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Konno Haruyoshi - - 2008
The growth kinetics and variations in cell wall matrix polysaccharides and glycoside hydrolases during seedling development of the drought-tolerant wheat cultivar (cv. Hong Mang Mai) were compared with the drought-sensitive cultivar (cv. Shirasagikomugi). After 15 d of culture in water at 22 degrees C under constant irradiance of 98 micromol ...
Nguyen Liem - - 2007
While in most rod-shaped bacteria, morphology is based on MreB-like proteins that form an actin-like cytoskeletal scaffold for cell wall biosynthesis, the factors that determine the more flexible rod-like shape in actinobacteria such as Mycobacterium species are unknown. Here we show that a Mycobacterium smegmatis protein homologous to eubacterial DivIVA-like ...
Harold Franklin M - - 2007
Bacteria furnish tractable models for complex biological processes, and morphogenesis is now taking its turn. We can already explain in general terms how such elementary forms as rods and cocci are produced, and the shapes of several individual organisms are coming into focus. In most bacteria shape is maintained by ...
Krumov Nikolay - - 2007
The yeasts Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida glabrata were successfully cultivated in a fed-batch process at cadmium levels up to 100 mg l(-1). S. pombe incorporated 20 mg C dg(-1) dry biomass within 24h. C. glabrata accumulated 8 mg C dg(-1) dry biomass in 24h. The higher Cd uptake from S. ...
Sun, Dongxiao
Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or available through Inter-Library Loan. The interactions between two dietary antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin) and cell walls isolated from Pacific Rose apples (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. ‘Pacific Rose’) and onions (Allium cepa L. red skinned variety) were examined ...
Moslavac Suncana - - 2007
Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that serves as a model to analyze prokaryotic cell differentiation, evolutionary development of plastids, and the regulation of nitrogen fixation. The cell wall is the cellular structure in contact with the surrounding medium. To understand the dynamics of the cell wall proteome ...
Nowak J - - 2007
Among all the fossils, petrified wood belongs to the most impressive and most common of materials. Still, its study has not exceeded the purely phenomenological level. The recognition of the conserved structure of petrified wood seems to be of meaning for understanding the geological past, the complete carbon cycle inside ...
Kim So-Young - - 2007
ALipase B from Candida antarctica (CalB) displayed on the cell surface of H. polymorpha has been functionally improved for catalytic activity by molecular evolution. CalB was displayed on the cell surface by fusing to a cell-wall anchor motif (CwpF). A library of CalB mutants was constructed by in vivo recombination ...
DiMauro Alexander J - - 2007
Bacteriophage phi29 is a small, well-characterized dsDNA virus that infects Bacillus subtilis. The anti-receptor of phi29 consists of oligomers of the 854-residue protein gp12 and plays an essential role in infection initiation by binding to the receptor on the host cell surface. Oligomers of gp12 exhibit a narrow spindle-shaped configuration ...
Thompson D S - - 2008
The biomechanical behaviour of plant cells depends upon the material properties of their cell walls and, in many cases, it is necessary that these properties are quite specific. Additionally, physiological regulation may require that target cells responding to hormonal signals or environmental factors are able to modulate these characteristics. This ...
Wu Yingru - - 2007
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibre initial cells undergo a rapid cellular re-programming around anthesis to form the long cellulose fibres prized for textile manufacture. On the day of anthesis the cotton fibre initial cells balloon out from the ovule surface and so are clearly distinguished from adjacent epidermal pavement cells. ...
Rubin-Bejerano Ifat I Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, - - 2007
Innate immunity depends upon recognition of surface features common to broad groups of pathogens. The glucose polymer beta-glucan has been implicated in fungal immune recognition. Fungal walls have two kinds of beta-glucan: beta-1,3-glucan and beta-1,6-glucan. Predominance of beta-1,3-glucan has led to the presumption that it is the key immunological determinant ...
Yin Qing Yuan - - 2007
The cell wall of yeast consists of an internal skeletal layer and an external layer of glycoproteins covalently linked to the stress-bearing polysaccharides. The cell wall protein (CWP) population consists of over 20 different proteins, and may vary in composition. We present two complementary methods for quantifying CWPs, based on ...
Smith, Bronwen Geraldine
Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or available through Inter-Library Loan. In this thesis I have examined aspects of the composition and structure of the cell walls of selected species of monocotyledons. Included is a study of the monomeric and dimeric phenolic acids in the ...
Samuelsen Grethe B - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that the total number of cells in the cortical part of the cerebral wall is the same in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses, compared with normally grown fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: The total cell number in the cerebral wall was estimated ...
Bisicchia Paola - - 2007
Adaptation of bacteria to the prevailing environmental and nutritional conditions is often mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCS). The Bacillus subtilis YycFG TCS has attracted special attention as it is essential for viability and its regulon is poorly defined. Here we show that YycFG is a regulator of cell ...
Young Shih-Houng - - 2007
1-->3-Beta-glucan has been associated with pulmonary inflammation induced by exposure to fungal or yeast cell wall dust. 1-->3-Beta-glucan is the major cell wall component of yeast or fungi. However, the yeast cell wall contains several other components besides 1-->3-beta-glucans, such as mannan and chitin. Few studies evaluated the contribution of ...
Stapleton Paul D - - 2007
(-)-Epicatechin gallate (ECg), a component of green tea, sensitizes meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to beta-lactam antibiotics, promotes staphylococcal cell aggregation and increases cell-wall thickness. The potentiation of beta-lactam activity against MRSA by ECg was not due to decreased bacterial penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2a expression or ECg binding to peptidoglycan. A ...
Wolski Erika - - 2007
The interface between plants and pathogens plays an important role in their interaction. Studies of fungal cell walls are scarce and previous results show the existence of alpha-1,3-glucans in addition to ss-glucans. In addition, alpha-1,3-glucans are not present in plant cell walls, and alpha-glucanase activity in plants has not been ...
Azencott Harold R HR School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, - - 2007
To assess the cell wall's role as a barrier to intracellular delivery, wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algal cells and mutant cells lacking a cell wall were exposed to electroporation or sonication. Flow cytometry determined intracellular uptake of calcein and bovine serum albumin (BSA) and loss of cell viability as functions of ...
Sipiczki Matthias - - 2007
In cell-walled organisms, a cross wall (septum) is produced during cytokinesis, which then splits in certain organisms to allow the daughter cells to separate. The formation and the subsequent cleavage of the septum require wall synthesis and wall degradation, which need to be strictly coordinated in order to prevent cell ...
Higuchi Megumi - - 2008
Human Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) subfamily recognizes bacterial lipoproteins (BLP) and peptidoglycan (PGN). According to the genome information, chicken has structural orthologs of TLRs1 and 2, in addition to TLRs3, 4, 5 and 7. Chicken has two additional TLRs, TLR15 and TLR21, whose orthologs human lacks. The chicken (ch)TLR1 and ...
Mine Ichiro - - 2007
In the tip-growing filamentous cell of the xanthophycean alga Vaucheria terrestris sensu Götz, a new growing tip develops in the non-growing, cylindrical region of the cell that was exposed by local illumination. The present study examined changes in the strength and extensibility of the cell wall of the new growing ...
Burgert Ingo - - 2007
Plants are able to pre-stress their tissues in order to actuate their organs. Here, we demonstrate with two tissue types of the secondary xylem of conifers (normal wood and compression wood of spruce (Picea abies)) that either tensile or compressive stresses can develop in the longitudinal direction during the swelling ...
Zhang Yun - - 2007
The small size of bacteria makes it difficult to study the biochemistry inside single cells. The amount of material inside is limited; therefore, an ultrasensitive method is required to interrogate single cells. Using a sensitive ICCD detector to record chemiluminescence (CL) from an optimized firefly luciferase-ATP bioluminescence reaction system, we ...
Hématy Kian - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A major challenge is to understand how the walls of expanding plant cells are correctly assembled and remodeled, often in the presence of wall-degrading micro-organisms. Plant cells, like yeast, react to cell-wall perturbations as shown by changes in gene expression, accumulation of ectopic lignin, and growth arrest caused by ...
Fuchs Beth Burgwyn BB Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02144, - - 2007
Photodynamic therapy is a rapidly developing antimicrobial technology which combines a nontoxic photoactivatable dye or photosensitizer with harmless visible light of the correct wavelength to excite the dye to its reactive triplet state to generate reactive oxygen species toxic to cells. In this report we present evidence that the fungal ...
Stowers Chris C - - 2007
We report the results of an optical assay to determine the degree of cell wall disruption in yeast. The results indicate that cell wall disruption with glass beads yields reproducible results that can be modelled with an integral measure of time to failure that implies a decreasing failure rate. It ...
Moller Isabel - - 2007
We describe here a methodology that enables the occurrence of cell-wall glycans to be systematically mapped throughout plants in a semi-quantitative high-throughput fashion. The technique (comprehensive microarray polymer profiling, or CoMPP) integrates the sequential extraction of glycans from multiple organs or tissues with the generation of microarrays, which are probed ...
An, Cheng Cai
The effects of IBP (S-benzyl O,O-diisopropyl phosphorothioate) on cell wall regeneration and hyphal reversion of protoplasts obtained from spores of Pyricularia oryzae Cav. isolates P2 (IBP-sensitive) and PT83 (tolerant) were examined. The pretreatment of protoplasts of P2 with 50 ppm IBP suppressed cell wall regeneration, but the treatment of previously ...
Yamamoto Maki - - 2007
Non-flagellated vegetative green algae of the Trebouxiophyceae propagate mainly by autosporulation. In this manner, the mother cell wall is shed following division of the protoplast in each round of cell division. Binary fission type Nannochloris and budding type Marvania are also included in the Trebouxiophyceae. Phylogenetic trees based on the ...
Jaehrig Silke C - - 2007
(1-->3),(1-->6)-Beta-D-Glucan, a cell wall polysaccharide in many microorganisms, fungi and algae, is a well-known biological response modifier. Recently, it was found that (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae also exhibits antioxidative capabilities. In this study the antioxidative activity of the cell wall fractions of brewer's yeast was investigated. Particular emphasis was put ...
Varma Archana A Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND 58202, - - 2007
Certain penicillin binding protein mutants of Escherichia coli grow with spirillum-like morphologies when the FtsZ protein is inhibited, suggesting that FtsZ might govern aspects of cell wall growth other than those strictly associated with septation. While investigating the mechanism of spiral cell formation, we discovered conditions for visualizing this second ...
Honjoh, Ken-ichi
Protoplasts from Chlorella vulgaris K-73112 were obtained by enzymatic digestion with a mixture of Acromopeptidase, Cellulase ONOZUKA R-10, Chitosanas Kl, Gluczyme, and Uskizyme. The formation of naked protoplasts was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy using fluorescent brightner 28, which stains cell walls. About 88% of C. vulgaris K-73112 cells were covereted ...
Steinbach William J - - 2007
Calcineurin mutation or inhibition enhanced the antifungal morphological effect of cell wall inhibitors caspofungin or nikkomycin Z against Aspergillus fumigatus. Quantification of 1,3-beta-d-glucan revealed decreased amounts in the calcineurin A (DeltacnaA) mutant. Calcineurin can be an excellent adjunct therapeutic target in combination with other cell wall inhibitors against A. fumigatus.
Salzberg Letal I LI Department of Microbiology, 370 Wing Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, - - 2007
In Bacillus subtilis, antibiotics that impair cell wall synthesis induce a characteristic stress response including the sigma(W) and sigma(M) regulons and the previously uncharacterized yoeB gene. Here we demonstrate that YoeB is a cell wall-associated protein with weak sequence similarity to a noncatalytic domain of class B penicillin-binding proteins. A ...
Rösti Johannes - - 2007
Five Arabidopsis thaliana genes that encode UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE) and represent two ancient plant UGE clades might be involved in the regulation of cell wall carbohydrate biosynthesis. We tested this hypothesis in a genome-wide reverse genetic study. Despite significant contributions of each gene to total UGE activity, none was essential ...
Canning Elizabeth U - - 2007
Development of a new species of malacosporean myxozoan (Buddenbrockia allmani n. sp.) in the bryozoan Lophopus crystallinus is described. Early stages, represented by isolated cells or small groups, were observed in the host's body wall or body cavity. Multiplication and rearrangement of cells gave an outer cell layer around a ...
Scheffers Dirk-Jan - - 2007
The role of the cell division protein FtsZ in bacterial cell wall (CW) synthesis is believed to be restricted to localizing proteins involved in the synthesis of the septal wall. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, the groups of Christine Jacobs-Wagner and Waldemar Vollmer provide compelling evidence that in Caulobacter ...
Gou Jin-Ying - - 2007
Cotton fibers elongate rapidly after initiation of elongation, eventually leading to the deposit of a large amount of cellulose. To reveal features of cotton fiber cells at the fast elongation and the secondary cell wall synthesis stages, we compared the respective transcriptomes and metabolite profiles. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes by ...
Makkonen Sari - - 2007
Lichens can be both nitrogen- (N) and phosphorous- (P) limited and thus may be susceptible to nutrient enrichment. Nutrient enrichment with N and P may have differing impacts on the lichen structure because of different physiological responses of fungal and algal partners to these nutrients. The hypothesis was tested that ...
Dover Lynn G LG School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, - - 2007
The replication and growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are fundamentally linked to the synthesis and extension of its complex cell wall. Incorporation of new wall material must be tightly regulated so that its deposition does not compromise the extant structure. M. tuberculosis also produces an impressive array of complex bioactive lipids ...
1987 <i>Tetraparma pelagica</i> Booth & Marchant<br>Picoplankton non-motile chrysophyte (length 2.2-2.8 µm) with a siliceous cell wall of 8 papillate plates. Mainly observed in polar regions.
D. Vaulot
1990 <i>Bathycoccus prasinos</i> Eikrem & Throndsen<br>Picoplankton non-motile prasinophyte (length 1.5-2.5 µm, width 1-2 µm), devoid of cell wall, without flagella, covered with rounded organic scales, with a single chloroplast semilunar and devoid of pyrenoid.
Grabber John H - - 2007
Grass cell walls are atypical because their xylans are acylated with ferulate and lignins are acylated with p-coumarate. To probe the role and interactions of these p-hydroxycinnamates during lignification, feruloylated primary cell walls isolated from maize cell suspensions were lignified with coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols and with varying levels of ...
Vicente Ariel R - - 2007
Softening and pathogen susceptibility are the major factors limiting the marketing of blueberries as fresh fruits, and these traits are associated with fruit cell wall structure. However, few studies that characterize wall modifications occurring during development and ripening have been reported for this fruit. In this study the ripening-associated modifications ...
Uccelletti Daniela - - 2007
The Kluyveromyces lactis ORF r_klactIV3,463 on chromosome IV, hereafter named KlYND1, encodes an endoapyrase that has nucleoside phosphatase activity with a lumenal orientation. The enzyme showed equally high activity towards GDP/UDP and ADP, and also showed activity, although to a lesser extent, towards GTP. No activity was detected with the ...
Zhong Quan - - 2007
We have previously shown that mutants in the cardiolipin (CL) pathway exhibit temperature-sensitive growth defects that are not associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The pgs1Delta mutant, lacking the first enzyme of the CL pathway, phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (Pgs1p), has a defective cell wall due to decreased beta-1,3-glucan (Zhong, Q., Gvozdenovic-Jeremic, J., Webster, ...
Ronen Revital - - 2007
The protein kinase C (PKC) family participates in maintaining integrity and growth of fungal cell walls. However, the precise molecular role of these proteins in the filamentous fungi remains unknown. In this work, pkcA, the gene encoding the PKC homolog in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, was cloned and its ...
Cui Daxiang - - 2007
Antisense therapy is limited in application in clinical therapy because of two existing problems: rapid degradation of antisense nucleic acids and poor diffusion across the cell membrane. Here we report the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes as delivery system for transporting antisense myc into HL-60 cells. Antisense-myc-conjugated single-walled carbon nanotubes ...
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