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Heo Seok - - 2007
Pediococcus acidilactici produces bacteriocin, which kills Listeria monocytogenes. The bactericidal mode of action of the bacteriocin against L. monocytogenes V7 was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The bacteriocin was purified partially from the cell-free extract using Micro-Cel and cation-exchange chromatography, and the specific activity was increased 1,791 fold. The bacteriocin ...
Orłowski Jacek - - 2007
Evidence is presented that temperature-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants, impaired in dolichol kinase (Sec59p) or dolichyl phosphate mannose synthase (Dpm1p) activity have an aberrant cell wall composition and ultrastructure. The mutants were oversensitive to Calcofluor white, an agent interacting with the cell wall chitin. In accordance with this, chemical analysis of ...
Díaz-Blanco Nitza L - - 2007
Myosin II is important for normal cytokinesis and cell wall maintenance in yeast cells. Myosin II-deficient (myo1) strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are hypersensitive to nikkomycin Z (NZ), a competitive inhibitor of chitin synthase III (Chs3p), a phenotype that is consistent with compromised cell wall integrity in this ...
Baker Lorina G - - 2007
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, particularly in immunocompromised patients. The fungal cell wall is an excellent target for antifungal therapies as it is an essential organelle that provides cell structure and integrity, it is needed for the localization or attachment of known virulence factors, ...
Bates Steven - - 2007
The Candida albicans cell wall is the immediate point of contact with the host and is implicated in the host-fungal interaction and virulence. To date, a number of cell wall proteins have been identified and associated with virulence. Analysis of the C. albicans genome has identified the IFF gene family ...
Geleta Anna - - 2007
Scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies revealed the presence of slime-like, amorphous material on the surface of Schizosaccahromyces pombe RIVE 4-2-1 cells, independently, whether they were in flocculated or in non-flocculated state. Close contact of the adjacent cells via the merging outermost cell wall layers was found, however, only in ...
Pietruszka M - - 2007
Lockhart equation was derived for explaining plant cell expansion where both cell wall extension and water uptake must occur concomitantly. Its fundamental contribution was to express turgor pressure explicitly in terms of osmosis and wall mechanics. Here we present a new equation in which pressure is determined by temperature. It ...
Aoki Naofumi - - 2007
To investigate the dependence of biocompatibility of carbon materials on crystal structure with the aim of developing biomedical applications, single-(SW) and multi-walled (MW) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were employed as scaffolds for cell culture and compared with graphite (GP). SaOS2 cells were used to investigate the properties and response of osteoblast-like ...
Reese Amy J - - 2007
Yeast cell walls are critical for maintaining cell integrity, particularly in the face of challenges such as growth in mammalian hosts. The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans additionally anchors its polysaccharide capsule to the cell surface via alpha(1-3) glucan in the wall. Cryptococcal cells disrupted in their alpha glucan synthase gene ...
Pavelka Martin S MS - - 2007
The existence of a peptidoglycan cell wall in chlamydiae has been debated for several years. Several studies suggest that these organisms synthesize a cell wall, but some of the components and biosynthetic machinery seem to be missing and a bona fide cell wall has yet to be described. A recent ...
Xu D-Y - - 2007
Endothelin 1 is a vasoconstrictive peptide with many biological functions. To investigate the distribution of endothelin 1 in guinea pig cochlear lateral wall and the significance of endothelin 1 in maintaining cochlear homeostasis, the immunohistochemistry avidin biotin complex method was applied by using rabbit anti-endothelin 1 polyclonal antibody as primary ...
Funk Carola - - 2007
The degradation of plant fiber by human gut microbiota could be restricted by xylan substitution and cross-linking by ferulate and diferulates, for example, by hindering the association of enzymes such as xylanases with their substrates. To test the influence of feruloylation on cell wall degradability by human intestinal microbiota, nonlignified ...
Deepak Shantharaj - - 2007
Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) are important plant cell wall components involved in plant defense response to pathogen attack. In the present study, a resistant pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) cultivar, IP18292, was compared with a susceptible cultivar, 7042S, to investigate the contribution of HRGPs in the successful defense against the phytopathogenic oomycete ...
Miyatake Makoto - - 2007
Valproic acid (VPA) is widely used to treat epilepsy and manic-depressive illness. Although VPA has been reported to exert a variety of biochemical effects, the exact mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects remain elusive. To gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms of VPA action, a genetic screen for fission yeast ...
Kretzer Jan W - - 2007
Immobilization and magnetic separation for specific enrichment of microbial cells, such as the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, depends on the availability of suitable affinity molecules. We report here a novel concept for the immobilization and separation of bacterial cells by replacing antibodies with cell wall-binding domains (CBDs) of bacteriophage-encoded peptidoglycan hydrolases ...
Thomas D S - - 2007
Wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. Disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. ...
Lau Ringo K L - - 2007
Dinoflagellates constitute an important group of microorganisms. Symbiotic dinoflagellates are responsible for the primary production of coral reef ecosystems and the phenomenon of their demise is known as "coral bleaching." Blooming of the planktonic dinoflagellates is the major cause of "red tides." Many dinoflagellates have prominent membrane-bound thecal plates at ...
Antelmann Haike - - 2007
Phytate is the most abundant phosphorus source in plants. Since Bacillus subtilis is a soil-dwelling bacterium, the focus of this study was to investigate whether it can use phytate as a phosphorus source. The extracellular proteome analysis revealed that phytate is an alternative phosphorus source to overcome the phosphate starvation ...
Cabib Enrico - - 2007
In budding yeast, chitin is found in three locations: at the primary septum, largely in free form, at the mother-bud neck, partially linked to beta(1-3)glucan, and in the lateral wall, attached in part to beta(1-6)glucan. By using a recently developed strategy for the study of cell wall cross-links, we have ...
He Yu-Chi - - 2007
We have developed a reliable in vitro zygotic embryogenesis system in tobacco. A single zygote of a dicotyledonous plant was able to develop into a fertile plant via direct embryogenesis with the aid of a co-culture system in which fertilized ovules were employed as feeders. The results confirmed that a ...
Li Ting-qiang - - 2007
Radiotracer techniques were employed to characterize (65)Zn adsorption and desorption in root-cell-wall of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) species of Sedum alfredii Hance. The results indicated that at the end of a 30 min short time radioisotope loading period, comparable amounts of (65)Zn were accumulated in the roots ...
Kwok Alvin C M - - 2007
Protoplast and spheroplast preparations allow the transfer of macromolecules into cells and provide the basis for the generation of engineered organisms. Crypthecodinium cohnii cells harvested from polyethylene glycol-containing agar plates possessed significantly lower levels of cellulose in their cortical layers, which facilitated the delivery of fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotides into these cells.
Miyata Takaki - - 2007
The mammalian neocortical wall thickens extensively during embryogenesis via proliferation of progenitor cells [1-4] and migration of daughter cells toward the pial surface [5-8]. Time-lapse imaging and functional experiments were carried out so that the possible involvement of mechanical forces in these processes could be examined. When bipolar cells connecting ...
Wright Christine M - - 2007
Molecular chaperones, such as Hsp40, regulate cellular processes by aiding in the folding, localization, and activation of multi-protein machines. To identify new targets of chaperone action, we performed a multi-copy suppressor screen for genes that improved the slow-growth defect of yeast lacking the YDJ1 chromosomal locus and expressing a defective ...
Werner Thomas P - - 2007
Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) is a linear polymer of phosphoanhydride-linked phosphate residues that occurs in all organisms and cells. It was found in all organelles and is particularly abundant in fungal vacuoles. The fungal cell wall also contains poly P, but very little is known about the nature and functions ...
McCann Maureen C - - 2007
About 10% of plant genomes are devoted to cell wall biogenesis. Our goal is to establish methodologies that identify and classify cell wall phenotypes of mutants on a genome-wide scale. Toward this goal, we have used a model system, the elongating maize (Zea mays) coleoptile system, in which cell wall ...
Wolschendorf Frank - - 2007
Phosphorus is an essential nutrient, but how phosphates cross the mycobacterial cell wall is unknown. Phosphatase activity in whole cells of Mycobacterium smegmatis was significantly lower than that in lysed cells, indicating that access to the substrate was restricted. The loss of the outer membrane (OM) porin MspA also reduced ...
Hosoya Shigeo - - 2007
We have identified the following events during the late stage in the mother cell in Bacillus subtilis: spore detachment from the polar site of the mother cell, membrane rupture, cell wall collapse, and release of the free spore. The membrane rupture was followed by mother cell lysis. Moreover, we found ...
Gray, EM
The time-of-flight diffraction techniques that are normally practiced at pulsed neutron sources afford opportunities that are not readily available at continuous fixed-wavelength sources. The present work concerns the increasing trend in materials science to study samples in complex non-ambient environments, such as high gas pressure. Taking the example of a ...
Kodama Takeko - - 2007
The Bacillus subtilis spo0A mutant is an adequate host for extracellular protein production (e.g., alpha-amylase). However the mutant was prone to cell lysis. SDS-PAGE and zymography of cell wall lytic proteins indicated that the spo0A mutant contained high amounts of two major autolysins (LytC [CwlB] and LytD [CwlG]) and two ...
Bóka K - - 2007
H(2)O(2) produced in plant cells plays a dual role. In addition to its antimicrobial effect, it also acts as a secondary messenger initiating and modulating responses of plants exposed to unfavorable external signals. A suspension culture of Rubia tinctorum cells challenged with elicitors was used as a model system to ...
Pribylová L - - 2007
The osmotolerant and cell wall properties of the two most studied wild-type Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strains (CBS 732 and ATCC 42981) were examined. Differences in their (1) tolerance to high salt content in the medium, (2) resistance to the lysing enzymes Lyticase and Zymolyase, (3) cell-wall polymer content and (4) cell ...
Sugimura Yukio - - 2007
When calcium carbonate crystals are formed in mulberry (Morus abla) idioblasts, they are deposited in newly formed cell wall sacs. The initial cytological events leading to cell wall sac formation were observed in the distal end of young idioblasts and tentatively categorized into four stages. The first indication of formation ...
Derbyshire Paul - - 2007
Field-emission scanning electron microscopy was used to measure wall thicknesses of different cell types in freeze-fractured hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. Measurements of uronic acid content, wall mass, and wall volume suggest that cell wall biosynthesis in this organ does not always keep pace with, and is not always tightly coupled ...
Werner Thomas P - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P), linear chains of phosphate residues linked by energy rich phosphoanhydride bonds, is found in every cell and organelle and is abundant in algae. Depending on its localization and concentration, poly P is involved in various biological functions. It serves, for example, as a phosphate store ...
Kodama Yuuki - - 2007
Paramecium bursaria cells harbor several hundred symbiotic algae in their cytoplasm. Algae-free cells can be reinfected with algae isolated from algae-bearing cells or cultivated Chlorella species through the digestive vacuoles. To determine the relationship between the infectivity of various Chlorella species and the nature of their cell wall components, algae-free ...
Cena Agata - - 2007
The sister chromatid cohesion complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is composed of proteins termed cohesins. The complex forms a ring structure that entraps sister DNAs, probably following replication. The mechanism of cohesion is universal and the proteins participating in this process are evolutionarily highly conserved. We investigated the Irr1p/Scc3p cohesin subunit, ...
Wojtaszek Przemysław - - 2007
Plant protoplasts are embedded within surrounding cell walls and the cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton (WMC) structural continuum seems to be crucial for the proper functioning of plant cells. We have utilised the protoplast preparation methodology to study the organisation and the putative components of the WMC continuum. Application of an osmotic ...
Kiseleva Elena - - 2007
This protocol details methods for the isolation of yeast nuclei from budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), immuno-gold labeling of proteins and visualization by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This involves the removal of the yeast cell wall and isolation of the nucleus from within, followed ...
Shi Chun - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Cell-wall digestibility is the major target for improving the feeding value of forage maize. An understanding of the molecular basis for cell-wall digestibility is crucial towards breeding of highly digestible maize. RESULTS: 865 candidate ESTs for cell-wall digestibility were selected according to the analysis of expression profiles in 1) ...
Kang Yun - - 2007
Apoplastic phloem loaders have an apoplastic step in the movement of the translocated sugar, prototypically sucrose, from the mesophyll to the companion cell-sieve tube element complex. In these plants, leaf apoplastic sucrose becomes concentrated in the guard cell wall to nominally 150 mM by transpiration during the photoperiod. This concentration ...
Aluru Maneesha R - - 2007
Green and white variegation in the Arabidopsis immutans (im) mutant is caused by a nuclear recessive gene. The green sectors contain cells with normal-appearing chloroplasts, while cells in the white sectors have photooxidized plastids lacking organized lamellae. In the present experiments, we found that the green im sectors have enhanced ...
Turner Simon - - 2007
Tracheary elements (TEs) are cells in the xylem that are highly specialized for transporting water and solutes up the plant. TEs undergo a very well-defined process of differentiation that involves specification, enlargement, patterned cell wall deposition, programmed cell death and cell wall removal. This process is coordinated such that adjacent ...
Derbyshire Paul - - 2007
Cell elongation is mainly limited by the extensibility of the cell wall. Dicotyledonous primary (growing) cell walls contain cellulose, xyloglucan, pectin and proteins, but little is known about how each polymer class contributes to the cell wall mechanical properties that control extensibility. We present evidence that the degree of pectin ...
Menden Barbara - - 2007
The stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici is an obligately biotrophic pathogen attacking wheat (Triticum aestivum). In compatible host/pathogen-interactions, the fungus participates in the host's metabolism by establishing functional haustoria in the susceptible plant cells. In highly resistant wheat cultivars, fungal attack is stopped by a hypersensitive response of ...
Gagné Séverine - - 2006
For two successive years, cell walls were isolated from the internal part of skin cells of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in a vineyard. Procyanidin localization and composition were determined over the course of development. Tannins were mainly localized in the inner cell fraction, due to ...
Dunn Erin K - - 2007
Although the Dasycladalean alga Acetabularia acetabulum has long been known to contain mannan-rich walls, it is not known to what extent wall composition varies as a function of the elaborate cellular differentiation of this cell, nor has it been determined what other polysaccharides accompany the mannans. Cell walls were prepared ...
Krichevsky Alexander - - 2007
Sexual reproduction of flowering plants depends on delivery of the sperm to the egg, which occurs through a long, polarized projection of a pollen cell, called the pollen tube. The pollen tube grows exclusively at its tip, and this growth is distinguished by very fast rates and reaches extended lengths. ...
Driouich Azeddine - - 2007
Plant roots release a large number of border cells into the rhizosphere, which are believed to play a key role in root development and health. The formation and loss of these cells from the root cap region is a developmentally regulated process that is also controlled by phytohormones and environmental ...
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