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Gorlach Sylwia - - 2011
Plant proanthocyanidins, including procyanidins, display various biological activities. Here we report an inhibition of human colon cancer Caco-2 cell growth by the extract from Japanese quince fruit and the procyanidin-rich fractions of the extract. We observed that the amount of apoptotic Caco-2 cells increased by 52.1% vs. control after 72-h ...
Meca G - - 2011
The bioavailability of the minor Fusarium mycotoxins enniatins (ENs) utilizing an in vitro method which allows the simulation of the small and large intestine tracts has been studied. This method, based on the application of the Caco-2 cells grown alone or in symbiosis with several strains characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract, ...
Spengler Gabriella - - 2011
Hydantoin derivatives are very promising candidates to improve the efficacy of anticancer chemotherapy. Previously, we demonstrated that eight hydantoin derivatives inhibited the P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) efflux pump of mouse T-lymphoma cells, as well as acting synergistically with the anticancer drug doxorubicin. The activity of the hydantoin derivatives were investigated in another ...
Weïwer Michel - - 2012
Synthetic lethal screening is a chemical biology approach to identify small molecules that selectively kill oncogene-expressing cell lines with the goal of identifying pathways that provide specific targets against cancer cells. We performed a high-throughput screen of 303,282 compounds from the National Institutes of Health-Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (NIH-MLSMR) ...
Ijssennagger Noortje - - 2011
ObjectiveColon cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in Western countries and is associated with diets high in red meat. Haem, the iron-porphyrin pigment of red meat, induces cytotoxicity of gut contents and damages the colon surface epithelium. Compensatory hyperproliferation leads to epithelial hyperplasia which increases the risk of ...
Foley Sarah A - - 2011
An unfractionated fucoidan was extracted from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Extraction of fucoidan from seaweed was carried out using an innovative low-chemical process. A combinational approach involving compositional analysis, HPAEC, IR analysis, GPC, and NMR was employed to elucidate the composition and structure of an unfractionated fucoidan from A. ...
Bootten Tracey J - - 2011
Aims:  To compare the abilities of the monocentric rumen fungi Neocallimastix frontalis, Piromyces communis and Caecomyces communis, growing in co-culture with Methanobrevibacter smithii, to colonize and degrade lignified secondary cell walls of lucerne (alfalfa) hay. Methods and Results:  The cell walls of xylem cylinders isolated from stems of lucerne contained ...
Stein Katrin - - 2011
The consumption of synbiotics, a mixture of probiotics and indigestible food constituents such as dietary fiber, has been reported to reduce colon cancer risk. We investigated the effects of fermented wheat aleurone enriched with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG/Bifidobacterium animalis supsp. lactis on the gene expression and functional end points ...
Wu Yilin - - 2011
When colonizing surfaces, many bacteria are able to self-organize into an actively expanding biofilm, in which millions of cells move smoothly and orderly at high densities. This phenomenon is known as bacterial swarming. Despite the apparent resemblance to patterns seen in liquid crystals, the dynamics of bacterial swarming cannot be ...
Oh Ju Hoon - - 2011
Biphenolic components in the Magnolia family have shown several pharmacological activities such as antitumor effects. This study investigated the effects of 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH), a constituent of Magnolia officinalis, on human colon cancer cell growth and its action mechanism. 4-O-methylhonokiol (0-30 μM) decreased constitutive activated nuclear factor (NF)-κB DNA binding activity ...
Krebs Shelly J - - 2011
Colonization of the human small intestine by Vibrio cholerae is an essential step in pathogenesis that requires the type IV toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). To date, three functions of TCP have been characterized: it serves as the CTXΦ receptor, secretes the colonization factor TcpF, and functions in microcolony formation by mediating ...
González-Sarrías Antonio - - 2011
Research has shown that members of the Carex genus produce biologically active stilbenoids including resveratrol oligomers. This is of great interest to the nutraceutical industry given that resveratrol, a constituent of grape and red wine, has attracted immense research attention due to its potential human health benefits. In the current ...
Chen Chun-Chuan CC Gastrointestinal Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2011
Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1/YKL-40) is a protein secreted from restricted cell types including colonic epithelial cells (CECs) and macrophages. CHI3L1 is an inflammation-associated molecule, and its expression is enhanced in persons with colitis and colon cancer. The biological function of CHI3L1 on CECs is unclear. In this study, we investigated the ...
Kolegraff Keli - - 2011
The desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-2 (Dsg2) is a transmembrane cell adhesion protein that is widely expressed in epithelial and non-epithelial tissues, such as the intestine, epidermis, testis, and heart. Dsg2 has been shown to regulate numerous cellular processes, including proliferation and apoptosis, and we have previously reported that intracellular fragments of ...
Spencer Nick J - - 2011
The mechanisms underlying distension-evoked peristalsis in the colon are incompletely understood. It is well known that following colonic distension, 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is released from enterochromaffin (EC) cells in the intestinal mucosa. It is also known that exogenous 5-HT can stimulate peristalsis. These observations have lead some investigators to propose that ...
Lai Kuang-Chi - - 2011
Diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) are major organosulfur compounds exiting in garlic (Allium sativum). These compounds are reported to exhibit various pharmacological properties such as antibacteria, antiangiogenesis, anticancer, and anticoagulation, and they also induce cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells. Although these ...
Jang Yun Soo - - 2011
Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric tissue-invading protozoan parasite that can cause amebic colitis and liver abscess in humans. E. histolytica has the capability to kill colon epithelial cells in vitro; however, information regarding the role of calpain in colon cell death induced by ameba is limited. In this study, we ...
Tang Mei-Chuan - - 2011
Thymosin β(4) (Tβ(4)) overexpression increases cell migration and tumor metastasis. Hence, understanding the mechanism of cancer cell migration induced by Tβ(4) may provide means to inhibit their metastasis. We demonstrated higher Rac1 activities and expression levels of IQGAP1 and ILK in highly migrated Tβ(4)-overexpressing SW480 cells. In addition, IQGAP1 formed ...
Kawaratani Yasuyuki - - 2011
We have designed cancer antiproliferative compounds, starting from aniline or phenol derivative, which comprise one or two nitrooxymethylphenyl groups as do the hybrid drugs NCX4040 and NCX530. Compound 2a with p-nitrooxymethylbenzoyl-oxy and -amino groups as well as 8a with a p-nitrooxymethylbenzoylamino group showed more promising effects than NCX4040 against human ...
Li Jian - - 2011
Chemoresistance is a key cause of treatment failure in colon cancer. MiR-22 is a tumor-suppressing microRNA. To explore whether miR-22 is an important player in the development of chemoresistance in colon cancer, we overexpressed miR-22 and subsequently tested its role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, survival, and associated signaling in p53-mutated ...
El-Salhy M - - 2011
Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic condition that is characterized by watery diarrhoea with normal appearance of the colonic mucosa. MC is subdivided into two distinctive entities: lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC). The etiology and pathophysiology of LC remain to be determined. The present study included 9 female ...
Chung Hwa-Jin - - 2011
Benzonaphthofurandione has been considered as an important class of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds having a variety of biological functions. In this study, we evaluated the antitumor effects of 3-[2-(dimethylamino)isopropoxy]-1-hydroxybenzo[b]naphtho[2,3-d]furan-6,11-dione (8e), a novel benzonaphthofurandione derivative, on the growth of colorectal cancer HCT 116 cells both in vitro culture and an ...
Lee Hawon - - 2011
The cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, syndecan-2, is crucial for the tumorigenic activity of colon cancer cells. However, the role played by the cytoplasmic domain of the protein remains unclear. Using colon cancer cells transfected with various syndecan-2-encoding genes with deletions in the cytoplasmic domain, it was shown that syndecan-2-induced ...
Shrout Joshua D - - 2011
Many bacteria grow attached to a surface as biofilms. Several factors dictate biofilm formation, including responses by the colonizing bacteria to their environment. Here we review how bacteria use cell-cell signaling (also called quorum sensing) and motility during biofilm formation. Specifically, we describe quorum sensing and surface motility exhibited by ...
Wong Helen P S - - 2011
AIMS: Stress has been implicated in the development of cancers. Adrenaline levels are increased in response to stress. The effects of adrenaline on colon cancer are largely unknown. The aims of the study are to determine the effects of adrenaline in human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells and the possible underlying ...
Zheng Jian-Bao - - 2011
The homeobox gene, CDX2, plays a major role in development, especially in the gut, and also functions as a tumor suppressor in the adult colon. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CDX2 expression on the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of the human colon cancer cell line, Lovo. ...
Altonsy Mohammed O - - 2011
Colon cancer is a leading and expanding cause of death worldwide. A major contributory factor to this disease is diet composition; some components are beneficial (e.g, dietary fiber), whereas others are detrimental (e.g., alcohol). Garlic oil is a prominent dietary constituent that prevents the development of colorectal cancer. This effect ...
Bharadwaj Shruthi - - 2011
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been previously shown to protect against enteric pathogens and prevent colon cancer invasion. To determine if PEG could indeed protect against previously observed pro-invasive effects of commensal E. coli and EPEC, Caco-2 cells grown in an in vitro model of colon cancer were infected with strains ...
Komizu Yuji - - 2011
Hybrid liposomes can be prepared by simply sonicating a mixture of vesicular and micellar molecules in buffer solutions. In this study, we investigated the effects of hybrid liposomes on the growth of human colon cancer cells in vitro. Hybrid liposomes (HL-n, n = 21, 23, 25) composed of L-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) ...
Owen Katherine A - - 2011
Following damage to the intestinal epithelium, restoration of epithelial barrier integrity is triggered by a robust proliferative response. In other tissues, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates many of the cellular processes that are critical for epithelial homeostasis and restitution, including cell migration, proliferation and survival. However, few studies to date ...
Chowdhury Pinki - - 2011
Colon cancers are the frequent causes of cancer mortality worldwide. Recently bacterial toxins have received marked attention as promising approaches in the treatment of colon cancer. Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) secreted by Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes influx of extracellular calcium with the subsequent rise in intracellular calcium level in intestinal epithelial ...
Rindi Guido - - 2010
Nonneoplastic and neoplastic proliferative lesions of endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract are detailed. A multistep continuum from hyperplasia, dysplasia to neoplasia is identified for histamine-producing enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells of the gastric corpus. Most gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are silent and composed by ECL cells, the second most frequent neuroendocrine ...
Rodolico Vito - - 2010
The purpose of this work was to determine in colon mucosa of Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in relapse: a) the levels of the chaperonins Hsp60 and Hsp10; b) the quantity of inflammatory cells; and c) if the levels of chaperonins parallel those of inflammation cells. Twenty cases ...
Valenzuela Manuel - - 2010
Helicobacter pylori infects the human stomach and modifies signaling pathways that affect gastric epithelial cell proliferation and viability. Chronic exposure to this pathogen contributes to the onset of gastric atrophy, an early event in the genesis of gastric cancer associated with H. pylori infection. Susceptibility to H. pylori-induced cell death ...
Agustí Gemma - - 2010
While Helicobacter pylori exists in a bacillary form in both the natural habitat and the human host, detrimental environmental circumstances have been observed to lead to the conversion of H. pylori from the bacillary to the coccoid form. However, the viability or nonviability of coccoid forms remains to be established ...
Zavala-Zendejas Veronica Elizabeth - - 2011
Altered claudin expression is related to metastatic potential, poor prognosis, or tumor recurrence. We analyzed if the overexpression of claudin-6, claudin-7, or claudin-9 in AGS cells altered cell motility, invasiveness, or proliferation rate. Claudin-7, claudin-9, and claudin-6 enhanced their invasive potential by 3.4-fold, 1.6-fold, and 2.0-fold, respectively. Claudin-6 and claudin-9 ...
Nam Ki Taek KT Nashville VA Medical Center and the Department of Surgery, Epithelial Biology Center, Nashville, Tennessee, - - 2010
Gastric cancer evolves in the setting of a pathologic mucosal milieu characterized by both loss of acid-secreting parietal cells and mucous cell metaplasias. Indeed, mucous cell metaplasia is considered the critical preneoplastic lesion for gastric cancer. Previous investigations have shown that infection of mice with Helicobacter felis or induction of ...
Keeley Theresa M TM Dept. of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, The Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109-2200, - - 2010
Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (Hip1r) is highly expressed in gastric parietal cells, where it participates in vesicular trafficking associated with acid secretion. Hip1r-deficient mice have a progressive remodeling of the mucosa, including apoptotic loss of parietal cells, glandular hypertrophy, mucous cell metaplasia, and reduced numbers of zymogenic cells. In this study, ...
Zhu Yimin - - 2011
Let-7a, a molecule that is reduced in various cancers, has been associated with cell growth and proliferation. Upregulation of let-7a may inhibit tumor cell growth. To verify this hypothesis, let-7a gene overexpression was studied in gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. A lentiviral system harboring both enhanced green ...
Wu Y-Y - - 2010
B7-H1 [programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1)] is a B7-family member that binds to programmed death-1 (PD-1). Recently, deficiency of PD-L1 has been demonstrated to result in accelerated gastric epithelial cell damage in gastritis, and PD-L1 is suggested to play a critical role in regulating T cell homeostasis. Here, we aimed to gain ...
Rubio Carlos A CA Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology Research Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Karolinska Institute and University Hospital, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden. - - 2010
Gastric parietal cells in a baboon were recently found to be auto-fluorescent. To study gastric sections with a fluorescent microscope in a cohort of baboons. Gastric sections from 38 baboons were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and examined in a fluorescence microscope (FLM). The thickness of the parietal cell population was ...
Horst David D Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2010
Mucus-secreting cells of the stomach epithelium provide a protective barrier against damage that might result from bacterial colonization or other stimuli. Impaired barrier function contributes to chronic inflammation and cancer. Knock-out mice for the epithelium-specific transcription factor Spdef (also called Pdef) have defects in terminal differentiation of intestinal and bronchial ...
Zhang Lin - - 2010
The upregulation or mutation of C-MYC has been observed in gastric, colon, breast, and lung tumors and in Burkitt's lymphoma. However, little is known about the role C-MYC plays in gastric adenocarcinoma. In the present study, we intended to investigate the influence of C-MYC on the growth, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, ...
Lee H S - - 2010
The distributions and frequencies of some endocrine cells in the eight portions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract - fundus, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum of the ddN mouse, were studied with immunohistochemical method using seven types of antisera against chromogranin (Cg) A serotonin, somatostatin, glucagon, gastrin, cholecystokinin ...
Lennerz Jochen K M JK Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Louis, MO 63110, - - 2010
The lack of reliable molecular markers for normal differentiated epithelial cells limits understanding of human gastric carcinogenesis. Recognized precursor lesions for gastric adenocarcinoma are intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM), defined here by ectopic CDX2 and TFF2 expression, respectively. In mice, expression of the bHLH transcription factor MIST1, ...
Quante Michael M Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, - - 2010
Gastric stem cells are located in the isthmus of the gastric glands and give rise to epithelial progenitors that undergo bipolar migration and differentiation into pit and oxyntic lineages. Although gastric mucus neck cells located below the isthmus express trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2) protein, TFF2 messenger RNA transcripts are ...
Akada Junko K - - 2010
Helicobacter pylori, a common pathogen that causes chronic gastritis and cancer, has evolved to establish persistent infections in the human stomach. Epidemiological evidence suggests that H. pylori with both highly active vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), the major virulence factors, has an advantage in adapting to ...
Melgarejo Esther - - 2010
The human body is made of some 250 different cell types. From them, only a small subset of cell types is able to produce histamine. They include some neurons, enterochromaffin-like cells, gastrin-containing cells, mast cells, basophils, and monocytes/macrophages, among others. In spite of the reduced number of these histamine-producing cell ...
Liu Mei-Jing - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of 17beta-estradiol pharmacological postconditioning on gastric epithelial cells hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by using an in vitro model of human gastric epithelial cells. The model of hypoxia/reoxygenation was established with human gastric epithelial cell line. The gastric epithelial cell viability ...
Micale Valeria - - 2010
The appearance and regional distribution of cholecystokinin-immuno reactive cells (CCK-IR) in the developing gut of larval Diplodus puntazzo were studied by means of immunohistochemistry, with the aim of understanding the role of this peptide hormone in the acquisition of digestive capacity. Immunohistochemical reaction showed CCK-IR cells from 10 days after ...
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