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Results 301 - 350 of 2162
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Horng Jiun-Lin - - 2009
It is important to maintain internal pH homeostasis in biological systems. In our previous studies, H(+)-ATPase-rich (HR) cells were found to be responsible for proton secretion in the skin of zebrafish embryos during development. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to acidic and basic waters to investigate the regulation ...
Hao, Ru
The main aim of this thesis was to find out which donor cells would be most suitable for production of cloned rabbits with a targeted modification of their genome, and their corresponding patterns of reprogramming hetero- and euchromatic histone modifications (H3K4m2/3 and H3K27m3). For these purposes, we carried out NT ...
Naruse Kenji - - 2009
Streptolysin O (SLO) is a known bacterial protein that forms very large pores in the plasma membranes of mammalian cells. SLO has been used in the delivery of proteins into living cells following permeabilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of SLO treatment in donor cells ...
Kwiatkowski Adam V AV Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2009
A complex program of cell intrinsic and extrinsic signals guide cortical development. Although genetic studies in mice have uncovered roles for numerous genes and gene families in multiple aspects of corticogenesis, determining their cell autonomous functions is often complicated by pleiotropic defects. Here we describe a novel lentiviral-based method to ...
Zeng Xin-Xin I XX Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, - - 2009
Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine to generate phosphatidic acid and choline. Studies in cultured cells and Drosophila melanogaster have implicated PLD in the regulation of many cellular functions, including intracellular vesicle trafficking, cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the function of PLD in vertebrate development has not been explored. Here we ...
Fujimori Toshihiko - - 2009
During the 4 days after fertilization, the mouse embryo proceeds in its development within the zona pellucida and reaches the blastocyst stage, when a newly formed embryonic-abembryonic (E-Ab) axis is settled before implantation. The previous findings suggested that the shape of the zona pellucida, which may function as an environmental ...
Gavrilov Svetlana - - 2009
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) hold great promise for use in regenerative medicine. However, the extraordinary potential of hESC as therapeutic tools is tempered by ethical, moral and political issues surrounding their derivation from human embryos. It has previously been proposed that ethical criteria applied to essential organ donation could ...
Geach Timothy J TJ Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, UKNW7 - - 2009
Bio-electrosprays, a recently pioneered direct cell engineering approach, have been demonstrated to handle living cells including stem cells for the development of active specialized and unspecialized microenvironments. This electric field driven technique is currently undergoing vigorous development where the technique is racing towards possible clinical utility. Although this direct cell ...
Arnold Sebastian J - - 2009
Genetic studies have identified the key signalling pathways and developmentally regulated transcription factors that govern cell lineage allocation and axis patterning in the early mammalian embryo. Recent advances have uncovered details of the molecular circuits that tightly control cell growth and differentiation in the mammalian embryo from the blastocyst stage, ...
Rehm E Jay - - 2009
The great diversity of arthropod body plans, together with our detailed understanding of fruit fly development, makes arthropods a premier taxon for examining the evolutionary diversification of developmental patterns and hence the diversity of extant life. Crustaceans, in particular, show a remarkable range of morphologies and provide a useful outgroup ...
Maalouf Walid E - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Genome reprogramming in early mouse embryos is associated with nuclear reorganization and particular features such as the peculiar distribution of centromeric and pericentric heterochromatin during the first developmental stage. This zygote-specific heterochromatin organization could be observed both in maternal and paternal pronuclei after natural fertilization as well as in ...
- - 2009
Embryo of an annual fish (Austrolebias charrua) in the last dormancy stage, diapause III. The embryo, surrounded by a transparent vitelline envelope, is in the pre-hatching stage. A prominent eye and part of the pigmented body and tail are apparent. Why annual fishes? Annual fishes (Order Cyprinodontiformes) are a special ...
Goulding Morgan Q - - 2009
Cell lineage studies in mollusk embryos have documented numerous variations on the lophotrochozoan theme of spiral cleavage. In the experimentally tractable embryo of the mud snail Ilyanassa, cell lineage has previously been described only up to the 29-cell stage. Here I provide a chronology of cell divisions in Ilyanassa to ...
Plück Anne - - 2009
Since the technique of introducing a targeted mutation ('gene targeting') into the mouse genome was published almost 20 years ago (Cell 51:503-512, 1987), the number of mouse mutants (mouse models) is increasing, especially after the advent of the full mouse genomic sequence in 2002 and the human genomic sequences in ...
Winkler Johannes - - 2009
The derivation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cell lines has opened up new areas of research in basic and applied science, most significantly in developmental biology and regenerative medicine. While application-oriented research has for the most part focussed on obtaining differentiated, organotypic cells from ES cells for future cell grafting ...
Sliwinska Elwira - - 2009
The completion of germination of seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana is marked by the appearance of the radicle through the surrounding endosperm and testa. Using confocal microscopy and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transformed embryos to highlight the epidermal cell walls it has been possible to conduct time-lapse photography of individual embryos during ...
Díez-Torre Alejandro - - 2009
In recent years, the reversion of the cancer phenotype of human melanoma cells in developing zebrafish and chick embryos has been reported. The aim of this review is to revise these and other related contributions regarding the regulation of embryonic cancer and to provide a framework with which to understand ...
Sasikumar Satish - - 2009
Intracellular membrane trafficking regulates a wide variety of developmental processes, including cell and tissue morphogenesis. Here we report developmental expression of Drosophila Rab11, a small GTP-binding protein, required for both endocytic recycling and exocytosis. Rab11 is expressed in the epithelial cell types of diverse lineages at all developmental stages, beginning ...
Shipley Rebecca J - - 2009
A theoretical exploration of cell distribution on the mouse blastocyst is conducted. A model ball of cells represents the morula which develops into a 32-cell model blastocyst that is enclosed in a spherical surface with a hemispherical cavity at one end. In the combinatorial analysis it is assumed that each ...
Plück Anne - - 2009
This chapter describes the tools and the experimental route of targeted manipulation by aggregation in the mouse using targeted embryonic stem cells (ES cells). Instead of injecting ES cells into the blastocoel of a diploid blastocyst-stage embryo (3.5 dpc) ES cells can be brought together with diploid morula-stage embryos (2.5 ...
Lahl Vera - - 2009
In order to evaluate the evolutionary preservation of developmental programs during nematode embryogenesis, we searched for close relatives of the model system Caenorhabditis elegans with deviant patterns. The parthenogenetically reproducing species Diploscapter coronatus shows prominent differences to C. elegans. While in the 2-cell stage of C. elegans a rotation of ...
Wu Dongmei - - 2009
In 2006, Yamanaka and colleagues first demonstrated that retrovirus-mediated delivery and expression of Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4 is capable of inducing the pluripotent state in mouse fibroblasts.(1) The same group also reported the successful reprogramming of human somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells using human versions of ...
Dard Nicolas - - 2009
Asymmetric cell divisions are involved in the divergence of the first two lineages of the pre-implantation mouse embryo. They first take place after cell polarization (during compaction) at the 8-cell stage. It is thought that, in contrast to many species, spindle orientation is random, although there is no direct evidence ...
Dard Nicolas - - 2009
During mammalian preimplantation development, lineage divergence seems to be controlled by the interplay between asymmetric cell division (once cells are polarized) and positional information. In the mouse embryo, two distinct cell populations are first observed at the 16-cell stage and can be distinguished by both their position (outside or inside) ...
Debeb Bisrat G - - 2009
The extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn) defines the yolk sac, a set of membranes that provide essential support for mammalian embryos. Recent findings suggest that the committed ExEn precursor is present already in the embryonic Inner Cell Mass (ICM) as a group of cells that intermingles with the closely related epiblast precursor. ...
Bell Christine E - - 2009
SNAI1 and SNAI2 are transcription factors that initiate Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal cell transitions throughout development and in cancer metastasis. Here we show novel expression of SNAI1 and SNAI2 throughout mouse preimplantation development revealing asymmetrical localization of both SNAI1 and SNAI2 in individual blastomeres beginning at the 2-cell stage through to the 8-cell ...
Petit Anne-Cécile - - 2009
Understanding the series of morphogenetic processes that underlie the making of embryo structures is a highly topical issue in developmental biology, essential for interpreting the massive molecular data currently available. In mouse embryo, long-term in vivo analysis of cell behaviours and movements is difficult because of the development in utero ...
Tawk Marcel M MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, New Hunt's House, 4th Floor, Guy's Hospital Campus, London SE1 1UL, - - 2009
A method is described that allows the introduction by electroporation of either small dyes or larger RNA, DNA, or morpholino constructs into single cells or small groups of cells in zebrafish embryos or larvae. The dye or construct is delivered to cells via a patch-like microelectrode that also delivers the ...
Joly Pascal - - 2009
Bio-electrosprays (BESs) provide a means of precisely manipulating cells and thus have the potential for many clinical uses such as the generation of artificial tissuesorgans. Previously we tested the biological safety of this technology with a variety of living cells and also embryos from the vertebrate model organisms Danio rerio ...
Yeap Leng-Siew LS Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. - - 2009
Pluripotency, the capacity for indefinite self-renewal and differentiation into diverse cell types is a unique state exhibited by embryonic stem (ES) cells. Transcriptional regulators, such as Oct4, are critical for pluripotency, but the role of epigenetic modifiers remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we show that ERG-associated protein with SET ...
Kemp Hilary A HA HHMI and Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research - - 2009
One of the most powerful tools used to gain insight into complex developmental processes is the analysis of chimeric embryos. A chimera is defined as an organism that contains cells from more than one animal; mosaics are one type of chimera in which cells from more than one genotype are ...
Tanaka Mika M Mount Sinai Hospital, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2009
During the past 40 years, mouse chimeras have served as invaluable tools for studying not only genetics but also embryonic development, and the path from undifferentiated cell populations to fully committed functional cell types. This chapter gives a description of the early events of cell commitment and differentiation in the ...
Mitalipov Shoukhrat S Division of Reproductive Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, 505 N.W. 185th Avenue, Beaverton, Oregon, 97006, - - 2009
Mammalian development commences with the totipotent zygote which is capable of developing into all the specialized cells that make up the adult animal. As development unfolds, cells of the early embryo proliferate and differentiate into the first two lineages, the pluripotent inner cell mass and the trophectoderm. Pluripotent cells can ...
Huang B - - 2010
In the present study, buffalo embryonic stem-like (ES-like) cell lines were successfully isolated, cultured and characterized. From a total of 92 normal buffalo embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization, 18 were morulae, 33 were blastocyst and 41 were hatched blastocyst, the inside of morulae or inner cell masses of blastocysts ...
Huang B - - 2010
The possibility of producing transgenic buffalo embryos by chimera and nuclear transfer (NT) using buffalo embryonic germ (EG)-like cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) has been explored in this study. Buffalo EG-like cells and fibroblasts with two to eight passages were transfected with the lined plasmid (pCE-EGFP-IRES-Neo-dNdB) using Lipofectamine ...
Won Ji Young - - 2009
Human complement regulatory protein hCD46 may reduce the hyperacute rejection (HAR) in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. In this study, an hCD46 gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. Treatment of human serum did not affect the survival of hCD46-transgenic EG cells, whereas the treatment significantly reduced the survival of non-transgenic ...
Hong So Gun - - 2009
Fetal fibroblasts have been considered as the prime candidate donor cells for the canine reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in regard to the future production of transgenic dogs, mainly due to their higher developmental competence and handling advantage in gene targeting. In this study, the cloning efficiency ...
Lorthongpanich Chanchao - - 2008
Several chemicals targeting the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway, which play an important role in regulating cell growth and differentiation, have shown enhancing effects on the development of the inner cell mass (ICM) and the derivation of ES cells. However, investigation of such chemicals on early embryonic development and ...
Antunes G - - 2010
The correlation between apoptosis and early bovine embryonic loss is still not fully elucidated. In the present study, the relationship between the arrest of bovine embryos at the different stages of development and apoptosis was evaluated. We used embryos 7 days after in vitro maturation and fertilization, and morphologic and ...
Capron Arnaud - - 2008
In Angiosperms, the male gametes are delivered to the female gametes through the maternal reproductive tissue by the pollen tube. Upon arrival, the pollen tube releases the two sperm cells, permitting double fertilization to take place. Although the critical role of the female gametophyte in pollen tube reception has been ...
Tang Shuang - - 2009
This study investigated the effects of donor cells pretreated with oocyte extracts on in vitro development of cloned embryos. Bovine fibroblasts were exposed to immature, mature and parthenogenetic oocyte extracts respectively before nuclear transfer. The detectable expression of Oct4 and global deacetylation in the treated cells showed that extracts could ...
Liu W-X - - 2009
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different cryoprotectants and different cryopreservation protocols on the development of mouse eight-cell embryos. Mouse eight-cell embryos were cryopreserved by using propylene glycerol (PROH), ethylene glycerol (EG), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or glycerol (G) as cryoprotectant with slow-freezing or Vit-Master vitrification ...
Kornikova Evgenia S - - 2009
Influence of the relaxation of mechanical tensions upon collective cell movements, shape formation, and expression patterns of tissue-specific genes has been studied in Xenopus laevis embryos. We show that the local relaxation of tensile stresses within the suprablastoporal area (SBA) performed at the early-midgastrula stage leads to a complete arrest ...
Maluf Mariangela - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of pre- and/or postnatal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter on fertilization, embryo development, and cell lineage segregation in preimplantation blastocysts using the IVF mouse model. DESIGN: Animal model. SETTING: Academic institution. ANIMAL(S): Six-week-old, superovulated mice. INTERVENTION(S): Pre- and postnatal exposure to filtered air (FA-FA), filtered-ambient ...
Gómez E - - 2009
In contrast to the embryos derived from live animals, the embryos produced in vitro undergo increased damage and reduced survival after cryopreservation, particularly when produced with serum. In medium containing serum, retinoic acid increases cell numbers in the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm without altering their relative proportions in ...
Keller Philipp J - - 2008
A long-standing goal of biology is to map the behavior of all cells during vertebrate embryogenesis. We developed digital scanned laser light sheet fluorescence microscopy and recorded nuclei localization and movement in entire wild-type and mutant zebrafish embryos over the first 24 hours of development. Multiview in vivo imaging at ...
Kristeva Marlene Anastassova - - 2008
My concept of cell differentiation involves genetic information from DNA being transcribed into mRNA proteins-morphogenes (mRNAs+ homeodomain proteins)-and stored in the ovoplasm as maternal inheritance, or cytoplasmic genetic memory. Feedback mechanism(s) allow these morphogenes to selectively unlock new genes, regulating the development of the embryo. The blastomeres and the embryonic ...
Furuya Hidetaka - - 2008
Three new species of dicyemid mesozoan are described from Octopus sasakii Taki, 1942, collected from Tosa Bay and Kii Strait in Japan. Dicyema shimantoense n. sp. is a medium-size species that reaches about 3,000 microm in length, and lives in folds of the renal appendages. The vermiform stages are characterized ...
Stern Claudio D - - 2008
The very early mouse embryo is initially covered by a layer of cells called visceral endoderm that despite its name (visceral means associated with internal organs) was only thought to give rise to extraembryonic structures. Now, in this issue of Developmental Cell, Kwon et al. (2008) show unexpectedly that a ...
Furuya Hidetaka - - 2008
A species of dicyemid mesozoan is redescribed from the giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini (Wülker, 1910), collected off Iwase in Toyama Bay, Honshu, Japan. Dicyemennea nouveli McConnaughey, 1959, is a large species that reaches about 12,000 microm in length. This species lives in folds of the renal appendages. The vermiform ...
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