and Mid2 to their turnover and signaling function. Growth competition experiments indicate that Wsc2 plays an important role in ...
Kliescikova Jarmila - - 2011
Differentiation into highly resistant double-walled cysts is a major mechanism allowing amphizoic acanthamoebae to survive under long-lasting, unfavourable environmental conditions. We found that relatively low concentrations of methanol, acetone or DMSO stimulate promptAcanthamoebadifferentiation into a rounded cyst-like stage with a single envelope. To address whether this rapid response differs from ...
Giannoutsou Eleni P - - 2011
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) immunolabeling in developing stomatal complexes and in the intervening cells of the stomatal rows (ICSRs) of Zea mays revealed that the cortical-ER forms distinct aggregations lining locally expanding wall regions. The polarized subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs), displayed a cortical-ER-patch lining the wall region shared with the ...
Heinisch Jürgen J - - 2010
The ability to react to environmental stress is a key feature of microbial cells, which frequently involves the fortification of their cell wall as a primary step. In the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the biosynthesis of the cell wall is regulated by the so-called cell wall integrity signal transduction pathway, ...
Mélida Hugo - - 2010
Cultured maize cells habituated to grow in the presence of the cellulose synthesis inhibitor dichlobenil (DCB) have a modified cell wall in which the amounts of cellulose are reduced and the amounts of arabinoxylan increased. This paper examines the contribution of cell wall-esterified hydroxycinnamates to the mechanism of DCB habituation. ...
Bennett Richard N - - 2010
Banana fruits are important foods, but there have been very few studies evaluating the phenolics associated with their cell walls. In the present study, (+) catechin, gallocatechin, and (-) epicatechin, as well as condensed tannins, were detected in the soluble extract of the fruit pulp; neither soluble anthocyanidins nor anthocyanins ...
Carbó Natalia - - 2010
It is widely accepted that MAPK activation in budding and fission yeasts is often associated with negative effects on cell cycle progression, resulting in delay or arrest at a specific stage in the cell cycle, thereby enabling cells to adapt to changing environmental conditions. For instance, activation of the Cell ...
Mondal Rajkrishna - - 2010
Previously, various inhibitors of cell wall synthesis induced the drp35 gene of Staphylococcus aureus efficiently. To determine whether drp35 could be exploited in antistaphylococcal drug discovery, we cloned the promoter of drp35 (P(d)) and developed different biological assay systems using an engineered S. aureus strain that harbors a chromosomally-integrated P(d) ...
Jaber Emad - - 2010
*At the end of the cell cycle, the plant cell wall is deposited within a membrane compartment referred to as the cell plate. Little is known about the biogenesis of this transient membrane compartment. *We have positionally cloned and characterized a novel Arabidopsis gene, CLUB, identified by mutation. *CLUB/AtTRS130 encodes ...
Arsovski Andrej A - - 2010
Plant cells are encased within a complex polysaccharide wall that strengthens the cell and has key roles in all aspects of plant cell growth, differentiation, and interaction with the environment. This dynamic structure is under continual modification during plant development, and its synthesis and modification require the activity of a ...
Park Jong-Jin - - 2010
Epidermal cell layers play important roles in plant defenses against various environmental stresses. Here we report the identification of a cuticle membrane mutant, wilted dwarf and lethal 1 (wdl1), from a rice T-DNA insertional population. The mutant is dwarf and die at seedling stage due to increased rates of water ...
Navarro Nelso P - - 2010
Iridaea cordata cultivated in the presence of UVB radiation (UVBR) was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Apical segments were cultivated in 0.97Wm(-2) of UVBR for 40 days, 3h a day, and compared to a negative control (UVBR absent). UVBR caused modifications, mainly in the cortical cells, including an increased number ...
Dardelle Flavien - - 2010
During plant sexual reproduction, pollen germination and tube growth require development under tight spatial and temporal control for the proper delivery of the sperm cells to the ovules. Pollen tubes are fast growing tip-polarized cells able to perceive multiple guiding signals emitted by the female organ. Adhesion of pollen tubes ...
Toole G A - - 2010
A combination of enzyme mapping, FT-IR microscopy and NMR spectroscopy was used to study temporal and spatial aspects of endosperm cell wall synthesis and deposition in developing grain of bread wheat cv. Hereward. This confirmed previous reports that changes in the proportions of the two major groups of cell wall ...
Walker Claire A CA Aberdeen Fungal Group, Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen AB20 2ZD, - - 2010
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans produces dark-pigmented melanin after 3 to 4 days of incubation in medium containing l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) as a substrate. Expression profiling of C. albicans revealed very few genes significantly up- or downregulated by growth in l-DOPA. We were unable to determine a possible role for melanin ...
Puttikamonkul Srisombat - - 2010
Summary The trehalose biosynthesis pathway is critical for virulence in human and plant fungal pathogens. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP) is required for Aspergillus fumigatus virulence. A mutant of the A. fumigatus T6PP, OrlA, displayed severe morphological defects related to asexual reproduction when ...
Mélida Hugo - - 2010
The biochemical and molecular processes involved in the habituation of maize cells to growth in the presence of the cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor dichlobenil (DCB) were investigated. DCB affects the synthesis of cellulose both in active and stationary growth phases and alters the expression of several CesA genes. Of these, ZmCesA5 ...
De Micco Veronica - - 2010
During cell wall formation and degradation, it is possible to detect cellulose microfibrils assembled into thicker and thinner lamellar structures, respectively, following inverse parallel patterns. The aim of this study was to analyse such patterns of microfibril aggregation and cell wall delamination. The thickness of microfibrils and lamellae was measured ...
Lee Dong-Keun - - 2010
Secondary plasmodesmata are cytoplasmic channels connecting adjacent plant cells that arise after cell division. How membrane-delimited channels penetrate cell walls is unknown, but now two genes, ISE1 and ISE2, are shown to be required for pathways that limit their formation.
Lenardon Megan D MD Aberdeen Fungal Group, School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, - - 2010
Chitin is an essential part of the carbohydrate skeleton of the fungal cell wall and is a molecule that is not represented in humans and other vertebrates. Complex regulatory mechanisms enable chitin to be positioned at specific sites throughout the cell cycle to maintain the overall strength of the wall ...
Deghorain Marie - - 2010
Cell wall peptidoglycan assembly is a tightly regulated process requiring the combined action of multienzyme complexes. In this study we provide direct evidence showing that substrate transformations occurring at the different stages of this process play a crucial role in the spatial and temporal coordination of the cell wall synthesis ...
Brandt Björn - - 2010
Pyrolytic conversion causes severe changes in the microstructure of the wood cell wall. Pine wood pyrolysed up to 325 °C was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation measurements to monitor changes in structure and mechanical properties. Latewood cell walls were tested in the axial, radial and ...
Leiber Ruth-Maria - - 2010
Plant cell growth is limited by the extension of cell walls, which requires both the synthesis and rearrangement of cell wall components in a controlled fashion. The target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway is a major regulator of cell growth in eukaryotes, and inhibition of this pathway by rapamycin reduces cell ...
Tuo Y F - - 2010
In vitro studies, animal models, epidemiology, and human intervention studies provide evidence that some lactic acid bacteria can reduce the risk of certain cancers. In this study, heat-killed bacterial cells, genomic DNA, and cell wall of 7 wild Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented foods in western China were tested ...
Ghosh Kanjaksha - - 2010
Last quarter of twentieth century and the first 10 years of 21st century has seen phenomenal development in haematological pharmacotherapy. Tailor made chemotherapeutic agents, vast array of monoclonal antibodies, epigenetic modifiers, growth factors for red cells white cells and platelets, peptidomimetics as growth factors, newer thrombin inhibitors, safer plasma derived protein ...
Kelly Judy J Medical Mycology Unit, Department of Biology, National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, National University of Ireland Maynooth, Co. Kildare, - - 2010
The echinocandins (e.g., caspofungin) are a relatively new class of antifungal drugs that function by inhibiting the synthesis of beta-1,3-glucan in the cell wall and thus lead to lysis of the cell. In this work the effect of caspofungin on the release of peptides from non-growing cells of the yeast ...
Höfte Herman - - 2010
How are the different secondary cell wall deposition patterns generated in the vascular cells of plants? The use of a novel Arabidopsis mesophyll cell culture that transdifferentiates into vascular cells shows a crucial role for a complex of two microtubule-binding proteins.
Kim Jong Sik - - 2010
We investigated the deposition of glucomannans (GMs) in differentiating earlywood tracheids of Cryptomeria japonica using immunocytochemical methods. GMs began to deposit at the corner of the cell wall at the early stages of S(1) formation and showed uneven distribution in the cell wall during S(1) formation. At the early stages ...
Guinoiseau E - - 2010
This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Inula graveolens and Santolina corsica essential oils on Staphylococcus aureus and investigate their effects at the cellular level. The mode of inhibition of both essential oils against S. aureus ATCC 6538P (CIP 53.156) was assessed by determining the minimum inhibitory ...
Sliusarenko Oleksii - - 2010
The propagation of cell shape across generations is remarkably robust in most bacteria. Even when deformations are acquired, growing cells progressively recover their original shape once the deforming factors are eliminated. For instance, straight-rod-shaped bacteria grow curved when confined to circular microchambers, but straighten in a growth-dependent fashion when released. ...
Wehr J Bernhard - - 2010
Hydrolysis of aluminum (Al) in solution increases at pH >or= 4 and with an Al concentration. Pectin, an important anionic polysaccharide of plant cell walls, adsorbs Al, but this phenomenon is poorly understood. This study showed that Al(3+) hydrolysis results in binding of Al to pectin in excess of the ...
Fontaine Thierry - - 2010
The germination of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia can be divided into four stages: breaking of dormancy, isotropic swelling, establishment of cell polarity, and formation of a germ tube. Swelling of conidia is associated in liquid medium with a multi-cellular aggregation that produced large clumps of conidia. Conidial aggregation can be specifically ...
Alonso Ana P - - 2010
The biosynthesis of cell wall polymers involves enormous fluxes through central metabolism that are not fully delineated and whose regulation is poorly understood. We have established and validated a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using multiple reaction monitoring mode to separate and quantify the levels of plant cell wall ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >