Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 3354
< 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 >
Hofmannová Jana - - 2008
The co-ordination of cell wall synthesis with plant cell expansion is an important topic of contemporary plant biology research. In studies of cell wall synthesis pathways, cellulose synthesis inhibitors are broadly used. It is demonstrated here that ancymidol, known as a plant growth retardant primarily affecting gibberellin biosynthesis, is also ...
Marcus Susan E - - 2008
Molecular probes are required to detect cell wall polymers in-situ to aid understanding of their cell biology and several studies have shown that cell wall epitopes have restricted occurrences across sections of plant organs indicating that cell wall structure is highly developmentally regulated. Xyloglucan is the major hemicellulose or cross-linking ...
Olsen Lene T - - 2008
Barley, one of the major small grain crops, is especially important in climatically demanding agricultural areas of the world, with multiple uses within food, feed, and beverage. The barley endosperm is further of special scientific interest due to its three aleurone cell layers, with the potential of bringing forward the ...
Underwood William - - 2008
Plants resist attack by haustorium-forming biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic fungi through fortification of the cell wall to prevent penetration through the wall and the subsequent establishment of haustorial feeding structures by the fungus. While the existence of cell wall-based defences has been known for many years, only recently have the molecular ...
Santiago-Doménech Nieves - - 2008
Cell wall disassembly in softening fruits is a complex process involving the cumulative action of many families of wall-modifying proteins on interconnected polysaccharide matrices. One strategy to elucidate the in vivo substrates of specific enzymes and their relative importance and contribution to wall modification is to suppress their expression in ...
Palmeira Vanila F - - 2008
Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the principal etiologic agent of chromoblastomycosis, a fungal disease whose pathogenic events are poorly understood. Current therapy for chromoblastomycosis is suboptimal due to toxicity of the available therapeutic agents and the emergence of drug resistance. Compounding these problems is the fact that endemic countries and regions are ...
Buanafina Marcia M de O - - 2008
In the cell walls of forage grasses, ferulic acid is esterified to arabinoxylans and participates with lignin monomers in oxidative coupling pathways to generate ferulate-polysaccharide-lignin complexes that cross-link the cell wall. Such cross-links hinder cell wall degradation by ruminant microbes, reducing plant digestibility. In this study, genetically modified Festuca arundinacea ...
Sun-Waterhouse Dongxiao - - 2008
The effect of dietary fiber in the form of apple cell walls and pectin extracts on natural antioxidants was examined. Cell walls (CW), isolated from apples ( Malus domestica Borkh. cv. "Pacific Rose"), were incubated with ascorbic acid (AA) or quercetin in N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine- N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer (pH 6.5) at ...
Yang Jian Li - - 2008
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most aluminum (Al)-resistant crop species among the small-grain cereals, but the mechanisms responsible for this trait are still unclear. Using two rice cultivars differing in Al resistance, rice sp. japonica 'Nipponbare' (an Al-resistant cultivar) and rice sp. indica 'Zhefu802' (an Al-sensitive cultivar), it was found ...
Kavitha, R
Endosperm cell wall of sorghum bicolor (L.) moench
Firon Arnaud - - 2007
Completion of the yeast cell cycle involves extensive remodelling of the cell wall upon separation of mother and daughter cells. We have studied two members of the ascomycete-specific SUN gene family in Candida albicans. Inactivation of SUN41 yields defects in cell separation and hyphal elongation while inactivation of SUN42 results ...
Eisenman Helene C - - 2007
The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans produces melanin in the presence of various substrates, including the L enantiomer of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). The enzyme laccase catalyses the formation of melanin by oxidizing L-DOPA, initiating a series of presumably spontaneous reactions that ultimately leads to the polymerization of the pigment in the ...
Casadesús Josep - - 2007
Cell-wall-less bacterial variants, or L-forms, have been described in many bacterial species under laboratory conditions, in infected eukaryotic cell cultures and inside animals. Of special interest for human health is the formation of L-forms as a consequence of specific antibiotic treatments, and the potential involvement of L-forms in persistent and ...
Kogej Tina - - 2007
This study was intended to determine the osmoadaptation strategy of Hortaea werneckii, an extremely salt-tolerant melanized ascomycetous fungus that can grow at 0-5.1 M NaCl. It has been shown previously that glycerol is the major compatible solute in actively growing H. werneckii. This study showed that the exponentially growing cells ...
Rutherford Julian C - - 2008
The conserved AmtB/Mep/Rh family of proteins mediate the transport of ammonium across cellular membranes in a wide range of organisms. Certain fungal members of this group are required to initiate filamentous growth. We have investigated the functions of two members of the AmtB/Mep/Rh family from the pathogenic basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans. ...
Wikström Jonna - - 2008
The goals of this study were to evaluate human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) for cell encapsulation and to optimize the alginate-based microencapsulation. We used immortalized ARPE-19 cells and the transfected sub-line that expresses secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter enzyme. Alginate was cross-linked with different divalent cations (Ca(2+), Ba(2+), ...
Fukuda Takeshi - - 2008
To utilize glucoamylase-displaying yeast cells for enzymatic desizing of starched cotton cloth, we constructed yeast strains that codisplayed Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase and two kinds of Trichoderma reesei cellulose-binding domains (CBD1, CBD of cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI); and CBD2, CBD of cellobiohydrolase II (CBHII)). In this study, we aimed to obtain a ...
Rodrigues Marcio L - - 2008
The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is a complex structure whose assembly requires intermolecular interactions to connect its components into an organized structure. In this study, we demonstrated that the wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), which binds to sialic acids and beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) oligomers, can also bind to cryptococcal capsular structures. Confocal ...
Yu Marcia M L - - 2008
The cuticular waxes on the leaves of Prunus laurocerasus are arranged in distinct layers differing in triterpenoid concentrations (Jetter et al., Plant Cell Environ 23:619-628, 2000). In addition to this transversal gradient, the lateral distribution of cuticular triterpenoids must be investigated to fully describe the spatial distribution of wax components ...
Jang Woong Sik WS Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, - - 2008
The activity of histatin 5 (Hst 5) against Candida albicans is initiated through cell wall binding, followed by translocation and intracellular targeting. The C. albicans cell wall protein Ssa2 is involved in the transport of Hst 5 into cells as part of cell killing. P-113 (a 12-amino-acid candidacidal active fragment ...
Kaiser Jean-Pierre - - 2008
Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) find their way in various industrial applications. Due to the expected increased production of various carbon nanotubes and nanoparticle containing products, exposure to engineered nanoparticles will also increase dramatically in parallel. In this study the effects of SWCNT raw material and purified SWCNT (SWCNT bundles) ...
Osborn Mary J - - 2007
The rigid cell wall peptidoglycan (murein) is a single giant macromolecule whose shape determines the shape of the bacterial cell. Insight into morphogenetic mechanism(s) responsible for determining the shape of the murein sacculus itself has begun to emerge only in recent years. The discovery that MfreB and Mbl are cytoskeletal ...
Carballido-López Rut - - 2007
The discovery of cytoskeletal elements in prokaryotes has dramatically changed the way we think about bacterial cell morphogenesis. The rod shape of Bacillus subtilis is maintained by the two major polymers (peptidoglycan and teichoic acids) of its thick cell wall and determined by the way these are inserted during growth. ...
Grimault Valérie - - 2007
During direct somatic embryogenesis in leaves of Cichorium hybrid clone '474', 38 kDa beta-1,3-glucanases are accumulated in the culture medium of the embryogenic hybrid to a higher level when compared with a non-embryogenic cultivar. In the same time, embryogenic cells were surrounded by a cell wall that was characterized by ...
Santos Glaciane D GD Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO, - - 2007
The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America. Drug toxicity and the appearance of resistant strains have created the need to search for new therapeutic approaches. Plants with reputed antimicrobial properties represent a rich screening source of potential ...
Aboughe-Angone Sophie - - 2008
Isolated cell walls of Argania spinosa fruit pulp were fractionated into their polysaccharide constituents and the resulting fractions were analysed for monosaccharide composition and chemical structure. The data reveal the presence of homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) and rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) in the pectic fraction. RG-I is abundant and contains high amounts of ...
Rodriguez-Peña Jose M - - 2008
The cell wall is an essential, unique and highly conserved structure in fungi, thus representing an ideal set of targets for antifungal drugs. In the model yeast S. cerevisiae, the Pkc1-mediated cell integrity signalling pathway is essential for maintenance of the cell wall. Adaptation to cell wall stress involves the ...
Röckel Nina - - 2008
In dicots, pectins are the major structural determinant of the cell wall at the pollen tube tip. Recently, immunological studies revealed that esterified pectins are prevalent at the apex of growing pollen tubes, where the cell wall needs to be expandable. In contrast, lateral regions of the cell wall contain ...
Lenardon Megan D MD School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, - - 2007
The shape and integrity of fungal cells is dependent on the skeletal polysaccharides in their cell walls of which beta(1,3)-glucan and chitin are of principle importance. The human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans has four genes, CHS1, CHS2, CHS3 and CHS8, which encode chitin synthase isoenzymes with different biochemical properties and ...
Porter Alexandra E - - 2007
The development of single-walled carbon nanotubes for various biomedical applications is an area of great promise. However, the contradictory data on the toxic effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes highlight the need for alternative ways to study their uptake and cytotoxic effects in cells. Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been shown to ...
Zhong Ruiqin - - 2007
Plant cell walls differ in their amount and composition among various cell types and even in different microdomains of the wall of a given cell. Plants must have evolved regulatory mechanisms controlling biosynthesis, targeted secretion, and assembly of wall components to achieve the heterogeneity in cell walls. A number of ...
Siafakas A Rosemary - - 2007
Phospholipase B (Plb1) is secreted by pathogenic fungi and is a proven virulence determinant in Cryptococcus neoformans. Cell-associated Plb1 is presumptively involved in fungal membrane biogenesis and remodelling. We have also identified it in cryptococcal cell walls. Motif scanning programs predict that Plb1 is attached to cryptococcal membranes via a ...
Mora-Montes Héctor M - - 2007
The cell surface of Candida albicans is enriched in highly glycosylated mannoproteins that are involved in the interaction with the host tissues. N glycosylation is a posttranslational modification that is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where the Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) N-glycan is processed by alpha-glucosidases I and II and alpha1,2-mannosidase to ...
Rondeau-Mouro C - - 2008
The impact of homogalacturonans deficiency on the cell wall porosity of Arabidopsis thaliana QUA1 mutant was investigated using NMR measurements of protons mobility interpreted in terms of pore size variations at nanometer and micrometer scales. Isolation and purification of wild type and mutant stems and calli cell walls permitted to ...
Van Sandt Vicky S T - - 2007
Plant cells undergo cell expansion when a temporary imbalance between the hydraulic pressure of the vacuole and the extensibility of the cell wall makes the cell volume increase dramatically. The primary cell walls of most seed plants consist of cellulose microfibrils tethered mainly by xyloglucans and embedded in a highly ...
Divakaruni Arun V - - 2007
MreB, the bacterial actin homologue, is thought to function in spatially co-ordinating cell morphogenesis in conjunction with MreC, a protein that wraps around the outside of the cell within the periplasmic space. In Caulobacter crescentus, MreC physically associates with penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) which catalyse the insertion of intracellularly synthesized precursors ...
Gray-Mitsumune Madoka - - 2008
Expansins are primary agents inducing cell wall extension, and are therefore obvious targets in biotechnological applications aimed at the modification of cell size in plants. In trees, increased fibre length is a goal of both breeding and genetic engineering programmes. We used an alpha-expansin PttEXPA1 that is highly abundant in ...
Kutschera U - - 2007
The botanist G. Kraus postulated in 1867 that the peripheral cell layers determine the rate of organ elongation based on the observation that the separated outer and inner tissues of growing stems spontaneously change their lengths upon isolation from each other. Here, we summarize the modern version of this classical ...
Sung Woo Sang - - 2007
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a naturally occurring constituent of cruciferous vegetables. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of I3C and its mode of action. By using an NCCLS broth microdilution assay, the activity of I3C was evaluated against human pathogenic microorganisms including clinically isolated ...
Wright, Christine Marion
Hsp70 molecular chaperones play critical roles in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer and viral replication. Hsp70s bind polypeptides and couple ATP hydrolysis to alter substrate conformation and function. However, ATP hydrolysis by Hsp70 is weak, but can be stimulated by J domain-protein chaperones. To identify new targets ...
Martinez Luis R - - 2007
Fungal contamination is a major problem in cell culture, and the antifungal compounds currently in use can affect cultured cells. Echinocandins are antifungal drugs that inhibit fungal cell wall synthesis by targeting an enzyme that has no counterpart in mammalian cells. We evaluated whether the echinocandin caspofungin affected the growth ...
Leroux Olivier - - 2007
Projections of cell wall material into the intercellular spaces between parenchymatic cells have been observed since the mid-19th century. Histochemical staining suggested that these intercellular protuberances are probably pectic in nature, but uncertainties about their origin, composition and biological function(s) have remained. Using electron and light microscopy, including immunohistochemical methods, ...
Katsube Tomoya - - 2007
Bacteria coordinate assembly of the cell wall as well as synthesis of cellular components depending on the growth state. The mycobacterial cell wall is dominated by mycolic acids covalently linked to sugars, such as trehalose and arabinose, and is critical for pathogenesis of mycobacteria. Transfer of mycolic acids to sugars ...
Latgé Jean-Paul - - 2007
The cell wall is composed of a polysaccharide-based three-dimensional network. Considered for a long time as an inert exoskeleton, the cell wall is now seen as a dynamic structure that is continuously changing as a result of the modification of culture conditions and environmental stresses. Although the cell wall composition ...
Norice Carmelle T CT Department of Microbiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, - - 2007
The cell wall of Candida albicans lies at the crossroads of pathogenicity and therapeutics. It contributes to pathogenicity through adherence and invasion; it is the target of both chemical and immunological antifungal strategies. We have initiated a dissection of cell wall function through targeted insertional mutagenesis of cell wall-related genes. ...
Dubrac Sarah - - 2007
The highly conserved WalK/WalR (also known as YycG/YycF) two-component system is specific to low-G+C gram-positive bacteria. While this system is essential for cell viability, both the nature of its regulon and its physiological role have remained mostly uncharacterized. We observed that, unexpectedly, Staphylococcus aureus cell death induced by WalKR depletion ...
Antignac Aude - - 2007
Bacterial peptidoglycan hydrolases are considered to have destructive potential, which in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of cell wall synthesis inhibitors is involved in cell lysis. Therefore, the expression and activity of autolytic enzymes must be tightly regulated in growing cells. We describe here a series of experiments undertaken to ...
Boudart, Georges
In this chapter, we will focus on the contribution of proteomics to the identification and determination of the structure and function of CWPs as well as discussing new perspectives in this area. The great variety of proteins found in the plant cell wall is described. Some families, such as glycoside ...
Levy Jacqueline L - - 2007
Microalgae are sensitive indicators of environmental change and, as the basis of most freshwater and marine ecosystems, are widely used in the assessment of risk and development of environmental regulations for metals. However, interspecies differences in sensitivity to metals are not well understood. The relationship between metal-algal cell binding and ...
Konno Haruyoshi - - 2008
The growth kinetics and variations in cell wall matrix polysaccharides and glycoside hydrolases during seedling development of the drought-tolerant wheat cultivar (cv. Hong Mang Mai) were compared with the drought-sensitive cultivar (cv. Shirasagikomugi). After 15 d of culture in water at 22 degrees C under constant irradiance of 98 micromol ...
< 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 >