Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1769
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Tzaneva Maria Angelova - - 2003
Five types of endocrine cells are found in the human antral gastric mucosa: gastrin (G) cells, somatostatin (D) cells, enterochromaffin (EC) cells and cells with an unknown secretory product (D1 cells and P cells). The content of secretory granules, gastrin, somatostatin and serotonin, was evaluated using electron microscopic immunohistochemistry and ...
Kasacka Irena - - 2003
Uremia leads to a number of metabolic and hormonal disorders induced by renal failure with definite biological and clinical sequels. Most frequently, alimentary disorders are the first to appear, followed by symptoms from other organs and systems. The gastrointestinal tract is a site of synthesis of many compounds that have ...
Karam Sherif M - - 2003
In the human stomach, the oxyntic epithelium includes numerous tubular invaginations consisting of short pits opening into long glands. The pit is lined by pit cells, whereas the gland is composed of three regions: the base, containing zymogenic cells; the neck, containing neck cells; and the isthmus, composed of little ...
Netzer Peter - - 2003
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Expression of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is upregulated at the margins of healing gastric ulcers. We investigated in vitro the interference of HGF, the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 and the nonselective COX inhibitor indomethacin with gastric epithelial wound healing and actin microfilament (actin-MF) formation. METHODS: ...
Tabuchi Yoshiaki - - 2003
AIM: To develop conditionally immortalized gastric mucosal cell lines that show distinct types of cell differentiation from transgenic mice harboring temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 (tsSV40) large T antigen. METHODS: Gastric mucosal cells from the transgenic mice were cultured at a permissive temperature (33 degrees C), and proliferative cells were then ...
Gulmez N - - 2003
The processes of digestion in the avian gastrointestinal tract depend on sophisticated control systems that co-ordinate secretion of digestive juices and movement of the luminal contents. In the current study, the distribution of serotonin-, gastrin-, glucagon- and somatostatin-immunoreactive endocrine cells was investigated by immunocytochemical methods in the intestinal tract of ...
Jenny Marjorie - - 2002
Endocrine cells of the pancreas and the gastrointestinal tract derive from multipotent endodermal stem cells. We have shown previously that the basic helix- loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor neurogenin3 (ngn3) is required for the specification of the endocrine lineage in uncommitted progenitors in the developing pancreas. We investigate herein the expression ...
Waldum Helge L - - 2002
The role of the gastric acid secretagogues acetylcholine, gastrin and histamine has been debated for decades. Initially, the mast cell was considered the source of acid stimulatory histamine. Later, Håkanson & Owman (1969) showed that the entero-chromaffinlike (ECL) cell produces and stores histamine in several species, including rat and man. ...
Hatakeyama Masanori - - 2002
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is estimated to infect about half of the world population. It causes gastric diseases ranging from gastritis to cancer and has been classified as a class I carcinogen by WHO. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which H. pylori induces pathogenesis. CagA is ...
Chen Duan - - 2002
Gastrin, released from antral G-cells, plays an important role in the regulation of gastric acid secretion and is trophic for the stomach. The cholecystokinin type 2 (CCK)2 receptor (previously referred to as CCK-B/gastrin receptors) is expressed in both parietal cells and ECL cells in the oxyntic mucosa of stomach. Gastric ...
Nakazawa Teruko - - 2002
Helicobacter pylori bacterium is characterized by its strong urease activity. Our studies on the role of H. pylori urease revealed; (i) it is essential for colonization, (ii) exogenous urea is required for acid resistance, (iii) the bacteria have the ability to move toward urea and sodium bicarbonate, (iv) urea hydrolysis ...
Gueck Thomas - - 2002
We investigated the influence of vitamin E on mediator activity and release in a canine mastocytoma cell line (C2) as a model for canine atopic dermatitis. Cells were incubated without and with vitamin E (100 microm) for 24 h. The histamine and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) release as well as the ...
Sommi Patrizia - - 2002
Helicobacter pylori, the main cause of chronic gastritis, plays a central role in the etiology of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. In vitro studies have shown that H. pylori increases gastric epithelial cell turnover, thus increasing the risk for the development of neoplastic clones. The mechanisms by which H. ...
Weng Qianfeng - - 2002
Capillary zone electrophoresis was employed for the analysis of histamine in single rat peritoneal mast cells using an amperometric detector with a carbon fiber microdisk bundle electrode. In this method, individual mast cells and then 0.02 mol/l NaOH as a lysing solution are injected into the front end of the ...
Sobreira Lúcia F R - - 2002
The influence of myenteric denervation on gastric emptying and epithelial cell population was studied by chemical lesion of myenteric neurons of rat stomach with benzalkonium chloride. Three groups were evaluated: denervated, denervated with pyloroplasty, and control. After three months, the animals were submitted to functional (gastric emptying of liquids) and ...
Lembo Annalisa - - 2002
Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) organisms alone or with Hp-stimulated AGS cells (a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line). Hp organisms were able per se to increase the percentage of CD8 +/- CD95 +/- cells, while number of CD25+ cells and HLA-DR molecule expression increased ...
Singh P - - 2003
Proliferation and carcinogenesis of the large intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) cells is significantly increased in transgenic mice that overexpress the precursor progastrin (PG) peptide. It is not known if the in vivo growth effects of PG on IEC cells are mediated directly or indirectly. Full-length recombinant human PG (rhPG(1-80)) was ...
Björkqvist Maria - - 2002
Histamine-producing ECL cells and ghrelin-producing A-like cells are endocrine/paracrine cell populations in the acid-producing part of the rat stomach. While the A-like cells operate independently of gastrin, the ECL cells respond to gastrin with mobilization of histamine and chromogranin A (CGA)-derived peptides, such as pancreastatin. Gastrin is often assumed to ...
Liquori Giuseppa E - - 2002
The secretory cells of the oesophagogastric tract of the Eurasian toad, Bufo viridis, were examined using standard histochemical methods and lectin histochemistry. Two goblet cell types were found in the oesophageal epithelium, differing in their morphology and the histochemical features of the secretory granules. These contained mainly acidic glycoconjugates, both ...
Suzuki Hideo - - 2002
Gastric luminal ammonia produced by Helicobacter pylori has been shown to cause gastric mucosal injury. This study was conducted to examine the mechanisms by which gastric luminal ammonia causes apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells. Monolayers of GSM06 cells, developed from murine gastric surface mucous cells, were cultured in the absence ...
Nakayama H - - 2002
AIMS: To investigate the distribution and roles of alpha smooth muscle actin (ASMA) positive stromal cells (ASMA+ cells), which belong to the myofibroblast group, within gastric carcinomas, with reference to three histological types (diffuse type, intestinal type, and solid type). METHODS: In total, 74 surgically resected gastric carcinomas (24 diffuse ...
Ovrebø Kjell K - - 2002
The mucosal changes by which duodenogastric reflux may predispose to gastric cancer have not been fully clarified. In this study in rats, duodenal fluid was directed into the stomach through a gastroenterostomy (jejunal reflux, N = 29) or through the pylorus (pyloric reflux, N = 30) and compared with 30 ...
Zanner Robert - - 2002
Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells are neuroendocrine cells in the gastric epithelium characterized by numerous electron-empty, histamine-containing secretory vesicles. The antral hormone gastrin is the key stimulus of histamine secretion from this cell type, thereby controling acid secretion. Following receptor binding, gastrin activates a biphasic calcium signal in ECL cells that involves ...
Voutilainen M - - 2002
The gastric cardia mucosa is a narrow band of tissue between the oesophagus and the stomach. The physiological role of this tissue is unknown. This study examined the presence and characteristics of neuroendocrine cells at this site. Biopsy samples were obtained from across normal appearing squamocolumnar junctions. The cardiac mucosa ...
Tømmerås Karin - - 2002
Gastrin plays a crucial role in maintaining a normal cellular composition and function of the oxyntic mucosa. It has been debated for decades whether parietal cells possess cholecystokinin-2 (CCK(2)) receptors and interact directly with gastrin. We investigated whether parietal cells express CCK(2) receptor mRNA by using new molecular biology techniques. ...
Hinkle Karen L - - 2003
Gastrin-deficient mice have impaired basal and agonist-stimulated gastric acid secretion. To analyze whether an intrinsic parietal cell defect contributed to the reduced acid secretion, we analyzed parietal cell calcium responses and acid secretory function in vitro. Parietal cells were purified by light-scatter cell sorting and calcium responses to gastrin, histamine, ...
Tomisato Wataru - - 2002
Guinea pig gastric pit cells in primary culture undergo serum-dependent cell maturation, which mimics their maturation in vivo. In this study we compared the sensitivities of these cells, as a function of early- and late-stage cell maturation, to various gastric stressors. Gastric pit cells in the early stage of maturation ...
Bendtsen T F - - 2002
During the last 10 years many attempts have been made to estimate the number of enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells in various animal studies. This is the first presentation of an unbiased stereological estimator of the total number of histamine-positive ECL cells per rat and linked to estimators of related parameters: total ...
Tømmerås K - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Gastrin exerts trophic effects on the gastric mucosa by mechanisms not yet completely elucidated. Our aim was to localize the cholecystokinin-2 (CCK2) receptor in epithelial cells of foetal and adult rat stomachs in order to determine the cell types that are directly affected by gastrin. METHODS: Gastric tissue was ...
Nam Hyeran - - 2002
Viable and nonviable Weissella confusa strain PL9001 inhibited the binding of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric-cell line MKN-45 cells by more than 90%. Spent culture supernatant of PL9001 rapidly decreased the viability of H. pylori, rupturing cell walls. The results suggest that PL9001 is a probiotic that can reduce the ...
Muruzábal Francisco J - - 2002
Leptin is a hormone produced and secreted mainly by adipocytes, but also by other tissues such as placenta, brain, mammary, and pituitary glands. The gastric epithelium has also been reported as a source of leptin in mammals. In this study we examined the presence of leptin in the stomach of ...
Ricci Vittorio - - 2002
The relationship between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal injury is still under debate. VacA toxin is an important H. pylori virulence factor that causes cytoplasmic vacuolation in cultured cells. Whether and how NSAIDs affect VacA-induced cytotoxicity is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the effect ...
Nakamura Eiji - - 2002
Ammonia is a cytotoxic factor produced during Helicobacter pylori infection that may reduce the survival of surface epithelial cells. Here we examine whether ammonia kills cells and whether L-glutamine (L-Gln) protects against cell death by stimulating ammonia detoxification pathways. Cell viability and vacuolation were quantified in rat gastric epithelial (RGM1) ...
Yamaguchi Hirokazu - - 2002
Spasmolytic polypeptide (TFF2)-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is a gastric metaplastic lineage associated with the development of intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma. To study the etiology of this potential neoplastic precursor metaplasia, we used surgical rat models of remnant gastric adenocarcinoma studied with and without exposure to nitroso carcinogen. Animals with truncal vagotomy without ...
Chen Duan - - 2002
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrin stimulation of the type 2 cholecystokinin (CCK(2)) receptor results in ECL cell proliferation and histamine secretion. This report describes the effects of targeted disruption of the CCK(2) receptor gene on ECL cell morphology and function. METHODS: The ECL cells in the oxyntic mucosa of CCK(2) receptor-deficient ...
Arebi Naila - - 2002
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is present in gastric D-cells. Mucosal somatostatin is diminished in H. pylori gastritis, where production of nitric oxide (NO) is increased. Therefore, we investigated the role of NO in D-cell function and the effects of prolonged exposure of D-cells to NO. METHODS: ...
Larsson Birgitta - - 2002
The existence of an osteotropic hormone (referred to as gastrocalcin) in the ECL cells of the gastric mucosa has been suggested. Both gastrin and an extract of the oxyntic mucosa lower blood Ca(2+) and stimulate Ca(2+) uptake into bone. The ECL cells are known to operate under gastrin control and, ...
Graham John M - - 2002
Acid-secreting parietal cells from the gastric mucosa are widely studied as a model in studies on ion transport. A discontinuous gradient of iodixanol has been found to be superior to earlier protocols using Nycodenz and this method, which removes a significant amount of contaminating cells and mucus is a very ...
Lee Catherine S - - 2002
The notch signaling pathway is essential for the endocrine cell fate in various tissues including the enteroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract. Enteroendocrine cells are one of the four major cell types found in the gastric epithelium of the glandular stomach. To understand the molecular basis of enteroendocrine cell development, ...
Graham John M - - 2002
Acid-secreting parietal cells from the gastric mucosa are widely studied as a model in studies on ion transport and the endocrine/paracrine ECL cells effectively control parietal cell function. Discontinuous gradients of iodixanol for the purification of ECL cells were subsequently simplified to the use of a density barrier. This technique ...
Mutoh Hiroyuki - - 2002
Gastric intestinal metaplasia occurs as a pathological condition in the gastric mucosa. To clarify how an intestine-specific homeobox gene, Cdx2, affects the morphogenesis of gastric mucosa, we generated transgenic mice expressing Cdx2 in parietal cells. Until Day 18 after birth, the number of parietal cells inthegastric mucosa of transgenic mice ...
Isomoto Hajime - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori is implicated in gastric carcinogenesis through increased gastric epithelial cell turnover. In fact, high proportions of proliferating and apoptotic epithelial cells are found in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa. E2F, a transcription factor, induces coordinated transactivation of a set of genes involved in cell cycle progression. The aim ...
Varro A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Activation of the gastrin-cholecystokinin(B) (CCK(B)) receptor stimulates cell proliferation and increases production of ligands for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). AIMS: To determine the role of gastrin-CCK(B) activation in stimulation of cell proliferation via paracrine activation of EGF-R. METHODS: AGS cells were transfected with the gastrin-CCK(B) receptor (AGS-G(R) ...
Langer Daniel A - - 2002
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of antisense (AS) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) directed against gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptor mRNA on proliferation of human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) NCI-H345 cells which express the autocrine system for GRP. The methods used were to expose human SCLC cell ...
Rindi Guido - - 2002
We aimed to assess the occurrence of ghrelin, a new gut hormone, in endocrine growths of the stomach. In addition, since ghrelin has been detected in other gut derivatives during adult and/or fetal life, we also studied endocrine tumours of the pancreas, intestine and lung. A specific serum generated against ...
Shin Vivian Y - - 2002
Nicotine is one of the most representative components in cigarette smoke leading to gastric ulceration. Both ornithine decarboxylase and potassium ion (K(+)) channels are essential for cell growth and wound repair. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the causative relationship of these two factors during wound healing ...
Zhang Zun-Wu - - 2002
H. pylori disrupts gastric mucosal homeostasis by altering gastric epithelial cell cycle distribution, and this may contribute to the diverse disease outcomes associated with this infection. The effect of H. pylori on gastric epithelial cells and the role of p53 were assessed in this study by incubating H. pylori strains ...
Kuroki Tamotsu - - 2002
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several authors have reported the presence of H. pylori in the human biliary tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the presence of H. pylori on the epithelial cell proliferation activity in the biliary tract with hepatolithiasis. METHODOLOGY: A histopathological examination and polymerase chain ...
Stepan Vinzenz - - 2002
Gastrin requires extensive posttranslational processing for full biological activity. It is presumed that progastrin is cleaved at pairs of basic amino acids by a prohormone convertase to form a glycine-extended intermediate (G-Gly) that serves as a substrate for peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), resulting in COOH-terminally amidated gastrin. To confirm the ...
Stewart L Ann - - 2002
Gastric parietal cells have a unique secretory membrane system that undergoes a profound transformation when the parietal cell is stimulated to secrete acid. Understanding this process has been hindered by the lack of an immortalised parietal cell line. Here we have explored a strategy for the development of a parietal ...
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