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Results 501 - 550 of 3353
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Bouzarelou Demetra - - 2008
Although the process of conidial germination in filamentous fungi has been extensively studied, many aspects remain to be elucidated since the asexual spore or conidium is vital in their life cycle. Breakage and reformation of cell wall polymer bonds along with the maintenance of cell wall plasticity during conidia germination ...
Das Sujoy K - - 2008
The role of different functional groups (i.e. amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl as well as phosphate) and cell wall components (such as chitin, chitosan, glucan and phosphomannan) of Rhizopus oryzae on adsorption of rhodamine B is described. The functional groups were chemically modified to determine their contribution in the present adsorption process. ...
Emri Tamás - - 2008
In terms of cell physiology, autolysis is the centerpiece of carbon-starving fungal cultures. In the filamentous fungus model organism Aspergillus nidulans, the last step of carbon-starvation-triggered autolysis was the degradation of the cell wall of empty hyphae, and this process was independent of concomitantly progressing cell death at the level ...
Schäppi Mg - - 2008
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a genetic disorder characterized by the absence of a functional phagocyte NADPH oxidase, is a severe immune deficiency. However, non-infectious hyperinflammation is a second hallmark of the disease. In CGD mouse models, sterile hyperinflammation can be induced by A. fumigatus cell wall preparations. In this study, ...
Harvey David J - - 2008
This review is the second update of the original review on the application of MALDI mass spectrometry to the analysis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates that was published in 1999. It covers fundamental aspects of the technique as applied to carbohydrates, fragmentation of carbohydrates, studies of specific carbohydrate types such as ...
Xu Jian-Di - - 2008
Plant mechanical strength is an important agronomic trait of rice. An ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced rice mutant, fragile plant 2 (fp2), showed morphological changes and reduced mechanical strength. Genetic analysis indicated that the brittle of fp2 was controlled by a recessive gene. The fp2 gene was mapped on chromosome 10. ...
Fudali Sylwia - - 2008
Cyst nematodes induce specific syncytial feeding structures within the root which develop from an initial cell by successive incorporation of neighbouring cells through local cell wall dissolutions followed by hypertrophy of included cells. Expansins are known to induce cell wall relaxation and extension in acidic pH, and they are involved ...
Blake Anthony W - - 2008
A study of stem anatomy and the sclerenchyma fibre cells associated with the phloem tissues of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) plants is of interest for both understanding the formation of secondary cell walls and for the enhancement of fibre utility as industrial fibres and textiles. Using a range of molecular ...
Lee Yeonkyeong - - 2008
Alterations in the detection of cell wall polysaccharides during an induced abscission event in the pedicel of Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia) have been determined using monoclonal antibodies and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy. Concurrent with the appearance of a morphologically distinct abscission zone (AZ) on day 5 after induction, a reduction ...
Letek Michal - - 2008
The actinomycete Corynebacterium glutamicum grows as rod-shaped cells by zonal peptidoglycan synthesis at the cell poles. In this bacterium, experimental depletion of the polar DivIVA protein (DivIVA(Cg)) resulted in the inhibition of polar growth; consequently, these cells exhibited a coccoid morphology. This result demonstrated that DivIVA is required for cell ...
Mazán Marián - - 2008
Proteins with internal repeats (Pir) belong to a minor group of covalently linked yeast cell wall proteins. They are not essential for viability but important for cell wall strength, reduced permeability against plant antifungal enzymes and maintenance of osmotic stability. Here we show the importance of Pir proteins of Saccharomyces ...
Zhang Min - - 2008
We have previously reported the development of a novel genotoxic testing system based on the transcriptional response of the yeast RNR3-lacZ reporter gene to DNA damage. This system appears to be more sensitive than other similar tests in microorganisms, and is comparable with the Ames test. In an effort to ...
Sørensen Iben - - 2008
Mixed-linkage (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta-D-glucan (MLG) is widely considered to be a defining feature of the cell walls of plants in the Poales order. However, we conducted an extensive survey of cell-wall composition in diverse land plants and discovered that MLG is also abundant in the walls of the horsetail Equisetum arvense. MALDI-TOF ...
Bernal Ibáñez, María
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cell suspensions have the capacity to develop tolerance to excess copper, constituting a convenient system for studies on the mechanisms of copper tolerance. The functional cell organisation changes observed in these cell cultures after both short-term (stressed cells) and long-term (acclimated cells) exposure to 10 ...
Vollmer Waldemar - - 2008
Most bacteria have multiple peptidoglycan hydrolases capable of cleaving covalent bonds in peptidoglycan sacculi or its fragments. An overview of the different classes of peptidoglycan hydrolases and their cleavage sites is provided. The physiological functions of these enzymes include the regulation of cell wall growth, the turnover of peptidoglycan during ...
Rautengarten Carsten - - 2008
During Arabidopsis seed development large quantities of mucilage, composed of pectins, are deposited into the apoplast underneath the outer wall of the seed coat. Upon imbibition of mature seeds, the stored mucilage expands through hydration and breaks the outer cell wall that encapsulates the whole seed. Mutant seeds carrying loss-of-function ...
Wightman Raymond - - 2008
During secondary cell wall formation, developing xylem vessels deposit cellulose at specific sites on the plasma membrane. Bands of cortical microtubules mark these sites and are believed to somehow orientate the cellulose synthase complexes. We have used live cell imaging on intact roots of Arabidopsis to explore the relationship between ...
Cannon Maura C - - 2008
Cytokinesis partitions the cell by a cleavage furrow in animals but by a new cross wall in plants. How this new wall assembles at the molecular level and connects with the mother cell wall remains unclear. A lethal Arabidopsis embryogenesis mutant designated root-, shoot-, hypocotyl-defective (rsh) provides some clues: RSH ...
Zapun André - - 2008
The shape of bacteria is determined by their cell wall and can be very diverse. Even among genera with the suffix 'cocci', which are the focus of this review, different shapes exist. While staphylococci or Neisseria cells, for example, are truly round-shaped, streptococci, lactococci or enterococci have an ovoid shape. ...
Jamet Elisabeth - - 2008
The plant extracellular matrix contains typical polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins that interact to form dense interwoven networks. Plant cell walls play crucial roles during development and constitute the first barrier of defense against invading pathogens. Cell wall proteomics has greatly contributed to the description of the protein ...
Kimura Yoshinobu - - 2008
In this report, we describe that a salt adaptation of plant cells induces glycoform changes in N-glycoproteins. Intracellular and cell-wall glycopeptides were prepared from glycoproteins expressed in wild-type BY2 cells and salt-adapted cells. N-Glycans were liberated from those glycopeptides by hydrazinolysis, and the released oligosaccharides were N-acetylated and pyridylaminated. The ...
Ikushima Toshimitsu - - 2008
The mechanism of the gravitropic bending was studied in azuki bean epicotyls. The cell wall extensibility of the lower side became higher than that of the upper side in the epicotyl bending upward. The contents of matrix polysaccharides of the cell wall (pectin and xyloglucan in hemicellulose-II) in the lower ...
González-Novo Alberto - - 2008
When Candida albicans yeast cells receive the appropriate stimulus, they switch to hyphal growth, characterized by continuous apical elongation and the inhibition of cell separation. The molecular basis of this inhibition is poorly known, despite its crucial importance for hyphal development. In C. albicans, septins are important for hypha formation ...
Hur, Haeng-Jeon
The present study represents the investigation of in vitro immunopotentiating activities of cellular fractions of major lactic acid bacteria found in kimchi (KLAB) and bifidobacteria. The macrophage cells, RAW264.7, were stimulated with heat-killed whole-cell, cell-wall, and cytoplasmic fractions of four strains of KLAB (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc citreum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and ...
Kim, Ji-Yeon
Cellular components of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (heat-killed whole cells, cytoplasm, and cell walls) were tested for their in vivo immunopotentiating activity. Peritoneal macrophages from mice orally administered with heat-killed whole cells exhibited significantly greater phagocytic activity than the groups administered with cell-wall fraction or cytoplasm fraction. The cytotoxicity of ...
Jeong, Hyo-Yong
The ultrastructure of Aspergillus nidulans cell wall in relation to a mannoprotein was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. An mnpAp null-mutant, DMPV1, was used as a negative control of a wild type VER7. To analyze whether the mannoprotein in the cell wall during the development of an mnpAp ...
Ka┼║mierczak Andrzej - - 2008
Fluorescence staining and morphometrical measurements revealed that callose was a component of newly formed cell plates of symmetrically dividing cells and asymmetrically dividing antheridial mother cells during gibberellic acid-induced antheridiogenesis as well as in walls of young growing cells of Anemia phyllitidis gametophytes. Callose in cell walls forms granulations characteristic ...
Kim Sung Joon SJ Department of Chemistry, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, - - 2008
Solid-state NMR measurements performed on intact whole cells of Staphylococcus aureus labeled selectively in vivo have established that des-N-methylleucyl oritavancin (which has antimicrobial activity) binds to the cell-wall peptidoglycan, even though removal of the terminal N-methylleucyl residue destroys the D-Ala-D-Ala binding pocket. By contrast, the des-N-methylleucyl form of vancomycin (which ...
Naina, N S
Application of permeabilized yeast cells for biocatalysis
H.O. Edeoga
Leaf epidermal investigations were carried out on three species of <I>Mimosa</I>, <I>M. pudica</I>,<I> M</I>.<I> invisa </I>and<I> M</I>.<I> pigra </I>common in Nigeria. The results obtained revealed the nature of the irregularly shaped epidermal cell walls of <I>M. pigra </I>and<I> M. pudica</I>. The epidermal cell walls of <I>M. invisa </I>were however mostly ...
S. Sikolia
A trilocular ovary possesses several anatropous, tenuinucellate and bitegmic ovules on the axile placenta. Selective callose deposition in cell walls and effects of integumentary directional tension (or stress) forces during first meiotic division and natural competition between dyads exists. Micropylar dyad cell degenerates; shift in nutrient supply at megagametogenesis relates ...
S.S. Ellerton
The GDP-mannose transporter gene <I>VRG4</I> has been identified from a number of yeasts including <I>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</I>. The <I>vrg4-2</I> allele<I> </I>of the GDP-mannose transporter of <I>S. cerevisiae</I> has been primarily characterized as having general phenotypes affecting glycosylation. In this study, <I>vrg4-2</I> was characterized, specifically with regard to defects in cell wall ...
Moreno, Inmaculada
Although the cell wall is very important in yeasts, relatively little is known about the relationship between its structure and function. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a family of 55 transcription factor proteins unique to fungi, so-called zinc cluster proteins, has been described. Of these, Rds2 has been identified as an activator/inhibitor ...
Guillon Fabienne - - 2008
It has previously been shown that down-regulation of an auxin response factor gene (DR12) results in pleiotropic phenotypes including enhanced fruit firmness in antisense transgenic tomato (AS-DR12). To uncover the nature of the ripening-associated modifications affecting fruit texture, comparative analyses were performed of pectin composition and structure in cell wall ...
Sobotník Jan - - 2008
The gut of the mite Acarus siro is characterized on the ultrastructural level. It consists of the foregut (pharynx, esophagus), midgut (ventriculus, caeca, colon, intercolon, postcolonic diverticula, postcolon), and hindgut (anal atrium). The gut wall is formed by a single-layered epithelium; only regenerative cells are located basally and these have ...
Köller Thomas - - 2008
Streptococcus pyogenes (Spy) (group A streptococci) is an important and exclusively human bacterial pathogen, which uses secreted and surface-associated proteins to circumvent the innate host defense mechanisms and to adhere and internalize into host cells. Thus, investigation of the bacterial extracellular compartments, including secreted and cell wall-associated subproteomes, is crucial ...
Chen Kun-Ming - - 2008
Two potent drugs, neomycin and TMB-8, which can block intracellular calcium release, were used to investigate their influence on pollen tube growth and cell wall deposition in Picea wilsonii. Apart from inhibiting pollen germination and pollen tube growth, the two drugs largely influenced tube morphology. The drugs not only obviously ...
Kröger Nils - - 2008
Diatoms are single-celled algae that produce intricately structured cell walls made of nanopatterned silica (SiO(2)). The cell wall structure is a species-specific characteristic demonstrating that diatom silica morphogenesis is genetically encoded. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which a single cell executes the morphogenetic program for the formation of an inorganic ...
Cole Jason N - - 2008
This chapter describes a simple, rapid and reproducible method to prepare bacterial cell wall extracts for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). The extraction process uses mutanolysin, an N-acetylmuramidase, to gently solubilize cell wall-associated proteins from Gram-positive prokaryotes. The cells are first washed with buffer and resuspended in a solution containing mutanolysin. ...
Kogan G - - 2008
Polysaccharides represent the major part of the yeast cell wall dry weight and build the skeletal carcass defining cell wall stability and cell morphology (beta-D-glucans) or constitute amorphous matrix and cell surface fibrous material (mannans and mannoproteins). It is known that yeast cell wall beta-D-glucans reveal immunomodulating properties, which allows ...
Clarke Laurence J - - 2008
* Studies of ultraviolet (UV) light-induced DNA damage in three Antarctic moss species have shown Ceratodon purpureus to be the most UV tolerant, despite containing lower concentrations of methanol-soluble UV-screening compounds than the co-occurring Bryum pseudotriquetrum. * In this study, alkali extraction of cell wall-bound phenolics, combined with methanol extraction ...
Kilcher Giona - - 2008
We here report a study on the passive permeability of hydrophobic probes through the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study we have prepared a series of fluorescent probes with similar chemical composition and molecular weight ranging from a few hundreds to a few thousands of g mol(-1). Their ...
Coluccio Alison E - - 2008
In nature, yeasts are subject to predation by flies of the genus Drosophila. In response to nutritional starvation Saccharomyces cerevisiae differentiates into a dormant cell type, termed a spore, which is resistant to many types of environmental stress. The stress resistance of the spore is due primarily to a spore ...
Collings David A - - 2008
Dynamin-related proteins are large GTPases that deform and cause fission of membranes. The DRP1 family of Arabidopsis thaliana has five members of which DRP1A, DRP1C, and DRP1E are widely expressed. Likely functions of DRP1A were identified by studying rsw9, a null mutant of the Columbia ecotype that grows continuously but ...
Brininstool Ginger - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis thaliana CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES5 (CPR5) gene has been previously implicated in disease resistance, cell proliferation, cell death, and sugar sensing, and encodes a putative membrane protein of unknown biochemical function. Trichome development is also affected in cpr5 plants, which have leaf trichomes that are reduced ...
Pitarch Aida - - 2008
The cell wall is an external envelope shared by yeasts and filamentous fungi that defines the interface between the microorganism and its environment. It is an extremely complex structure consisting of an elastic framework of microfibrillar polysaccharides (glucans and chitin) that surrounds the plasma membrane and to which a wide ...
Geoghegan Mark - - 2008
The attachment of microbial cells to solid substrata is a primary ecological strategy for the survival of species and the development of specific activity and function within communities. An hypothesis arising from a biological sciences perspective may be stated as follows: The attachment of microbes to interfaces is controlled by ...
Pitarch Aida - - 2008
The yeast cell wall is a dynamic and complex matrix of polysaccharides (glucans, mannans, and chitin), proteins and minor amounts of lipids that isolate the yeast from the extracellular medium, protecting it against osmotic and physical injuries. Removal of this essential structure for cell integrity and viability by controlled enzymatic ...
Rumijowska-Galewicz Anna - - 2008
Ethambutol (EMB) is a first line drug in tuberculosis treatment inhibiting the biosynthesis of arabinogalactan, which is a component of the mycobacterial cell wall. The growth of Mycobacterium vaccae cells in the presence of EMB increases cell wall permeability, which was monitored by beta-sitosterol biotransformation. GC/MS and GLC/MS (gas chromatography/mass ...
Hofmannová Jana - - 2008
The co-ordination of cell wall synthesis with plant cell expansion is an important topic of contemporary plant biology research. In studies of cell wall synthesis pathways, cellulose synthesis inhibitors are broadly used. It is demonstrated here that ancymidol, known as a plant growth retardant primarily affecting gibberellin biosynthesis, is also ...
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