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Jedrusik Agnieszka A Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, Cambridge CB2 1QN, United - - 2008
Genesis of the trophectoderm and inner cell mass (ICM) lineages occurs in two stages. It is initiated via asymmetric divisions of eight- and 16-cell blastomeres that allocate cells to inner and outer positions, each with different developmental fates. Outside cells become committed to the trophectoderm at the blastocyst stage through ...
Kwon Gloria S GS Developmental Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, - - 2008
The cell movements underlying the morphogenesis of the embryonic endoderm, the tissue that will give rise to the respiratory and digestive tracts, are complex and not well understood. Using live imaging combined with genetic labeling, we investigated the cell behaviors and fate of the visceral endoderm during gut endoderm formation ...
Marschallinger Julia - - 2008
In this article, whole mount in situ hybridization is used to examine early blood vessel and blood cell development in the embryos of the brown trout Salmo trutta lacustris. cDNAs encoding for the angiogenic markers fli1 and flk1, and for the hematopoietic markers gata1 and gata2, were identified from an ...
Moll C - - 2008
In contrast to animals, plant gametes form in distinct haploid generations, termed gametophytes. The female gametophyte of Arabidopsis consists of two gametic cells, the egg and central cell, which are flanked by accessory cells. The gametic cells differ with respect to morphology, molecular attributes and, importantly, their fate: whereas the ...
Yon Jung-Min - - 2008
Cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide in cells. Its spatial distribution matches that of superoxide production, allowing it to protect cells from oxidative stress. SOD1 deficiencies result in embryonic lethality and a wide range of pathologies in mice, but little is ...
Fujimura Tatsuya - - 2008
The objective of the present study was to isolate alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalGT)-gene double knockout (DKO) cells using a novel simple method of cell selection method. To obtain GalGT-DKO cells, GalGT-gene single knockout (SKO) fetal fibroblast cells were cultured for three to nine passages and GalGT-null cells were separated using a ...
Li Lei - - 2008
We have identified a subcortical maternal complex (SCMC) that assembles during oocyte growth and is essential for zygotes to progress beyond the first embryonic cell divisions. At least four maternally encoded proteins contribute to this MDa complex: FLOPED, MATER, and TLE6 interact with each other while Filia binds independently to ...
Wun Isaac C - - 2008
Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (hSCNT) is a required procedure before derivation of autologous embryonic stem cells (ESC) for clinical treatment. The debate between ethical concerns and the potential for clinical application is still ongoing. Currently, the milestone of deriving hSCNT blastocysts has been achieved. The developmental mechanism for SCNT ...
Yu BingZhi - - 2008
Recent studies have suggested that growth factors and hormones play important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation during early embryonic development. In the present study, we examined the expression and localization of insulin in the mouse oocytes and one-cell stage embryos by quantitative ELISA, RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. In ...
Cho NaMi - - 2009
Full length mRNA to a drug-inhibited cell surface NADH oxidase, tNOX or ENOX2, is present in both non-cancer and cancer cells but is translated only in cancer cells as alternatively spliced variants. ENOX2 is a growth-related protein of the external plasma membrane surface that is shed into the circulation and ...
Harrat Abboud - - 2009
During Locusta migratoria embryogenesis, the yolk is progressively degraded and the resulting metabolites are released in the haemolymph. We researched the organs possibly involved in the uptake of haemolymphatic proteins. Among organs originated from mesoderm, the SOB (suboesophageal bodies) situated in the embryonic head are remarkable by a very early ...
Suwińska Aneta - - 2008
Sixteen inner or outer blastomeres from 16-cell embryos and 32 inner or outer blastomeres from 32-cell embryos (nascent blastocysts) were reaggregated and cultured in vitro. In 24 h old blastocysts developed from blastomeres derived from 16-cell embryos the expression of Cdx2 protein was upregulated in outer cells (new trophectoderm) of ...
Da Silva E A Amaral - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coffee seed germination represents an interplay between the embryo and the surrounding endosperm. A sequence of events in both parts of the seed determines whether germination will be successful or not. Following previous studies, the aim here was to further characterize the morphology of endosperm degradation and ...
Alarcón Vernadeth B - - 2008
The embryonic-abembryonic (Em-Ab) axis of the mouse blastocyst has been found in several studies to align orthogonal to the first cleavage plane, raising the possibility that a developmental prepattern already exists at the two-cell stage. However, it is also possible that such alignment is not due to any developmental disparity ...
Coimbra Sílvia - - 2008
Some AGP molecules or their sugar moieties are probably related to the guidance of the pollen tube into the embryo sac, in the final part of its pathway, when arriving at the ovules. The specific labelling of the synergid cells and its filiform apparatus, which are the cells responsible for ...
Larsson Emma - - 2008
Polar auxin transport is critical for normal embryo development in angiosperms. It has been proposed that auxin accumulates dynamically at specific positions, which in early Arabidopsis embryos correlates with developmental decisions such as specification of the apical cell lineage, specification of the hypophysis, and differentiation of the two cotyledons. In ...
Fathi Rouhollah - - 2008
To investigate the effect of laser-assisted hatching and necrotic blastomere removal on the development of vitrified-warmed mouse embryos. The vitrified-warmed four-cell stage mouse embryos were divided into five groups; vitrified intact with no laser-assisted hatching, vitrified intact with laser-assisted hatching, vitrified damaged with neither laser assisted hatching nor necrotic blastomere ...
Takahashi, Hiroki
Cell lineage analysis of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi demonstrated that a pair of cells situated on the right and left sides of 64-cell stage embryos, termed the A7.6 cells, give rise to trunk lateral cells (TLCs) of the tadpole larva and that after metamorphosis TLCs give rise to various mesodermal ...
Ding X - - 2008
Limited success of somatic cell nuclear transfer is attributed to incomplete reprogramming of transferred nuclei. The objective was to determine if 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and trichostatin A (TSA) promoted reprogramming and improved development. Relative to untreated controls, treatment of donor cells, cloned embryos, and continuous treatment of both donor cells and ...
Brevini Tiziana A L - - 2008
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are invaluable cells derived from the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst. They have nearly indefinite self-renewal, retain their developmental potential after prolonged periods in culture and display great plasticity that allow them to differentiate into all cell types of the body. They provide exciting ...
Lorthongpanich Chanchao - - 2008
The recently developed technique of establishing embryonic stem (ES) cell lines from single blastomeres (BTMs) of early mouse and human embryos has created significant interest in this source of ES cells. However, sister BTMs of an early embryo might not have equal competence for the development of different lineages or ...
Holloway Samuel J - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although much is known about the vegetative traits associated with early monocot evolution, less is known about the reproductive features of early monocotyledonous lineages. A study was made of the embryology of Tofieldia glutinosa, a member of an early divergent monocot clade (Tofieldiaceae), and aspects of its ...
Alandete-Saez Monica - - 2008
Double fertilization in flowering plants occurs when the two sperm cells, carried by the pollen tube, are released in a synergid cell of the embryo sac and then fertilize the egg and the central cell. Proteins on the surfaces of the sperm, egg, central, and synergid cells might be important ...
Scott Rod J - - 2008
In animal reproduction, thousands of sperm may compete to fertilize a single egg, but polyspermy blocks prevent multiple fertilization that would otherwise lead to death of the embryo. In flowering plants, successful seed development requires that only two sperm are delivered to the embryo sac, where each must fertilize a ...
Wang Steven W - - 2008
The mesendoderm (ME) cells are the two most vegetal blastomeres in the early developing embryo of the marine shrimp Sicyonia ingentis. These two cells enter mitotic arrest for three cycles after the 5th cell cycle (32-cell stage) and ingress into the blastocoel at the 6th cycle (62-cell stage). Circumjacent to ...
Magnani Luca - - 2008
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) still retains important limitations. Impaired epigenetic reprogramming is considered responsible for altered gene expression and developmental failure in SCNT-derived embryos. After nuclear transfer the donor cell nucleus undergoes extensive changes in gene expression that involve epigenetic modifications and chromatin remodeling. We hypothesized that SNF2-type ATP-dependent ...
Sun Xiuzhu - - 2008
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of serum-starvation, contact-inhibition and roscovitine treatments on cell-cycle synchronization at the G0/G1 stage of ear skin fibroblasts isolated from transgenic cloned cattle. The developmental competence of re-cloned embryos was also examined. Our results showed that the proportion of G0/G1 ...
Chen S H - - 2008
Egg cells of Torenia fournieri were isolated from embryo sacs 1 day after anthesis using enzymatic digestion or mechanical dissection. About 5% of the egg cells and zygotes (2-3 from 50 ovules) could be mechanically dissected within 2 h. When 0.1% cellulase and 0.1% pectinase were added to the mannitol ...
Warger William C WC - - 2008
Since 1978 in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures have resulted in the birth of over 3 million babies. Yet in 2005, IVF procedures had a live birth rate of only 34%, with 32% of these births resulting in multiple pregnancies. These multiple pregnancies were directly attributed to the transfer of multiple ...
Ambartsumyan Gayane - - 2008
Human embryo development occurs through a process that encompasses reprogramming, sequential cleavage divisions and mitotic chromosome segregation and embryonic genome activation. Chromosomal abnormalities may arise during germ cell and/or pre-implantation embryo development, and are a major cause of spontaneous miscarriage or birth defects. Nonetheless, model systems suitable for the study ...
Chugh Archana - - 2008
The uptake of five fluorescein labeled cell-penetrating peptides (Tat, Tat(2), mutated-Tat, peptide vascular endothelial-cadherin and transportan) was studied in wheat immature embryos. Interestingly, permeabilization treatment of the embryos with toluene/ethanol (1 : 20, v/v with permeabilization buffer) resulted in a remarkably higher uptake of cell-penetrating peptides, whereas nonpermeabilized embryos failed ...
Mortensen Richard - - 2008
Under some circumstances, it may be desirable to produce a mouse cell clone in which both alleles of a desired gene are mutated. This may be because the mutation causes embryonic lethality in homozygous animals, or to test cultured cells before an animal is produced. This protocol details an easy ...
Liang Min - - 2008
In this study, we show genetic modifier genes of Tp53 that can exacerbate embryonic abnormalities. Using a mouse model in which CE/J mice were crossed with the Tp53-null 129/Sv (129-Trp53(tm1 Tyj)) mice, a subset of Tp53+/- and -/- male and female embryos died during gestation. Our hypothesis, based on the ...
Yamazaki, Atsuko
The canonical Wnt pathway plays a central role in specifying vegetal cell fate in sea urchin embryos. SpKrl has been cloned as a direct target of nuclear β-catenin. Using Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus embryos, here we show that HpKrl controls the specification of secondary mesenchyme cells (SMCs) through both cell-autonomous and non-autonomous ...
Peng Wen-Ping - - 2008
An instrument to directly measure the charge carried by a cell or a microparticle as well as mass-to-charge ratio of the cell/microparticle was developed for rapid mass distribution measurement. A successful mass spectrum with a record high mass has been demonstrated. In this article, the details of the construction and ...
Nel-Themaat Liesl - - 2008
The production of cloned offspring by nuclear transfer (NT) of semen-derived somatic cells holds considerable potential for the incorporation of novel genes into endangered species populations. Because oocytes from endangered species are scarce, domestic species oocytes are often used as cytoplasts for interspecies NT. In the present study, epithelial cells ...
Vázquez-Manrique Rafael P RP Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United - - 2008
Migration of cells within epithelial sheets is an important feature of embryogenesis and other biological processes. Previous work has demonstrated a role for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-mediated calcium signalling in the rearrangement of epidermal cells (also known as hypodermal cells) during embryonic morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. However the mechanism by which ...
Budirahardja Yemima - - 2008
Acquisition of lineage-specific cell cycle duration is an important feature of metazoan development. In Caenorhabditis elegans, differences in cell cycle duration are already apparent in two-cell stage embryos, when the larger anterior blastomere AB divides before the smaller posterior blastomere P1. This time difference is under the control of anterior-posterior ...
Pézeron Guillaume - - 2008
During gastrulation, dramatic movements rearrange cells into three germ layers expanded over the entire embryo [1-3]. In fish, both endoderm and mesoderm are specified as a belt at the embryo margin. Mesodermal layer expansion is achieved through the combination of two directed migrations. The outer ring of precursors moves toward ...
Gall Laurence - - 2008
It is clear from a wide range of studies that the nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution of Cdc25C has important functional consequences for cell cycle control. It is now admitted that in somatic cells, the localization of Cdc25C in the cytoplasm is required to maintain the cell in an interphasic state and that ...
Torres-Padilla Maria Elena - - 2008
The early preimplantation mouse embryo is a unique system where it is possible to explore the foundations of totipotency and differentiation. Following fertilization, a single cell, the zygote, will give rise to all tissues of the organism. The first signs of differentiation in the embryo are evident at the blastocyst ...
Furuya Hidetaka - - 2008
A new species of dicyemid mesozoan is described from Sepiella japonica Sasaki, 1929, collected from the eastern area of Inland Sea, Osaka Bay, and Kii Strait in Japan. Dicyema sepiellae n. sp. is a large species that reaches about 4,000 microm in length. This species lives in folds of the ...
Fujii Setsuko - - 2008
The appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica is a chordate. Its life cycle is extremely short--approximately 5 days--and its tadpole shape with a beating tail is retained throughout entire life. The tadpole hatches after 3 h of development at 20 degrees C. Here, we describe the cleavage pattern and morphogenetic cell movements during ...
Lerou Paul H - - 2008
During in vitro fertilization, embryos deemed clinically useless based on poor morphology are typically discarded. Here we demonstrate a statistical correlation between the developmental stage of such poor-quality embryos and the yield of human embryonic stem (hES) cell lines. Early-arrested or highly fragmented embryos only rarely yield cell lines, whereas ...
Yamagata Kazuo - - 2008
During mammalian fertilization and pre-implantation development, the highly differentiated gametes revert to undifferentiated cell types following syngamy and then gradually differentiate into individual cell lineages. These processes involve changes in male and female gamete chromatin structure, in global epigenetic modifications and in nuclear architecture. We have developed a live cell ...
Cardona Costa, J.
The blastema is a regenerative tissue with remarkable pluripotency. The aim of this work done on zebrafish (Danio rerio) was to define technical procedures required for obtaining and integrating blastema cells into embryos at the mid blastula transition stage (MBT) and the effect on survival, as well as the capacity ...
Messerschmidt, Daniel Martin
In contrast to other vertebrates, mammalian embryos require a phase of pre-implantation development leading to the formation of extra-embryonic structures that will allow the interaction with the maternal environment. In this period, first the segregation of trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) takes place. Subsequently, the ICM forms the ...
Raya A - - 2008
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells represent a potential source for cell replacement therapy of many degenerative diseases. Most frequently, hES cell lines are derived from surplus embryos from assisted reproduction cycles, independent of their quality or morphology. Here, we show that hES cell lines can be obtained from poor-quality blastocysts ...
Kawahara Manabu - - 2008
A reliable nuclear transfer method was first reported in 1983; it provided definite evidence that parthenogenetic embryos are lethal at early postimplantation in mammals. Subsequently, nuclear transfer has been extensively used as an important and versatile tool for investigating embryo and somatic-cell cloning and nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions. Further development of this ...
Dietrich Jens Erik - - 2008
Mammalian preimplantation development serves to form a blastocyst, a structure that is able to implant into the mother's uterus to support further development of the embryo proper. In the developing conceptus, the first differentiation events separate the epithelial trophectoderm from the inner cell mass, which is comprised of the primitive ...
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