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Chazotte Brad - - 2011
This protocol describes the mounting of cells which have been grown on cleaned coverslips in cell culture dishes containing the appropriate medium and supplements. Labeling is performed with the coverslips placed in culture dishes. After cells are labeled, the coverslips can be mounted onto microscope slides to be viewed for ...
Oguro Ami - - 2011
Cytochrome P450s (P450s) contribute to carcinogenesis by activating procarcinogens and also metabolize anti-cancer drugs. The activity and protein levels of P450s are important in cancer risk and in cancer therapy. In this study, we found that overexpression of CYP3A4 induced growth of a human hepatoma cell line, Hep3B. Overexpression of ...
Smith Shilo M - - 2011
Analyzing the effects on cell growth inhibition and/or cell death has been an important component of biological research. The MTS assay and LDH-based cytotoxicity assays are two of the most commonly used methods for this purpose. However, data here showed that MTS cell proliferation assay could not distinguish the effects ...
Kong Say Li - - 2011
Despite the role of the estrogen receptor α (ERα) pathway as a key growth driver for breast cells, the phenotypic consequence of exogenous introduction of ERα into ERα-negative cells paradoxically has been growth inhibition. We mapped the binding profiles of ERα and its interacting transcription factors (TFs), FOXA1 and GATA3 ...
Ungefroren Hendrik - - 2011
Progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is largely the result of genetic and/or epigenetic alterations in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)/Smad signalling pathway, eventually resulting in loss of TGF-β-mediated growth arrest and an increase in cellular migration, invasion, and metastasis. These cellular responses to TGF-β are mediated solely or partially ...
Piccirillo Sarah - - 2011
Patterning of different cell types in embryos is a key mechanism in metazoan development. Communities of microorganisms, such as colonies and biofilms also display patterns of cell types. For example, in the yeast S. cerevisiae, sporulated cells and pseudohyphal cells are not uniformly distributed in colonies. The functional importance of ...
Kelly Felice D FD The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America. - - 2011
Eukaryotic cells often form polarized growth zones in response to internal or external cues. To understand the establishment of growth zones with specific dimensions we used fission yeast, which grows as a rod-shaped cell of near-constant width from growth zones located at the cell tips. Removing the cell wall creates ...
Tamsir Alvin A Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158, - - 2011
Computation underlies the organization of cells into higher-order structures, for example during development or the spatial association of bacteria in a biofilm. Each cell performs a simple computational operation, but when combined with cell-cell communication, intricate patterns emerge. Here we study this process by combining a simple genetic circuit with ...
Bester E - - 2011
To investigate carbon transformation by biofilms and changes in biofilm architecture, metabolic activity and planktonic cell yield in response to fluctuating carbon availability. Pseudomonas sp. biofilms were cultured under alternating carbon-replete and carbon-limited conditions. A shift to medium without added carbon led to a 90% decrease in biofilm respiration rate ...
Ottria G - - 2010
Recent discoveries in cell therapy research present new opportunities for cellular products to be used to treat severe, and as yet incurable, diseases. It is therefore essential to implement a quality control programme in order to ensure that safe cells and tissues are provided. In a preliminary phase of the ...
Hallac Bassem B - - 2010
Buddleja davidii is a unique biomass that has many attractive agroenergy features, especially its wide range of growth habitat. The anatomical characteristics of B. davidii were investigated before and after ethanol organosolv pretreatment (one of the leading pretreatment technologies) in order to further understand the alterations that occur to the ...
Foadi James - - 2011
This short article questions and investigates the possible range of values for the three angles of a unit cell in the triclinic system. Although no constraints are reported in manuals and tables for crystallography, the three angles are not really independent; the range of allowed values is calculated and presented ...
Bhattacharjee Mrinal K - - 2010
Background: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a capnophilic facultative anaerobe, is associated with localized aggressive periodontitis and endocarditis. When grown in broth the cells begin to die rapidly after overnight growth. Cells also often lose viability on plates within a few days. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the cause ...
Tan Feng - - 2011
The cell wall is a critical extracellular structure that provides protection and structural support in plant cells. To study the biological function of the cell wall and the regulation of cell wall resynthesis, we examined cellular responses to enzymatic removal of the cell wall in rice (Oryza sativa) suspension cells ...
Wang Hengwei - - 2011
Four methods, namely enumeration of colony-forming units (CFU), aerobic respiration, MTT reduction capacity and succinate dehydrogenase activity were compared to determine the viability of E. coli cells at the early and late exponential growth phases. Our results revealed that great differences in cell viability existed between these methods and that ...
RafiƄska Katarzyna - - 2011
We have identified and characterised the temporal and spatial distribution of the homogalacturonan (HG) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) epitopes that are recognised by the antibodies JIM5, JIM7, LM2, JIM4, JIM8 and JIM13 during ovule differentiation in Larix decidua Mill. The results obtained clearly show differences in the pattern of localisation ...
Guillon Fabienne - - 2011
The wild grass Brachypodium distachyon has been proposed as an alternative model species for temperate cereals. The present paper reports on the characterization of B. distachyon grain, placing emphasis on endosperm cell walls. Brachypodium distachyon is notable for its high cell wall polysaccharide content that accounts for ∼52% (w/w) of ...
Robert P - - 2010
In addition to the starchy endosperm, a specialized tissue accumulating storage material, the endosperm of wheat grain, comprises the aleurone layer and the transfer cells next to the crease. The transfer cells, located at the ventral region of the grain, are involved in nutrient transfer from the maternal tissues to ...
Bizerra Fernando C - - 2011
Paradoxical growth (PG) has been described for echinocandins and is characterized by cell growth at drug concentrations above the MIC. In this study, two isolates each of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. parapsilosis, all of which displaying PG in response to caspofungin, were subjected to MIC, minimal ...
Belessi Charalambia-Eirini A - - 2011
The present study aimed to describe the growth/no growth interface of Listeria monocytogenes at three potential states of growth in industrial environments, namely attached, (Att), detached (Det) from a biofilm, or in a planktonic state (suspended; Plan). A 3-strain composite of L. monocytogenes cells was left to colonize stainless steel ...
Louvet Romain - - 2011
Fruit development is a highly complex process, which involves major changes in plant metabolism leading to cell growth and differentiation. Changes in cell wall composition and structure play a major role in modulating cell growth. We investigated the changes in cell wall composition and the activities of associated enzymes during ...
Trögl J - - 2010
The bioluminescence (BLM) and colony-forming units (CFU) of Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 were monitored during encapsulation into pre-polymerized Si(OMe)(4). The non-induced BLM of free cells was increased in the presence of 0.5-2.5 % MeOH. After mixing silica sol with the cell suspension, both BLM and CFU dropped to 1-3 and 8-18 ...
Xu Hua - - 2010
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of NaCl on the biofilm formation of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella boydii, and Salmonella Typhimurium. The biofilm cells were cultured in media containing different NaCl concentrations (0% to 10%) for 10 d of incubation at 37 °C using a 24-well polystyrene ...
Mir-Rashed Nadereh N Biology Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, - - 2010
In addition to widespread use in reducing the symptoms of colds and flu, Echinacea is traditionally employed to treat fungal and bacterial infections. However, to date the mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Echinacea extracts remains unclear. We utilized a set of ∼4,600 viable gene deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ...
Foster David A DA Department of Biological Sciences, Hunter College of The City University of New York, New York, NY, - - 2010
Most genetic changes that promote tumorigenesis involve dysregulation of G1 cell cycle progression. A key regulatory site in G1 is a growth factor-dependent restriction point (R) where cells commit to mitosis. In addition to the growth factor-dependent "R," which maps to a site about 3.5 hours after mitosis, there is ...
Zhang Xiu-Qing - - 2011
Guard cell walls of stomata are highly specialized in plants. Previous research focused on the structure and anatomy of guard cell walls, but little is known about guard cell regulation during stomata movement. In this work, we investigate the possible biological role of the Arabidopsis expansin gene AtEXPA1 in stomatal ...
Matteï Pierre-Jean - - 2010
The bacterial cell wall is a complex three-dimensional structure that protects the cell from environmental stress and ensures its shape. The biosynthesis of its main component, the peptidoglycan, involves the coordination of activities of proteins present in the cytoplasm, the membrane, and the periplasm, some of which also interact with ...
Dworkin Jonathan - - 2010
Bacteria can exist in metabolically inactive states that allow them to survive conditions that are not conducive for growth. Such dormant cells may sense when conditions have improved and re-initiate growth, lest they be outcompeted by their neighbours. Growing bacteria turn over and release large quantities of their cell walls ...
Lei Zhentian - - 2010
The temporal proteome response of Medicago truncatula suspension cell cultures to yeast elicitation (which mimics fungal infection) was investigated using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and nanoliquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS/MS). Reproducibility of 2-DE was assessed using the number of the visualized protein spots and spot ...
Geitmann Anja - - 2010
Plant cell growth is a fundamental process during plant development whose spatial and temporal dynamics are controlled by the cell wall. Modeling mechanical aspects of cell growth therefore requires the integration of structural cell wall details with quantitative biophysical parameters. Recent advances in microscopic techniques and mechanical modeling have made ...
Cegelski Lynette - - 2010
We present a new method that integrates selective biosynthetic labeling and solid-state NMR detection to identify in situ important protein cross-links in plant cell walls. We have labeled soybean cells by growth in media containing l-[ring-d(4)]tyrosine and l-[ring-4-(13)C]tyrosine, compared whole-cell and cell-wall (13)C CPMAS spectra, and examined intact cell walls ...
Wang Guifeng - - 2011
Expansins are unique plant cell wall proteins that possess the ability to induce immediately cell wall extension in vitro and cell expansion in vivo. To investigate the biological functions of expansins that are abundant in wood-forming tissues, we cloned two expansin genes from the differentiating xylem of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia ...
Hayashi Takahisa - - 2011
While an increase in the number of xyloglucan tethers between the cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls increases the walls' rigidity, the degradation of these tethers causes the walls to loosen. Degradation can occur either through the integration of xyloglucan oligosaccharides due to the action of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase or through ...
Nelson James W JW Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, - - 2010
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that has emerged as a major public health threat. Here we report that the cell wall of S. aureus can be covalently re-engineered to contain non-native small molecules. This process makes use of endogenous levels of the bacterial enzyme sortase A ...
Lehner Arnaud - - 2010
Plant sexual reproduction involves the growth of tip-polarized pollen tubes through the female tissues in order to deliver the sperm nuclei to the egg cells. Despite the importance of this crucial step, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in this spatial and temporal control of the tube growth. ...
Advani S H - - 2010
This article highlights the current knowledge of mTOR biology and provides new insights into the role of mTOR in different cancers. An active mTOR coordinates a response in cell growth directly through its effects on cell cycle regulators and indirectly by sustaining nutrient supply into the cell through the production ...
Douchiche Olfa - - 2010
Most flax (Linum usitatissimum) varieties are described as tolerant to high concentrations of Cd. The aim of the present paper was to better characterize this tolerance, by studying the responses of flax plantlets, cv Hermes, to 18d growth on 0.5mM Cd. In Cd-treated seedlings, the majority of Cd was compartmentalized ...
Dupres Vincent - - 2010
Traditionally, the structural details of microbial cell walls are studied by thin-section electron microscopy, a technique that is very demanding and requires vacuum conditions, thus precluding live cell experiments. Here, we present a method integrating single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) and protein design to measure cell wall thickness in a ...
Maddi Abhiram - - 2010
The enzyme α-1,6-mannosyltransferase (OCH-1) is required for the synthesis of galactomannans attached to the N-linked oligosaccharides of Neurospora crassa cell wall proteins. The Neurospora crassa och-1 mutant has a tight colonial phenotype and a defective cell wall. A carbohydrate analysis of the och-1 mutant cell wall revealed a 10-fold reduction ...
Antonelli A - - 2010
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) due to their unique structural and physicochemical properties, have been proposed as delivery systems for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic agents. However, SWNTs have proven difficult to solubilize in aqueous solution, limiting their use in biological applications. In an attempt to improve SWNTs' solubility, biocompatibility, ...
Liu Ling - - 2010
In this paper, we first reported the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells used for fabricating biosensor. The organic-inorganic hybrid material composed of silica and the grafting copolymer of poly(vinyl alcohol) and 4-vinylpyridine (PVA-g-P(4-VP)) was used to immobilize microbial cells for biosensor fabrication. The VBNC cells were formed after the hybrid ...
Fuchs Maike - - 2011
The plasmodesmal (PD) network in the cambial zone of Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls was analysed using electron microscopy and dye-coupling studies and compared to those of internodes of Populus nigra and Solanum lycopersicum. In all species, PD densities and frequencies undergo alterations in topologically successive cambial walls reflecting species-specific patterns of ...
Burton Rachel A - - 2010
Higher plants resist the forces of gravity and powerful lateral forces through the cumulative strength of the walls that surround individual cells. These walls consist mainly of cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides and lignin, in proportions that depend upon the specific functions of the cell and its stage of development. Spatially and ...
Miedes E - - 2011
Transgenic tomato hypocotyls with altered levels of an XTH gene were used to study how XET activity could affect the hypocotyl growth and cell wall extensibility. Transgenic hypocotyls showed significant over-expression (line 13) or co-suppression (line 33) of the SlXTH1 in comparison with the wild type, with these results being ...
Shibata Nobuyuki - - 2011
Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the main etiologic agent of chromoblastomycosis, usually occurring in tropical and subtropical areas. The cell wall components of pathogenic microorganisms behave as an antigen and/or ligand of the innate immune response. The cells of F. pedrosoi reacted with the α-galactopyranose-binding lectin (Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1B4 isolectin, GSL ...
Tydeman Elizabeth A - - 2010
Nutrient bioaccessibility and subsequent absorption will be directly influenced by changes in food structure during gastrointestinal processing. The accompanying paper (Tydeman et al. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010, 58, doi: 10.1021/jf101034a) reported results on the effect of carrot processing on the release of carotene into lipid phases during in vitro ...
Ruggiero Alessia A Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, CNR, Via Mezzocannone 16, I-80134, Naples, - - 2010
Cell separation depends on cell-wall hydrolases that cleave the peptidoglycan layer connecting daughter cells. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, this process is governed by the predicted endopeptidase RipA. In the absence of this enzyme, the bacterium is unable to divide and exhibits an abnormal phenotype. We here report the crystal structure of ...
Pelletier Sandra - - 2010
• We focused on a developmentally regulated growth acceleration in the dark-grown Arabidopsis hypocotyl to study the role of changes in cell wall metabolism in the control of cell elongation. • To this end, precise transcriptome analysis on dissected dark-grown hypocotyls, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and kinematic analysis were ...
Linke Bettina - - 2010
Here we report that dehydrated ethanol is an excellent medium for both in situ preservation of nucleic acids and cell disruption of plant and yeast cells. Cell disruption was strongly facilitated by prior dehydration of the ethanol using dehydrated zeolite. Following removal of ethanol, nucleic acids were extracted from the ...
Huergo M A C - - 2010
The growth of linear cell colony fronts is investigated from the morphology of cell monolayer colonies, the cell size and shape distribution, the front displacement velocity, and the dynamic scaling analysis of front roughness fluctuations. At the early growth stages, colony patterns consist of rather ordered compact domains of small ...
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