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Results 401 - 450 of 2135
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Kingsley Evan P - - 2007
Asymmetric cell divisions are a crucial mode of cell fate specification in multicellular organisms, but their relative contribution to early embryonic patterning varies among taxa. In the embryo of the mollusc Ilyanassa, most of the early cell divisions are overtly asymmetric. During Ilyanassa early cleavage, mRNAs for several conserved developmental ...
Pagnussat Gabriela Carolina - - 2007
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the female gametophyte is a highly polarized structure consisting of four cell types: one egg cell and two synergids, one central cell, and three antipodal cells. In this report, we describe the characterization of a novel female gametophyte mutant, eostre, which affects establishment of cell fates in ...
Dietrich Jens-Erik - - 2007
Mouse pre-implantation development gives rise to the blastocyst, which is made up of at least three distinct cell types: the trophectoderm (TE) that surrounds a cavity, and an inner cell mass (ICM) comprising the primitive endoderm (PE) and epiblast (EPI). However, the underlying mechanisms involved in patterning the cleavage-stage embryo ...
Sato Ban - - 2007
The monoclonal antibody 6E2 raised against the embryonal carcinoma cell line NCR-G3 had been shown to also react with human germ cells. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) immunostaining revealed that 6E2 specifically reacts with sialosylglobopenta osylceramide (sialylGb5), which carries an epitope of stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4), known as an important cell surface ...
Fabian D - - 2007
This study was undertaken to obtain specific information on the characteristics of spontaneous and induced apoptosis during preimplantation development of rabbit in vivo and in vitro developed embryos and mouse in vitro embryos. After reaching appropriate developmental stages, embryos were transferred into culture media with or without apoptotic inductor (actinomycin ...
Selwood Lynne - - 2007
An analysis of several features of marsupial oocytes and developmental stages from the zygote to the neonate shows the advantages of studying these to answer questions about mammalian development in general. Marsupials make good model systems providing that species have well established breeding and husbandry protocols, a detailed time table ...
Stao, Yoshihiko
The knowledge obtained from the histological and cytological investigations on the embryos of Aucuba japonica was presented in this paper. The histological differentiation became distinct in the body of globular embryo and the tissues differentiated were delimited well at the heart-shaped and torpedo-shaped stage of embryo development. When treated with ...
Bubenshchikova Ekaterina - - 2007
Reprogramming of adult somatic cell nuclei to pluripotency has been unsuccessful in non-mammalian animals, primarily because of chromosomal aberrations in nuclear transplants, which are considered to be caused by asynchrony between the cell cycles of the recipient egg and donor nucleus. In order to normalize the chromosomal status, we used ...
Cooper Mark S - - 2007
Sometime before or during the early Mesozoic era, new lineages of actinopterygian (ray-finned) fishes radically transformed their mode of gastrulation. During this evolutionary transformation, yolky endoderm was a hotspot for ontogenetic change. As holoblastic cleavage patterns were modified into meroblastic cleavage patterns, major changes in cell identity specification occurred within ...
Shin Grace J - - 2008
Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) a is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored plasma membrane protein that has been implicated in chemorepulsive axon guidance. Although RGMa binds the transmembrane receptor Neogenin, the developmental events controlled by the RGMa-Neogenin interactions in vivo remain largely unknown. We have cloned full-length RGMa from Xenopus borealis for the ...
Hiroyama Takashi - - 2008
Clinical application of human embryonic stem (ES) cells will require the establishment of methods for their culture, either in the presence or absence of human-derived feeder cells. We have tested the ability of non-immortalized cultured cells derived from human umbilical cord (HUC cells) to support ES cell culture. A primate ...
Parameswaran V - - 2007
We report a pluripotent embryonic stem cell-like cell line designated as SBES from blastula stage embryos of Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer), which is an economically important cultivable and edible marine fish species in India. The SBES cells were cultured at 28 degrees C in Leibovitz L-15 medium supplemented with ...
Koga Masaaki - - 2007
To analyze cell to cell interaction effects on cell differentiation, we developed a new triple staining method for double in situ hybridization with cell lineage tracing in whole-mount Xenopus embryos. The method provides high color contrast views, and also enabled us to examine inside the embryos. Wild-type embryos whose blastomere(s) ...
Bonk Aaron J - - 2007
Methylation of DNA is the most commonly studied epigenetic mechanism of developmental competence and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Previous studies of epigenetics and the SCNT procedures have examined the effects of different culture media on donor cells and reconstructed embryos, and the methylation status of specific genes in the ...
Furuya Hidetaka - - 2007
Two species of dicyemid mesozoan are redescribed from Rossia pacifica Berry, 1911, collected off Iwase in Toyama Bay, Honshu, Japan. Dicyemennea brevicephaloides Bogolepova-Dobrokhotova, 1962, is a large species that reaches about 4,000 microm in length. This species attaches to the surface of the branchial heart appendages. The vermiform stages are ...
Smith Stuart J SJ Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, United - - 2007
Harnessing toxic proteins to destroy selective cells in an embryo is an attractive method for exploring details of cell fate and cell-cell interdependency. However, no existing "suicide gene" system has proved suitable for aquatic vertebrates. We use the M2(H37A) toxic ion channel of the influenza-A virus to induce cell-ablations in ...
Fritzenwanker Jens H - - 2007
We investigated the early development of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, an emerging model system of the Cnidaria. Early cleavage stages are characterized by substantial variability from embryo to embryo, yet invariably lead to the formation of a coeloblastula. The coeloblastula undergoes a series of unusual broad invaginations-evaginations which can ...
Tanaka-Kunishima Motoko - - 2007
Ascidian early embryonic cells undergo cell differentiation without cell cleavage, thus enabling mixture of cell fate determinants in single cells, which will not be possible in mammalian systems. Either cell in a two-cell embryo (2C cell) has multiple fates and develops into any cell types in a tadpole. To find ...
Takaoka Katsuyoshi - - 2007
How and at what stage of development are the axes of the body determined? The left-right axis of the mouse embryo is generated de novo at embryonic day (E) 8.0 in a manner dependent on pre-existing positional cues. The anterior-posterior (A-P) axis becomes apparent earlier when distally located visceral endoderm ...
Chandraratna Dhianjali - - 2007
The apoptotic phenotype is characterised by dynamic changes in cell behaviours such as cell rounding and blebbing, followed by chromatin condensation and cell fragmentation. Whereas the biochemical pathways leading to caspase activation have been actively studied, much less is known about how caspase activity changes cell behaviours during apoptosis. Here, ...
Maekawa Momoko - - 2007
Preimplantation development is a crucial step for successful implantation and pregnancy. Although both compaction and blastocyst formation have been extensively studied, mechanisms regulating the early cell division stages before compaction have remained unclear. Here, we show that extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase function is required for ...
Horsley Valerie - - 2007
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the capacity to form every type of cell in our adult bodies due to their pluripotency. The prospective use of ES cells in regenerative therapies for human diseases such as Parkinson's disease and diabetes has raised the interest in identifying the mechanisms that allow these ...
Rausell Francisco - - 2007
We analyzed the effect of in vitro aging of mouse oocytes in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT) on relative levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and thiols in oocytes, and cell number, DNA fragmentation and cellular allocation to the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) lineage at the blastocyst ...
Malashicheva Anna - - 2007
The trophectoderm (TE) of blastocysts, the first epithelium established in mammalian development, (1) plays signaling, supportive, and patterning functions during preimplantation development, (2) ensures embryo implantation into the uterine wall, and (3) gives rise to extraembryonic tissues essential for embryo patterning and growth after implantation. We show that mouse TE, ...
Tesar Paul J - - 2007
The application of human embryonic stem (ES) cells in medicine and biology has an inherent reliance on understanding the starting cell population. Human ES cells differ from mouse ES cells and the specific embryonic origin of both cell types is unclear. Previous work suggested that mouse ES cells could only ...
Negishi Takefumi - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Orientation and positioning of the cell division plane are essential for generation of invariant cleavage patterns and for unequal cell divisions during development. Precise control of the division plane is important for appropriate partitioning of localized factors, spatial arrangement of cells for proper intercellular interactions, and size control of ...
Uchiumi Takao - - 2007
The female gamete, the egg cell, is a specially differentiated haploid cell that develops into an embryo following fertilization. In the present study, we analyzed egg cell lysates by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometry-based proteomics technology and identified the major proteins expressed in rice egg cells. ...
Arenas-Mena Cesar - - 2007
Two major variants of the stereotypic spiral cleavage correlate with distinct developmental modes in polychaetes. Indirect development through a feeding trochophore larva correlates with development from four equal-sized blastomeres, whereas direct development correlates with unequal cleavage characterized by a large dorsal blastomere precursor maternally predetermined. The equal-size spiral cleavage of ...
Henckel Amandine - - 2007
It is generally assumed that the developmental program of embryogenesis relies on epigenetic mechanisms. However, a mechanistic link between epigenetic marks and cell fate decisions had not been established so far. In a recent article, Torres-Padilla and colleagues show that epigenetic information and, more precisely, histone arginine methylation mediated by ...
Zhou H - - 2007
This study was conducted to reconstruct heterogeneous embryos using equine skin fibroblast cells as donor karyoplasts and the bovine oocytes as recipient cytoplast for investigating the reprogramming of equine somatic cell nuclear in bovine oocyte cytoplasm and the developmental potential of the reconstructed embryos. Adult horse skin fibroblast cells serum-starved ...
Navara Christopher S - - 2007
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are a powerful research tool enabling the generation of mice with custom genetics, the study of the earliest stages of mammalian differentiation in vitro and, with the isolation of human ES cells, the potential of cell-based therapies for a number of diseases including Parkinson's and Type ...
Barton M Kathryn - - 2007
In this issue of Developmental Cell, Nodine and colleagues show that two related leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases, RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE1 and TOADSTOOL2, are critical in establishing radial pattern in the Arabidopsis embryo (Nodine et al., 2007). Embryos lacking these kinases show replacement of outer cell fates with inner cell fates.
Regina Hansen, Susanne Busch
Single cell of the diatom Attheya septentrionalis from the Arkona Sea.
Jones, Melissa Theresa
Galanin is a highly conserved, 29-30 amino acid long putative neuropepide widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system of several adult species. This protein has been shown to affect the secretion of several hormones and the proliferation of some small cell lung cancer and lactotroph cell lines. Galanin ...
Chan Wen-Hsiung - - 2007
Citrinin (CTN), a mycotoxin that is often found as a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, has been demonstrated to have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells. In this study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of CTN on mouse blastocysts and subsequent early development in vitro and ...
Chen Sung Ho - - 2007
Translationally controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) is an evolutionally highly conserved protein which has been implicated in many cellular functions that are related to cell growth, death, and even the allergic response of the host. To address the physiological roles of TCTP, we generated TCTP knockout mice by targeted gene disruption. ...
Shi Deshun - - 2007
Cloning of buffalos (Bubalus bubalis) through nuclear transfer is a potential alternative approach in genetic improvement of buffalos. However, to our knowledge, cloned offspring of buffalos derived from embryonic, fetal, or somatic cells have not yet been reported. Thus, factors affecting the nuclear transfer of buffalo somatic cells were examined, ...
Zhu Zi-Yu - - 2007
In this study, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are used as models of agamogony and syngamy, respectively. In order to elucidate the reasons of low efficiency of somatic cell cloning, cytoskeletal and nuclear organization in cloned mouse embryos was monitored before and during the first ...
Buchholz Daniel R - - 2007
The egg of the direct-developing frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, has 20 x the volume as that of the model amphibian, Xenopus laevis. Increased egg size led to the origin of nutritional endoderm, a novel cell type that provides nutrition but does not differentiate into digestive tract tissues. As the E. coqui ...
Takatori Naohito - - 2007
The epidermis of an ascidian larva derived from animal-hemisphere cells is regionalized along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis through inductive signals emanating from vegetal-hemisphere cells in early stages of the development. Previously, we showed by blastomere isolation and ablation experiments that the contact between the animal and vegetal hemispheres until the ...
Kishi M - - 2007
In the present study, the development in vitro and in vivo of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed with embryonic cells (blastomeres) at the 32- to 63-cell (sixth cell cycle) and 64- to 127-cell (seventh cell cycle) stages was investigated to determine the optimum range of embryonic cell cycles for yielding ...
Kashyap Bhavani - - 2007
The exposure of the developing human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the visual system. One common phenotype seen in humans exposed to ethanol in utero is microphthalmia. The objective of this study was to describe the effects of ethanol during retinal ...
Torisawa Yu-suke - - 2007
The formation of spherical aggregates of cells called embryoid bodies (EBs) is an indispensable step in many protocols in which embryonic stem (ES) cells are differentiated to other cell types. Appropriate morphology and embryo size are critical for the sequential developmental stages of naturally conceived embryos. Likewise, regulating the size ...
Kurotaki Yoko - - 2007
The mechanisms controlling the establishment of the embryonic-abembryonic (E-Ab) axis of the mammalian blastocyst are controversial. We used in vitro time-lapse imaging and in vivo lineage labeling to provide evidence that the E-Ab axis of the mouse blastocyst is generated independently of early cell lineage. Rather, both the boundary between ...
Narumiya Hiromichi - - 2007
Endocardial cells and cardiomyocytes differentiate from the cardiogenic mesoderm at about the same time during development. Although in vitro embryonic stem (ES) cell systems have been used to study the differentiation of various types of cell lineages, including cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and vascular endothelial cells, differentiation of endocardial cells, ...
Tobe Hiroshi - - 2007
Austrobaileyales, comprising the four families Austrobaileyaceae, Trimeniaceae, Schisandraceae, and Illiciaceae, are included in the basal angiosperms along with Amborellaceae and Nymphaeaceae. Here, we present the first developmental study of the female gametophyte in Austrobaileya scandens, the only species of Austrobaileyaceae, which are sister to the rest of the Austrobaileyales. Austrobaileya ...
Giraldo Gomez, Angelica Maria
Investigations into the importance of the nuclear integrity of the donor cell prior to nuclear transfer (NT) are limited. In Experiment 1, the proliferative characteristics, chromosomal stability and level of histone phosphorylation in cell lines established by explants and enzymatic dissociation at different population doublings (PDs) were investigated. The cells ...
Li Y - - 2007
Although inter-species SCNT may be useful for increasing and preserving populations of endangered species, there are many reports that inter-species nuclear transfer embryos only develop to the blastocyst stage. In this study, yak-bovine SCNT blastocysts were successfully implanted in the surrogate bovine uterus but failed to develop to term or ...
Verma V - - 2007
This study was carried out to isolate and characterize buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells from in vitro-produced embryos. Inner cell mass (ICM) cells were isolated either mechanically or by enzymatic digestion from 120 blastocysts whereas 28 morulae were used for the isolation of blastomeres mechanically. The ICM cells/ blastomeres ...
Wang Hai - - 2007
To investigate the effects of different states of donor cells on the development of reconstructed sheep embryos, we designed five treatments of donor cells, including cell passage, cell size, serum starvation, colchicine treatment and gene transfection. Results are as follows: (I) Compared with 16-18 passage cells, the morula/blastocyst rate of ...
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