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Results 351 - 400 of 2187
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Bell Christine E - - 2009
SNAI1 and SNAI2 are transcription factors that initiate Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal cell transitions throughout development and in cancer metastasis. Here we show novel expression of SNAI1 and SNAI2 throughout mouse preimplantation development revealing asymmetrical localization of both SNAI1 and SNAI2 in individual blastomeres beginning at the 2-cell stage through to the 8-cell ...
Petit Anne-Cécile - - 2009
Understanding the series of morphogenetic processes that underlie the making of embryo structures is a highly topical issue in developmental biology, essential for interpreting the massive molecular data currently available. In mouse embryo, long-term in vivo analysis of cell behaviours and movements is difficult because of the development in utero ...
Tawk Marcel M MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, New Hunt's House, 4th Floor, Guy's Hospital Campus, London SE1 1UL, - - 2009
A method is described that allows the introduction by electroporation of either small dyes or larger RNA, DNA, or morpholino constructs into single cells or small groups of cells in zebrafish embryos or larvae. The dye or construct is delivered to cells via a patch-like microelectrode that also delivers the ...
Joly Pascal - - 2009
Bio-electrosprays (BESs) provide a means of precisely manipulating cells and thus have the potential for many clinical uses such as the generation of artificial tissuesorgans. Previously we tested the biological safety of this technology with a variety of living cells and also embryos from the vertebrate model organisms Danio rerio ...
Yeap Leng-Siew LS Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. - - 2009
Pluripotency, the capacity for indefinite self-renewal and differentiation into diverse cell types is a unique state exhibited by embryonic stem (ES) cells. Transcriptional regulators, such as Oct4, are critical for pluripotency, but the role of epigenetic modifiers remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we show that ERG-associated protein with SET ...
Kemp Hilary A HA HHMI and Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research - - 2009
One of the most powerful tools used to gain insight into complex developmental processes is the analysis of chimeric embryos. A chimera is defined as an organism that contains cells from more than one animal; mosaics are one type of chimera in which cells from more than one genotype are ...
Tanaka Mika M Mount Sinai Hospital, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2009
During the past 40 years, mouse chimeras have served as invaluable tools for studying not only genetics but also embryonic development, and the path from undifferentiated cell populations to fully committed functional cell types. This chapter gives a description of the early events of cell commitment and differentiation in the ...
Mitalipov Shoukhrat S Division of Reproductive Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, 505 N.W. 185th Avenue, Beaverton, Oregon, 97006, - - 2009
Mammalian development commences with the totipotent zygote which is capable of developing into all the specialized cells that make up the adult animal. As development unfolds, cells of the early embryo proliferate and differentiate into the first two lineages, the pluripotent inner cell mass and the trophectoderm. Pluripotent cells can ...
Huang B - - 2010
In the present study, buffalo embryonic stem-like (ES-like) cell lines were successfully isolated, cultured and characterized. From a total of 92 normal buffalo embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization, 18 were morulae, 33 were blastocyst and 41 were hatched blastocyst, the inside of morulae or inner cell masses of blastocysts ...
Huang B - - 2010
The possibility of producing transgenic buffalo embryos by chimera and nuclear transfer (NT) using buffalo embryonic germ (EG)-like cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) has been explored in this study. Buffalo EG-like cells and fibroblasts with two to eight passages were transfected with the lined plasmid (pCE-EGFP-IRES-Neo-dNdB) using Lipofectamine ...
Won Ji Young - - 2009
Human complement regulatory protein hCD46 may reduce the hyperacute rejection (HAR) in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. In this study, an hCD46 gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. Treatment of human serum did not affect the survival of hCD46-transgenic EG cells, whereas the treatment significantly reduced the survival of non-transgenic ...
Hong So Gun - - 2009
Fetal fibroblasts have been considered as the prime candidate donor cells for the canine reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in regard to the future production of transgenic dogs, mainly due to their higher developmental competence and handling advantage in gene targeting. In this study, the cloning efficiency ...
Lorthongpanich Chanchao - - 2008
Several chemicals targeting the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway, which play an important role in regulating cell growth and differentiation, have shown enhancing effects on the development of the inner cell mass (ICM) and the derivation of ES cells. However, investigation of such chemicals on early embryonic development and ...
Antunes G - - 2010
The correlation between apoptosis and early bovine embryonic loss is still not fully elucidated. In the present study, the relationship between the arrest of bovine embryos at the different stages of development and apoptosis was evaluated. We used embryos 7 days after in vitro maturation and fertilization, and morphologic and ...
Capron Arnaud - - 2008
In Angiosperms, the male gametes are delivered to the female gametes through the maternal reproductive tissue by the pollen tube. Upon arrival, the pollen tube releases the two sperm cells, permitting double fertilization to take place. Although the critical role of the female gametophyte in pollen tube reception has been ...
Tang Shuang - - 2009
This study investigated the effects of donor cells pretreated with oocyte extracts on in vitro development of cloned embryos. Bovine fibroblasts were exposed to immature, mature and parthenogenetic oocyte extracts respectively before nuclear transfer. The detectable expression of Oct4 and global deacetylation in the treated cells showed that extracts could ...
Liu W-X - - 2009
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different cryoprotectants and different cryopreservation protocols on the development of mouse eight-cell embryos. Mouse eight-cell embryos were cryopreserved by using propylene glycerol (PROH), ethylene glycerol (EG), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or glycerol (G) as cryoprotectant with slow-freezing or Vit-Master vitrification ...
Kornikova Evgenia S - - 2009
Influence of the relaxation of mechanical tensions upon collective cell movements, shape formation, and expression patterns of tissue-specific genes has been studied in Xenopus laevis embryos. We show that the local relaxation of tensile stresses within the suprablastoporal area (SBA) performed at the early-midgastrula stage leads to a complete arrest ...
Maluf Mariangela - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of pre- and/or postnatal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter on fertilization, embryo development, and cell lineage segregation in preimplantation blastocysts using the IVF mouse model. DESIGN: Animal model. SETTING: Academic institution. ANIMAL(S): Six-week-old, superovulated mice. INTERVENTION(S): Pre- and postnatal exposure to filtered air (FA-FA), filtered-ambient ...
Gómez E - - 2009
In contrast to the embryos derived from live animals, the embryos produced in vitro undergo increased damage and reduced survival after cryopreservation, particularly when produced with serum. In medium containing serum, retinoic acid increases cell numbers in the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm without altering their relative proportions in ...
Keller Philipp J - - 2008
A long-standing goal of biology is to map the behavior of all cells during vertebrate embryogenesis. We developed digital scanned laser light sheet fluorescence microscopy and recorded nuclei localization and movement in entire wild-type and mutant zebrafish embryos over the first 24 hours of development. Multiview in vivo imaging at ...
Kristeva Marlene Anastassova - - 2008
My concept of cell differentiation involves genetic information from DNA being transcribed into mRNA proteins-morphogenes (mRNAs+ homeodomain proteins)-and stored in the ovoplasm as maternal inheritance, or cytoplasmic genetic memory. Feedback mechanism(s) allow these morphogenes to selectively unlock new genes, regulating the development of the embryo. The blastomeres and the embryonic ...
Furuya Hidetaka - - 2008
Three new species of dicyemid mesozoan are described from Octopus sasakii Taki, 1942, collected from Tosa Bay and Kii Strait in Japan. Dicyema shimantoense n. sp. is a medium-size species that reaches about 3,000 microm in length, and lives in folds of the renal appendages. The vermiform stages are characterized ...
Stern Claudio D - - 2008
The very early mouse embryo is initially covered by a layer of cells called visceral endoderm that despite its name (visceral means associated with internal organs) was only thought to give rise to extraembryonic structures. Now, in this issue of Developmental Cell, Kwon et al. (2008) show unexpectedly that a ...
Furuya Hidetaka - - 2008
A species of dicyemid mesozoan is redescribed from the giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini (Wülker, 1910), collected off Iwase in Toyama Bay, Honshu, Japan. Dicyemennea nouveli McConnaughey, 1959, is a large species that reaches about 12,000 microm in length. This species lives in folds of the renal appendages. The vermiform ...
Jedrusik Agnieszka A Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, Cambridge CB2 1QN, United - - 2008
Genesis of the trophectoderm and inner cell mass (ICM) lineages occurs in two stages. It is initiated via asymmetric divisions of eight- and 16-cell blastomeres that allocate cells to inner and outer positions, each with different developmental fates. Outside cells become committed to the trophectoderm at the blastocyst stage through ...
Kwon Gloria S GS Developmental Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, - - 2008
The cell movements underlying the morphogenesis of the embryonic endoderm, the tissue that will give rise to the respiratory and digestive tracts, are complex and not well understood. Using live imaging combined with genetic labeling, we investigated the cell behaviors and fate of the visceral endoderm during gut endoderm formation ...
Marschallinger Julia - - 2008
In this article, whole mount in situ hybridization is used to examine early blood vessel and blood cell development in the embryos of the brown trout Salmo trutta lacustris. cDNAs encoding for the angiogenic markers fli1 and flk1, and for the hematopoietic markers gata1 and gata2, were identified from an ...
Moll C - - 2008
In contrast to animals, plant gametes form in distinct haploid generations, termed gametophytes. The female gametophyte of Arabidopsis consists of two gametic cells, the egg and central cell, which are flanked by accessory cells. The gametic cells differ with respect to morphology, molecular attributes and, importantly, their fate: whereas the ...
Yon Jung-Min - - 2008
Cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide in cells. Its spatial distribution matches that of superoxide production, allowing it to protect cells from oxidative stress. SOD1 deficiencies result in embryonic lethality and a wide range of pathologies in mice, but little is ...
Fujimura Tatsuya - - 2008
The objective of the present study was to isolate alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalGT)-gene double knockout (DKO) cells using a novel simple method of cell selection method. To obtain GalGT-DKO cells, GalGT-gene single knockout (SKO) fetal fibroblast cells were cultured for three to nine passages and GalGT-null cells were separated using a ...
Li Lei - - 2008
We have identified a subcortical maternal complex (SCMC) that assembles during oocyte growth and is essential for zygotes to progress beyond the first embryonic cell divisions. At least four maternally encoded proteins contribute to this MDa complex: FLOPED, MATER, and TLE6 interact with each other while Filia binds independently to ...
Wun Isaac C - - 2008
Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (hSCNT) is a required procedure before derivation of autologous embryonic stem cells (ESC) for clinical treatment. The debate between ethical concerns and the potential for clinical application is still ongoing. Currently, the milestone of deriving hSCNT blastocysts has been achieved. The developmental mechanism for SCNT ...
Yu BingZhi - - 2008
Recent studies have suggested that growth factors and hormones play important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation during early embryonic development. In the present study, we examined the expression and localization of insulin in the mouse oocytes and one-cell stage embryos by quantitative ELISA, RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. In ...
Cho NaMi - - 2009
Full length mRNA to a drug-inhibited cell surface NADH oxidase, tNOX or ENOX2, is present in both non-cancer and cancer cells but is translated only in cancer cells as alternatively spliced variants. ENOX2 is a growth-related protein of the external plasma membrane surface that is shed into the circulation and ...
Harrat Abboud - - 2009
During Locusta migratoria embryogenesis, the yolk is progressively degraded and the resulting metabolites are released in the haemolymph. We researched the organs possibly involved in the uptake of haemolymphatic proteins. Among organs originated from mesoderm, the SOB (suboesophageal bodies) situated in the embryonic head are remarkable by a very early ...
SuwiƄska Aneta - - 2008
Sixteen inner or outer blastomeres from 16-cell embryos and 32 inner or outer blastomeres from 32-cell embryos (nascent blastocysts) were reaggregated and cultured in vitro. In 24 h old blastocysts developed from blastomeres derived from 16-cell embryos the expression of Cdx2 protein was upregulated in outer cells (new trophectoderm) of ...
Da Silva E A Amaral - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coffee seed germination represents an interplay between the embryo and the surrounding endosperm. A sequence of events in both parts of the seed determines whether germination will be successful or not. Following previous studies, the aim here was to further characterize the morphology of endosperm degradation and ...
Alarcón Vernadeth B - - 2008
The embryonic-abembryonic (Em-Ab) axis of the mouse blastocyst has been found in several studies to align orthogonal to the first cleavage plane, raising the possibility that a developmental prepattern already exists at the two-cell stage. However, it is also possible that such alignment is not due to any developmental disparity ...
Coimbra Sílvia - - 2008
Some AGP molecules or their sugar moieties are probably related to the guidance of the pollen tube into the embryo sac, in the final part of its pathway, when arriving at the ovules. The specific labelling of the synergid cells and its filiform apparatus, which are the cells responsible for ...
Larsson Emma - - 2008
Polar auxin transport is critical for normal embryo development in angiosperms. It has been proposed that auxin accumulates dynamically at specific positions, which in early Arabidopsis embryos correlates with developmental decisions such as specification of the apical cell lineage, specification of the hypophysis, and differentiation of the two cotyledons. In ...
Fathi Rouhollah - - 2008
To investigate the effect of laser-assisted hatching and necrotic blastomere removal on the development of vitrified-warmed mouse embryos. The vitrified-warmed four-cell stage mouse embryos were divided into five groups; vitrified intact with no laser-assisted hatching, vitrified intact with laser-assisted hatching, vitrified damaged with neither laser assisted hatching nor necrotic blastomere ...
Takahashi, Hiroki
Cell lineage analysis of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi demonstrated that a pair of cells situated on the right and left sides of 64-cell stage embryos, termed the A7.6 cells, give rise to trunk lateral cells (TLCs) of the tadpole larva and that after metamorphosis TLCs give rise to various mesodermal ...
Ding X - - 2008
Limited success of somatic cell nuclear transfer is attributed to incomplete reprogramming of transferred nuclei. The objective was to determine if 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and trichostatin A (TSA) promoted reprogramming and improved development. Relative to untreated controls, treatment of donor cells, cloned embryos, and continuous treatment of both donor cells and ...
Brevini Tiziana A L - - 2008
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are invaluable cells derived from the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst. They have nearly indefinite self-renewal, retain their developmental potential after prolonged periods in culture and display great plasticity that allow them to differentiate into all cell types of the body. They provide exciting ...
Lorthongpanich Chanchao - - 2008
The recently developed technique of establishing embryonic stem (ES) cell lines from single blastomeres (BTMs) of early mouse and human embryos has created significant interest in this source of ES cells. However, sister BTMs of an early embryo might not have equal competence for the development of different lineages or ...
Holloway Samuel J - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although much is known about the vegetative traits associated with early monocot evolution, less is known about the reproductive features of early monocotyledonous lineages. A study was made of the embryology of Tofieldia glutinosa, a member of an early divergent monocot clade (Tofieldiaceae), and aspects of its ...
Alandete-Saez Monica - - 2008
Double fertilization in flowering plants occurs when the two sperm cells, carried by the pollen tube, are released in a synergid cell of the embryo sac and then fertilize the egg and the central cell. Proteins on the surfaces of the sperm, egg, central, and synergid cells might be important ...
Scott Rod J - - 2008
In animal reproduction, thousands of sperm may compete to fertilize a single egg, but polyspermy blocks prevent multiple fertilization that would otherwise lead to death of the embryo. In flowering plants, successful seed development requires that only two sperm are delivered to the embryo sac, where each must fertilize a ...
Wang Steven W - - 2008
The mesendoderm (ME) cells are the two most vegetal blastomeres in the early developing embryo of the marine shrimp Sicyonia ingentis. These two cells enter mitotic arrest for three cycles after the 5th cell cycle (32-cell stage) and ingress into the blastocoel at the 6th cycle (62-cell stage). Circumjacent to ...
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