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Fischer Andy J - - 2011
Hypothesis-driven science is expected to result in a continuum of studies and findings along a discrete path. By comparison, serendipity can lead to new directions that branch into different paths. Herein, I describe a diverse series of findings that were motivated by hypotheses, but driven by serendipity. I summarize how ...
Dai Yuemeng - - 2011
It was demonstrated that metallopanstimulin-1 (MPS-1, RPS27) inhibited the growth of tumors formed by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells and reduced paxillin gene expression. The present study examined whether and how MPS-1 affects another type of cancer, multiple myeloma (CAG). Enhanced expression of MPS-1 dramatically inhibited CAG in ...
Niitsu Rika - - 2011
Botryococcus braunii is a green, colonial microalga that produces large amounts of hydrocarbons. B. braunii B70 was estimated to be B race by the incorporation of radioactivity from l-[methyl(14)C]-methionine into hydrocarbon. The hydrocarbon-synthesizing activity of B70 cells was determined by feeding experiments using (14)C-compounds. NaH(14)CO(3) incorporation rate into the hydrocarbon ...
Sobolewska Agnieszka - - 2011
Autophagy is a catabolic process providing an alternative energy source for cells under stressful conditions such as starvation, growth factor deprivation or hypoxia. During involution of the bovine mammary gland autophagy is induced in mammary epithelial cells (MECs) as a survival mechanism, and is tightly regulated by hormones and growth ...
Hyvönen Mervi T - - 2012
The polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are ubiquitous multifunctional cations essential for cellular proliferation. One specific function of spermidine in cell growth is its role as a butylamine donor for hypusine synthesis in the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). Here, we report the ability of novel mono-methylated spermidine analogs (α-MeSpd, ...
Kim Hyung-Do - - 2011
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whether in developmental morphogenesis or malignant transformation, prominently involves modified cell motility behavior. Although major advances have transpired in understanding the molecular pathways regulating the process of EMT induction per se by certain environmental stimuli, an important outstanding question is how the activities of signaling pathways governing ...
Kokkelink Leonie - - 2011
The small GTPase Cdc42 plays a central role in various processes in eukaryotic cells including growth, differentiation and cytoskeleton organization. Whereas it is essential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its role in filamentous fungi differs, due to the complementing, partly overlapping function of Rac. We analyzed the role of the ...
Ker Elmer D F - - 2011
The capability to spatially control stem cell orientation and differentiation simultaneously using a combination of geometric cues that mimic structural aspects of native extracellular matrix (ECM) and biochemical cues such as ECM-bound growth factors (GFs) is important for understanding the organization and function of musculoskeletal tissues. Herein, oriented sub-micron fibers, ...
Fang Xin-Mei - - 2011
Acetylbritannilactone (ABL) is a new active compound isolated from Inula Britannica L, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. It has been reported that ABL can inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and neointima formation after balloon injury in rats. ABL also shows chemopreventive properties by inducing cell apoptosis ...
Roy Choudhury Subhasree - - 2011
Glioblastoma shows poor response to current therapies and warrants new therapeutic strategies. We examined the efficacy of combination of valproic acid (VPA) and taxol (TX) or nanotaxol (NTX) in human glioblastoma LN18 and T98G cell lines. Cell differentiation was manifested in changes in morphological features and biochemical markers. Cell growth ...
Huisman Stephen - - 2011
The two key processes in growth polarisation are the generation of a confined region and the correct positioning of that region. Fission yeast has greatly contributed to the study of cell polarisation, particularly in the aspect of growth site positioning, which involves the interphase microtubule cytoskeleton. Here we review the ...
Alberghina Lilia - - 2011
In this review we summarize the major connections between cell growth and cell cycle in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In S. cerevisiae regulation of cell cycle progression is achieved predominantly during a narrow interval in the late G1 phase known as START (Pringle and Hartwell, 1981). At START a ...
Frankel Matthew B - - 2011
Cell cycle progression for the spherical microbe Staphylococcus aureus requires the coordinated synthesis and remodeling of peptidoglycan. The majority of these rearrangements takes place at the mid-cell, in a compartment designated the cross-wall. Secreted polypeptides endowed with a YSIRK-G/S signal peptide are directly delivered to the cross-wall compartment. One such ...
Shakeri Shahryar - - 2011
Most bacterial strains accumulate intracellular polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules as an energy reservoir, in response to fluctuations in their microenvironment. Flow cytometry was applied for the analysis of single cells of Ralstonia pickettii AR1 in response to changes in the culture conditions. Two parameters, the PHB production-related FL2 and side scatter ...
Wang Ju - - 2011
The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway is a recognized target of cancer therapy. We have developed a strong inhibitor (S252W mutant soluble ectodomain of FGF recptor-2 IIIc, msFGFR2) that binds FGFs and blocks the activation of FGFRs. Thermodynamic binding studies indicated that msFGFR2 bound FGF-2 16.9 times as strongly ...
Fleisig H B - - 2011
Constitutive telomerase activity maintains telomere length and confers immortal phenotypes to human cancers. The prevalence of telomerase, rather than a homologous recombination-based mechanism, in telomere length maintenance suggests that telomerase also has auxiliary roles in tumorigenesis. Here, we investigate growth advantages provided by the telomerase enzyme in oncogene-transformed human cells ...
Hernández-Barrera Alejandra - - 2011
An indeterminate developmental program allows plant organs to grow continuously by maintaining functional meristems over time. The molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of the root apical meristem are not completely understood. We have identified a new Arabidopsis thaliana mutant named moots koom 1 (mko1) that showed complete root apical ...
Nasrallah Gheyath K - - 2011
The Gram-negative intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila replicates in a membrane-bound compartment known as the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV), into which it abundantly releases its chaperonin, HtpB. To determine whether HtpB remains within the LCV or reaches the host cell cytoplasm, we infected U937 human macrophages and CHO cells with L. pneumophila ...
Zhu Hu - - 2011
The effect of pH-control modes on cell growth and exopolysaccharide production by Tremella fuciformis was evaluated in a 5-L bioreactor. The results show that the maximal dry cell weight (DCW) and exopolysaccharide production were 23.57 and 4.48gL(-1) in pH-stat fermentation, where the maximal specific growth rate (μ(max)) and specific production ...
Brown Pamela J B - - 2011
Bacterial cell growth is a complex process consisting of two distinct phases: cell elongation and septum formation prior to cell division. Although bacteria have evolved several different mechanisms for cell growth, it is clear that tight spatial and temporal regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis is a common theme. In this review, ...
Dai Yumin - - 2011
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an oncogene frequently overexpressed in breast cancer (BC), and its overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance. EGFR is therefore a rational target for BC therapy development. This study demonstrated that a graviola fruit extract (GFE) significantly downregulated EGFR gene ...
Ray Anasuya - - 2011
The hedgehog (Hh) pathway has been shown to be activated in numerous malignancies as well as in cancer stem cells. We sought to determine the importance of the Hh pathway in regulating growth and development of ovarian cancer spheroid-forming cells (SFCs). Ovarian cancer cell lines (ES2, TOV112D, OV90, and SKOV3) ...
Velasquez Silvia M - - 2011
Root hairs are single cells that develop by tip growth and are specialized in the absorption of nutrients. Their cell walls are composed of polysaccharides and hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) that include extensins (EXTs) and arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs). Proline hydroxylation, an early posttranslational modification of HRGPs that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases ...
Czechowska Kamila - - 2011
Toxicity of chemical pollutants in aquatic environments is often addressed by assays that inquire reproductive inhibition of test microorganisms, such as algae or bacteria. Those tests, however, assess growth of populations as a whole via macroscopic methods such as culture turbidity or colony-forming units. Here we use flow cytometry to ...
Zwang Yaara - - 2011
Normal cells require continuous exposure to growth factors in order to cross a restriction point and commit to cell-cycle progression. This can be replaced by two short, appropriately spaced pulses of growth factors, where the first pulse primes a process, which is completed by the second pulse, and enables restriction ...
Scott Matthew - - 2011
Quantitative empirical relationships between cell composition and growth rate played an important role in the early days of microbiology. Gradually, the focus of the field began to shift from growth physiology to the ever more elaborate molecular mechanisms of regulation employed by the organisms. Advances in systems biology and biotechnology ...
Soltys Dorota - - 2011
Cyanamide is an allelochemical produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.). Its phyotoxic effect on plant growth was examined on roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Water solution of cyanamide (2-10 mM) restricted growth of onion roots in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of onion roots with cyanamide resulted in ...
Pawłowski K M - - 2011
Canine mammary gland has been identified as a major site of the extrapituitary growth hormone (GH) production. This finding is linked to its role in tumourigenesis of the mammary gland. Our previous studies indicated the role of GH and GH receptor (GHR) in regulation of proliferation and apoptosis. Thus, we ...
Huang Jian-Guo - - 2011
Climate warming might have resulted in altered initiation and termination dates of stem xylem growth in boreal stands. A systematic understanding of intra-annual xylem formation is thus needed for precise simulation of future growth in the context of sustainable forest management. A recently developed novel microsampling approach was employed over ...
Okada Naoko - - 2011
Although the cornea expresses high levels of clusterin (CLU), the role of CLU in the cornea is poorly understood. This study was performed to investigate the possible role of CLU in corneal epithelial homeostasis. CLU was overexpressed in 3T3 cells by transfection of a vector encoding full-length CLU (Clu-3T3). Colony-forming ...
Liang Dong - - 2011
To investigate whether aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH-1) in human lung cancer can be used as a sorting marker for stem cells in targeted therapies against human lung cancer. Spheres were induced by incubating cancer cells in a serum-free medium and formed with epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-10 (FGF10). Spheroid ...
Vermolen F J - - 2011
We consider the movement and viability of individual cells in cell colonies. Cell movement is assumed to take place as a result of sensing the strain energy density as a mechanical stimulus. The model is based on tracking the displacement and viability of each individual cell in a cell colony. ...
Fernández A - - 2011
In recent years the application of cold atmospheric gas plasma (CAP) aimed at the removal of microbial contamination from fresh and minimally processed food has received increased attention. For CAP to be successfully adopted by the food production industry, factors which affect its potential for microbial inactivation must be evaluated. ...
Thériault Catherine - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: MUC16 (CA125) protein is a high molecular weight mucin overexpressed in the majority of epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC) but not in the epithelium of normal ovaries suggesting that it might play a role in EOC pathogenesis. Here, we explored the phenotypic consequences of MUC16 knockdown and expression of its ...
Yamamoto Kyosuke - - 2011
The air-liquid interface is a selectively advantageous niche for aerobes due to the accessibility to oxygen. Various species of aerobes form a biofilm-like structure at air-liquid interfaces, known as a pellicle. Although the pellicle is one of the major growth modes of microorganisms, metabolic features of pellicle cells and determinative ...
Hedderich Reiner - - 2011
Colony counting by spreading bacterial suspensions on plating media by various techniques is of general concern. Comparative studies between hand plating (Drigalski-spatula technique) for different time intervals and spiral plating resulted in significant differences in colony counts. Lower counts of Gram-negative bacteria were obtained by using hand plating for more ...
Solari Cristian A - - 2011
Flagella-generated fluid stirring has been suggested to enhance nutrient uptake for sufficiently large micro-organisms, and to have played a role in evolutionary transitions to multicellularity. A corollary to this predicted size-dependent benefit is a propensity for phenotypic plasticity in the flow-generating mechanism to appear in large species under nutrient deprivation. ...
Gomes Fernanda - - 2011
: Farnesol is a sesquiterpenoid that has been described as impairing bacterial growth. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare the in vitro postantimicrobial effect (PAE) of farnesol against Staphylococcus epidermidis with the corresponding values of most common practice antibiotics and also to evaluate the combined effect of ...
Boyer Denis - - 2011
Bacterial colonies often exhibit complex spatio-temporal organization. This collective behavior is affected by a multitude of factors ranging from the properties of individual cells (shape, motility, membrane structure) to chemotaxis and other means of cell-cell communication. One of the important but often overlooked mechanisms of spatio-temporal organization is direct mechanical ...
Shaw Brian D - - 2011
Actin plays multiple complex roles in cell growth and cell shape. Recently it was demonstrated that actin patches, which represent sites of endocytosis, are present in a sub-apical collar at growing tips of hyphae and germ tubes of filamentous fungi. It is now clear that this zone of endocytosis is ...
Takeshita Norio - - 2011
Tip growth of filamentous fungi depends on continuous polarized growth and requires the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. Cortical proteins at polarity sites, also known as cell end markers, play important roles in polarity maintenance. Deletion of the cell end marker teaA results in zigzag hyphal morphologies, which is contrary ...
Ramani Rama - - 2011
An outbreak of Fusarium keratitis in contact lens users resulted in withdrawal of ReNu with MoistureLoc solution, although the exact cause of the outbreak remains enigmatic. We evaluated current and discontinued multipurpose cleaning solutions (MPSs; MoistureLoc, Equate, MultiPlus, and OptiFree Express) against plankton- and biofilm-derived cells of Fusarium oxysporum species ...
Arciero Julia C - - 2011
Collective cell migration plays an important role during wound healing and embryo development. Although the exact mechanisms that coordinate such migration are still unknown, experimental studies of moving cell layers have shown that the primary interactions governing the motion of the layer are the force of lamellipodia, the adhesion of ...
Sun Lan - - 2011
Hyperspectral Raman imaging was used to study the tissue/cell type specific distribution of lignin and cellulose polymers within the plant cell walls. Distinct differences in cell wall compositions were identified between two potential bioenergy feedstocks: corn stover and Eucalyptus globulus. Characteristic bands of 627, 1,175, 1,206, and 1,428 cm⁻¹ were only ...
Shleeva Margarita O - - 2011
It is believed that latent tuberculosis is associated with the persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in a dormant-like state. Dormant cells of MTB with coccoid morphology were produced in some in vivo studies, but similar forms were not produced in the known in vitro models in sufficient amounts to permit ...
Ballarin Loriano - - 2011
Monoclonal antibodies were raised against hemocytes of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri as possible tools to study hemocyte differentiation. In this species, blood cells are involved in various biological functions, such as immunosurveillance, encapsulation of foreign bodies, metal accumulation, and allorecognition. The latter process drives the fusion or rejection of ...
White Melissa G - - 2011
Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on plastic surfaces formed organized structures, termed minicolonies, that consisted of a core of round (yeast-like) cells surrounded by chains of filamentous cells (pseudohyphae). Minicolonies had a much higher affinity for plastic than unstructured yeast communities growing on the same surface. Pseudohyphae at the surface of these ...
Liu Y - - 2011
Extracts from eggs of Xenopus laevis frogs can induce nuclear remodelling or increase transcriptional reprogramming in somatic cells. However, it is not known if this effect is passed on from one cell generation to another, or how it affects somatic cell nuclear transfer in porcine cells. This study aimed to ...
Inagaki Yoshinori - - 2011
c-Met, a type of receptor tyrosine kinase, may be significantly associated with the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) has been found to interact with c-Met and activate HCC cell growth. Therefore, the functional inhibition of c-Met expressed on HCC cells should arrest HCC cell growth. The ...
Chazotte Brad - - 2011
This protocol describes the mounting of cells which have been grown on cleaned coverslips in cell culture dishes containing the appropriate medium and supplements. Labeling is performed with the coverslips placed in culture dishes. After cells are labeled, the coverslips can be mounted onto microscope slides to be viewed for ...
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