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Kim Insoon - - 2008
Plasmodesmata provide routes for communication and nutrient transfer between plant cells by interconnecting the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. A simple fluorescent tracer-loading assay was developed to monitor patterns of cell to cell transport via plasmodesmata specifically during embryogenesis. A developmental transition in plasmodesmatal size exclusion limit was found to occur ...
Cheong H T - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to examine the development of pig embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) using the clonal lines of fetal fibroblasts with different population doublings (PD) per day and sizes. Clonal lines were established by plating fetal fibroblasts from a Day 35 pig ...
Shibata S - - 2008
Nuclear transfer ES (ntES) cells are established from cloned blastocysts generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer and are expected to be an important resource for regenerative medicine. However, cloned mammals, generated by similar methods, show various abnormalities, which suggest disordered gene regulation. Random X chromosome inactivation (XCI) has been observed ...
Kubiak Jacek Z - - 2008
Here, we outline the mechanisms involved in the regulation of cell divisions during oocyte maturation and early cleavages of the mouse embryo. Our interest is focused on the regulation of meiotic M-phases and the first embryonic mitoses that are differently tuned and are characterized by specifically modified mechanisms, some of ...
Lerou Paul H - - 2008
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are self-renewing, pluripotent cells that are valuable research tools and hold promise for use in regenerative medicine. Most hES cell lines are derived from cryopreserved human embryos that were created during in vitro fertilization (IVF) and are in excess of clinical need. Embryos that are ...
Gendreau Emmanuel - - 2008
Various studies indicate that cell division is a post-germination phenomenon, with radicle protrusion occurring by cell elongation, while others demonstrate that induction of the cell cycle occurs in osmo-conditioned seeds prior to radicle growth. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of the cell cycle during ...
Gerhart Jacquelyn - - 2008
The early chick embryo contains subpopulations of cells that express lineage-specific transcription factors. We have developed protocols to examine the role of these cells during development that involve labeling them for cell tracking purposes and ablating them within the epiblast. The procedures take advantage of the fact that subpopulations of ...
Lai Shih-Lei - - 2008
Intensive cellular movements occur during gastrulation. These cellular movements rely heavily on dynamic actin assembly. Rho with its associated proteins, including the Rho-activated formin, Diaphanous, are key regulators of actin assembly in cellular protrusion and migration. However, the function of Diaphanous in gastrulation cell movements remains unclear. To study the ...
Kawamura Kazuhiro - - 2008
Optimal maturation of oocytes and successful development of preimplantation embryos is essential for reproduction. We performed DNA microarray analyses of ovarian transcripts and identified glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) secreted by cumulus, granulosa, and theca cells as an ovarian factor stimulated by the preovulatory LH/hCG surge. Treatment of cumulus-oocyte ...
Goossens Veerle - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis or screening (PGD, PGS) involves embryo biopsy on Day 3. Opting for one- or two-cell biopsy is a balance between the lowest risk for misdiagnosis on the one hand and the highest chance for a pregnancy on the other hand. METHODS: A prospective controlled trial was ...
Brink Thore C - - 2008
Human inner cell mass (ICM) cells isolated from in vitro fertilized blastocysts are the progenitor cells used to establish in vitro stable human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) which are pluripotent and self-renew indefinitely. This long-term perpetuation of hESCs in the undifferentiated state is thought to be an in vitro adaptation ...
Fujimura Tatsuya - - 2008
Obtaining sufficient transgenic cells via selective cultivation of genetically manipulated somatic cells is difficult due to the limited number of cell divisions. Additionally, if irreversible mutations in a cell's chromosomes occur during selective cultivation and the cell is used as the nuclear donor, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos often ...
Fulka Helena - - 2008
Gametes of both sexes (sperm and oocyte) are highly specialized and differentiated but within a very short time period post-fertilization the embryonic genome, produced by the combination of the two highly specialized parental genomes, is completely converted into a totipotent state. As a result, the one-cell-stage embryo can give rise ...
Tsujioka T - - 2008
A limited number of reports is available on cryopreservation of in vitro fertilization (IVF)-derived cat blastocysts. In the present study, IVF-derived domestic cat embryos which reached the blastocyst stage either on day 6 or day 7 were cryopreserved by vitrification using Cryotop as a cryodevice. Fresh control and post-warm surviving ...
Ohsugi Mami - - 2008
Initial cell lineages that presage the inner cell mass and extra-embryonic trophectoderm are established when eight blastomeres compact to form polarized morulae in preimplantation mouse development. FILIA has been identified as a binding partner to MATER (maternal antigen that embryos require; also known as NLRP5), which is encoded by a ...
Togashi, Shin
Thesis--University of Tsukuba, D.Sc.(A), no. 218, 1984. 3. 24
Wu Shu-Yu - - 2007
Epithelial-mesenchyme transitions (EMTs) are familiar to all scholars of development. Each animal system utilizes an EMT to produce mesenchyme cells. In vertebrates, for example, there are a number of EMTs that shape the embryo. Early, entry of epiblast cells into the primitive streak is followed by the emergence of mesoderm ...
Brad Amber M - - 2007
The capacity of the preimplantation embryo to undergo apoptosis in response to external stimuli is developmentally regulated. Acquisition of apoptosis does not occur in the cow embryo until between the 8- and 16-cell stages. The purpose of the present experiments was to determine the mechanism by which apoptosis is blocked ...
Kiyomoto Masato - - 2007
In the sea urchin embryo, primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) are committed early in development to direct skeletogenesis, provided that a permissive signal is conveyed from adjacent ectoderm cells. We showed that inhibition of extracellular matrix (ECM)-ectoderm cells interaction, by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to Pl-nectin, causes an impairment of skeletogenesis and ...
Lee Eunsong - - 2007
The objective of the present study was to examine the feasibility of the production of autologous porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) blastocysts using oocytes and donor cells from slaughtered ovaries. Therefore, we attempted to optimize autologous SCNT by examining the effects of electrical fusion conditions and donor cell type ...
Nodine Michael D - - 2008
Inter-regional signaling coordinates pattern formation in Arabidopsis thaliana embryos. However, little is known regarding the cells and molecules involved in inter-regional communication. We have characterized two related leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE1 (RPK1) and TOADSTOOL2 (TOAD2), which are required together for patterning the apical embryonic domain cell ...
Graumann Johannes - - 2008
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells isolated from mammalian preimplantation embryos. They are capable of differentiating into all cell types and therefore hold great promise in regenerative medicine. Here we show that murine ES cells can be fully SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture)-labeled when ...
Tse Pui-Keung - - 2008
Human oviductal epithelial (OE) cells produce complement protein 3 (C3) and its derivatives, C3b and inactivated complement-3b (iC3b). Among them, iC3b is the most potent embryotrophic molecule. We studied the production of iC3b in the oviductal cell/embryo culture system. In the immune system, C3 convertase converts C3 into C3b, and ...
Gerbe François - - 2008
Mesenchyme to epithelium transitions are crucial to embryonic development. The early mouse embryo offers an excellent model to study epithelium formation as during the first three days of development two epithelia are formed, the trophectoderm (TE) and the primitive endoderm (PrE). We have previously shown that PrE cells are determined ...
Chiang S-K - - 2008
In Expt 1, goat antisera against rabbit blastocysts were induced using spleen cell injection and skin-graft for immunosurgical isolation of ICM cells. Goats received rabbit spleen cell suspension (4 x 10(8) cells/ml) intravenously once a week for three consecutive weeks, plus an additional dose (boost injection) 10 days after the ...
Zhurov V - - 2007
Polyembryonic development, where multiple embryos are formed from a single zygote, evolved at least 15 times in six different phyla in animals. The mechanisms leading to polyembryony and the forces that shaped the evolution of the polyembryonic developmental program have remained poorly understood. Recent studies of the polyembryonic development in ...
Lee Sang-Goo - - 2007
In pigs, the morphology and cell number of in vitro-produced blastocysts are inferior to those of their in vivo counterparts. The objective of this study was to increase developmental competence and to gain an understanding of cell allocation in blastocysts derived from the aggregation of four-cell stage porcine embryos produced ...
Kingsley Evan P - - 2007
Asymmetric cell divisions are a crucial mode of cell fate specification in multicellular organisms, but their relative contribution to early embryonic patterning varies among taxa. In the embryo of the mollusc Ilyanassa, most of the early cell divisions are overtly asymmetric. During Ilyanassa early cleavage, mRNAs for several conserved developmental ...
Pagnussat Gabriela Carolina - - 2007
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the female gametophyte is a highly polarized structure consisting of four cell types: one egg cell and two synergids, one central cell, and three antipodal cells. In this report, we describe the characterization of a novel female gametophyte mutant, eostre, which affects establishment of cell fates in ...
Dietrich Jens-Erik - - 2007
Mouse pre-implantation development gives rise to the blastocyst, which is made up of at least three distinct cell types: the trophectoderm (TE) that surrounds a cavity, and an inner cell mass (ICM) comprising the primitive endoderm (PE) and epiblast (EPI). However, the underlying mechanisms involved in patterning the cleavage-stage embryo ...
Sato Ban - - 2007
The monoclonal antibody 6E2 raised against the embryonal carcinoma cell line NCR-G3 had been shown to also react with human germ cells. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) immunostaining revealed that 6E2 specifically reacts with sialosylglobopenta osylceramide (sialylGb5), which carries an epitope of stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4), known as an important cell surface ...
Fabian D - - 2007
This study was undertaken to obtain specific information on the characteristics of spontaneous and induced apoptosis during preimplantation development of rabbit in vivo and in vitro developed embryos and mouse in vitro embryos. After reaching appropriate developmental stages, embryos were transferred into culture media with or without apoptotic inductor (actinomycin ...
Selwood Lynne - - 2007
An analysis of several features of marsupial oocytes and developmental stages from the zygote to the neonate shows the advantages of studying these to answer questions about mammalian development in general. Marsupials make good model systems providing that species have well established breeding and husbandry protocols, a detailed time table ...
Stao, Yoshihiko
The knowledge obtained from the histological and cytological investigations on the embryos of Aucuba japonica was presented in this paper. The histological differentiation became distinct in the body of globular embryo and the tissues differentiated were delimited well at the heart-shaped and torpedo-shaped stage of embryo development. When treated with ...
Bubenshchikova Ekaterina - - 2007
Reprogramming of adult somatic cell nuclei to pluripotency has been unsuccessful in non-mammalian animals, primarily because of chromosomal aberrations in nuclear transplants, which are considered to be caused by asynchrony between the cell cycles of the recipient egg and donor nucleus. In order to normalize the chromosomal status, we used ...
Cooper Mark S - - 2007
Sometime before or during the early Mesozoic era, new lineages of actinopterygian (ray-finned) fishes radically transformed their mode of gastrulation. During this evolutionary transformation, yolky endoderm was a hotspot for ontogenetic change. As holoblastic cleavage patterns were modified into meroblastic cleavage patterns, major changes in cell identity specification occurred within ...
Shin Grace J - - 2008
Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) a is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored plasma membrane protein that has been implicated in chemorepulsive axon guidance. Although RGMa binds the transmembrane receptor Neogenin, the developmental events controlled by the RGMa-Neogenin interactions in vivo remain largely unknown. We have cloned full-length RGMa from Xenopus borealis for the ...
Hiroyama Takashi - - 2008
Clinical application of human embryonic stem (ES) cells will require the establishment of methods for their culture, either in the presence or absence of human-derived feeder cells. We have tested the ability of non-immortalized cultured cells derived from human umbilical cord (HUC cells) to support ES cell culture. A primate ...
Parameswaran V - - 2007
We report a pluripotent embryonic stem cell-like cell line designated as SBES from blastula stage embryos of Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer), which is an economically important cultivable and edible marine fish species in India. The SBES cells were cultured at 28 degrees C in Leibovitz L-15 medium supplemented with ...
Koga Masaaki - - 2007
To analyze cell to cell interaction effects on cell differentiation, we developed a new triple staining method for double in situ hybridization with cell lineage tracing in whole-mount Xenopus embryos. The method provides high color contrast views, and also enabled us to examine inside the embryos. Wild-type embryos whose blastomere(s) ...
Bonk Aaron J AJ Division of Animal Science, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri, - - 2007
Methylation of DNA is the most commonly studied epigenetic mechanism of developmental competence and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Previous studies of epigenetics and the SCNT procedures have examined the effects of different culture media on donor cells and reconstructed embryos, and the methylation status of specific genes in the ...
Furuya Hidetaka - - 2007
Two species of dicyemid mesozoan are redescribed from Rossia pacifica Berry, 1911, collected off Iwase in Toyama Bay, Honshu, Japan. Dicyemennea brevicephaloides Bogolepova-Dobrokhotova, 1962, is a large species that reaches about 4,000 microm in length. This species attaches to the surface of the branchial heart appendages. The vermiform stages are ...
Smith Stuart J SJ Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, United - - 2007
Harnessing toxic proteins to destroy selective cells in an embryo is an attractive method for exploring details of cell fate and cell-cell interdependency. However, no existing "suicide gene" system has proved suitable for aquatic vertebrates. We use the M2(H37A) toxic ion channel of the influenza-A virus to induce cell-ablations in ...
Fritzenwanker Jens H - - 2007
We investigated the early development of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, an emerging model system of the Cnidaria. Early cleavage stages are characterized by substantial variability from embryo to embryo, yet invariably lead to the formation of a coeloblastula. The coeloblastula undergoes a series of unusual broad invaginations-evaginations which can ...
Tanaka-Kunishima Motoko - - 2007
Ascidian early embryonic cells undergo cell differentiation without cell cleavage, thus enabling mixture of cell fate determinants in single cells, which will not be possible in mammalian systems. Either cell in a two-cell embryo (2C cell) has multiple fates and develops into any cell types in a tadpole. To find ...
Takaoka Katsuyoshi - - 2007
How and at what stage of development are the axes of the body determined? The left-right axis of the mouse embryo is generated de novo at embryonic day (E) 8.0 in a manner dependent on pre-existing positional cues. The anterior-posterior (A-P) axis becomes apparent earlier when distally located visceral endoderm ...
Chandraratna Dhianjali - - 2007
The apoptotic phenotype is characterised by dynamic changes in cell behaviours such as cell rounding and blebbing, followed by chromatin condensation and cell fragmentation. Whereas the biochemical pathways leading to caspase activation have been actively studied, much less is known about how caspase activity changes cell behaviours during apoptosis. Here, ...
Maekawa Momoko - - 2007
Preimplantation development is a crucial step for successful implantation and pregnancy. Although both compaction and blastocyst formation have been extensively studied, mechanisms regulating the early cell division stages before compaction have remained unclear. Here, we show that extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase function is required for ...
Horsley Valerie - - 2007
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the capacity to form every type of cell in our adult bodies due to their pluripotency. The prospective use of ES cells in regenerative therapies for human diseases such as Parkinson's disease and diabetes has raised the interest in identifying the mechanisms that allow these ...
Rausell Francisco - - 2007
We analyzed the effect of in vitro aging of mouse oocytes in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT) on relative levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and thiols in oocytes, and cell number, DNA fragmentation and cellular allocation to the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) lineage at the blastocyst ...
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