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Furuya Hidetaka - - 2009
Two new species of dicyemid mesozoan are described from Sepia longipes, Sasaki, 1913, collected from Tosa Bay in Japan. Dicyema oxycephalum n. sp. is a medium-sized species that is about 1,800 microm in length. It lives in folds of the renal appendages. The vermiform stages are characterized as having 28-34 ...
Lai Dongmei - - 2009
Mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells are usually maintained in an undifferentiated state by coculture with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as feeder cells. In the case of mouse ES cells, addition of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to culture media is also necessary to prevent cell differentiation. Here, we report ...
Cho Seong-Keun - - 2009
Acetylcholine (ACh) causes early activation events in mouse oocytes, but little is known about its precise role in the early embryonic development of mice. We aimed to determine whether and how ACh is capable of rescuing two-cell block in an in vitro culture system. ACh evoked different transient Ca(2+) patterns ...
Wühr Martin M Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2009
In animal cells, cytokinesis is mediated by the constriction of a cortical ring. In this issue, Carvalho et al. (2009) show in embryos of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans that the rate of ring constriction during cytokinesis is proportional to the initial cell perimeter, ensuring that the duration of cytokinesis is ...
Chen Yaoyao - - 2009
The molecular mechanisms that underlie the development of primitive myeloid cells in vertebrate embryos are not well understood. Here we characterize the role of cebpa during primitive myeloid cell development in Xenopus. We show that cebpa is one of the first known hematopoietic genes expressed in the embryo. Loss- and ...
Meilhac Sigolène M SM Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, - - 2009
In the mouse blastocyst, some cells of the inner cell mass (ICM) develop into primitive endoderm (PE) at the surface, while deeper cells form the epiblast. It remained unclear whether the position of cells determines their fate, such that gene expression is adjusted to cell position, or if cells are ...
Zama Kota - - 2009
We report here a method of simultaneously quantifying glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and galactosylceramide (GalCer) by normal-phase HPLC using O-phtalaldehyde derivatives. Treatment with sphingolipid ceramide N-deacylase which converts the cerebrosides in the sample to their lyso-forms was followed by the quantitative labeling of free NH(2) groups of the lyso-cerebrosides with O-phtalaldehyde. Using ...
Wang Shie - - 2009
The correlation between the early embryonic block to development and mitochondrial activity was investigated comparing two-cell embryos produced in vitro from Kunming (KM) and B6C3F1 mice. One-cell embryos were obtained from two species of hybrids (female KM mice mated with KM males and female B6C3F1 mice mated with KM males) ...
Wang, W.H.
Microinjection of DNA/mRNA/morpholinos is a critical technology for molecular biology and drug discovery. When dealing with suspended cells, state-of-the-art manual injection involves a time-consuming and tedious sample preparation procedure, to accurately align cells. To enable automatic microrobotic cell injection, this paper reports on two inexpensive, reusable, biocompatible, and easy-to-make devices ...
Kawamura Kazuhiro - - 2009
Successful implantation of the blastocyst and subsequent placental development is essential for reproduction. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4/5, together with their receptor, tyrosine kinase B (TrkB), in trophectoderm cells of blastocyst suggests their potential roles in implantation and placental development. Here we demonstrated that treatment with BDNF ...
Sano Chiaki - - 2009
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are characterized by pluripotency, in particular the ability to form a germline on injection into blastocysts. Despite numerous attempts, ES cell lines derived from rat embryos have not yet been established. The reason for this is unclear, although certain intrinsic biological differences among species and/or strains ...
Miki H - - 2009
Somatic cell cloning by nuclear transfer (NT) in mice is associated with hyperplastic placentas at term. To dissect the effects of embryonic and extraembryonic tissues on this clone-associated phenotype, we constructed diploid (2n) fused with (<-->) tetraploid (4n) chimeras from NT- and fertilization-derived (FD) embryos. Generally, the 4n cells contributed ...
Ogawa H - - 2009
Neither parthenogenetic (PG) nor androgenetic (AG) mouse embryos survive after day 9.5 of pregnancy, owing to the inadequate growth of extraembryonic tissues, including the placenta. At day 9.5 of pregnancy, the placental structures are poorly developed in PG embryos, while trophoblast giant cells are abundant at the implantation site in ...
Wenhui Wang, Darren Hewett, ...
This paper presents image processing algorithms recognising cell structures for an automated cell injection system. For suspended zebrafish embryos, the convex hull and convexity defects of the cytoplasm contour are used. For adherent endothelial cells, the surface and shadow information of the nucleoli is used. Overall, 550 zebrafish embryos were ...
Scheenen W J J M - - 2009
Transgenic animals are commonly employed to explore the function of individual proteins. Transgenic animal models include the mouse, the zebrafish, and the South African clawed toad Xenopus laevis. In contrast to mice and zebrafish, with Xenopus transgenesis DNA integration is mostly achieved in the one-cell stage. Moreover, Xenopus (as well ...
Weisblat David A - - 2009
One advantage of using Helobdella (leech) embryos as an experimental system is their amenability for microinjection. Blastomeres ranging in size from the zygote (400 microm diameter) down to micromeres and primary blast cells (approximately 20 microm diameter) can be injected by pressure under a dissecting microscope. Smaller cells can be ...
Yuri Shunsuke - - 2009
Sall4 is a mouse homolog of a causative gene of the autosomal dominant disorder Okihiro syndrome. We previously showed that the absence of Sall4 leads to lethality during peri-implantation and that Sall4-null embryonic stem (ES) cells proliferate poorly with intact pluripotency when cultured on feeder cells. Here, we report that, ...
Ketting René F - - 2009
MicroRNAs are known to play important roles in many different processes. However, their roles in shaping the early steps in embryogenesis have remained largely hidden. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Rosa et al. show that the miR-430/427/302 family of microRNAs has a distinct effect on Nodal signaling, affecting mesendoderm ...
Li Chao - - 2009
Mammalian parthenogenetic embryos (pE) are not viable due to placental deficiency, presumably resulting from lack of paternally expressed imprinted genes. Pluripotent parthenogenetic embryonic stem (pES) cells derived from pE could advance regenerative medicine by avoiding immuno-rejection and ethical roadblocks. We attempted to explore the epigenetic status of imprinted genes in ...
Kiessling Ann A - - 2009
To understand the molecular pathways that control early human embryo development. Improved methods of linear amplification of mRNAs and whole human genome microarray analyses were utilized to characterize gene expression in normal appearing 8-Cell human embryos, in comparison with published microarrays of human fibroblasts and pluripotent stem cells. Many genes ...
M??o Simone Cristina - - 2009
Ooplasmic factors drive nuclear organization after fertilization and are also important for re-programming in nuclear transfer procedures, in which artificial activation is essential for reconstructed embryos to progress in development. The present research evaluated the effect of pronuclear transfer (PT) between zygotes parthenogenetically activated with ionomycin followed by strontium (S) ...
Fan Yong - - 2009
The generation of patient-specific nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells holds huge promise in modern regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. Since human in vivo matured oocytes are not readily available, human therapeutic cloning is developing slowly. Here, we investigated for the first time whether human polyspermic zygotes could support preimplantation ...
Nagy Nándor - - 2009
Bursa of Fabricius is a primary lymphoid organ in the birds and its microenvironment is responsible for the B cell maturation. The epithelial anlage develops through epithelial-mesenchymal interaction into which -as a third party - hemopoietic cells immigrate. Chemical bursectomy can be made by dipping or injecting eggs by testosterone ...
Furuya Hidetaka - - 2009
A new species of dicyemid mesozoan is described from Opisthoteuthis depressa Iijima and Ikeda, 1895, collected from Suruga Bay in Japan. Dicyemennea umbraculum n. sp. is a medium species that reaches about 3,500 mum in length. This species attaches to the surface of the renal appendages. The vermiform stages are ...
Wang Kai - - 2009
Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) has the potential to become a useful tool to address basic questions about the nucleus-cytoplasm interactions between species. It has also been proposed as an alternative for the preservation of endangered species and to derive autologous embryonic stem cells. Using chimpanzee/ bovine iSCNT as ...
Nishioka Noriyuki - - 2009
Outside cells of the preimplantation mouse embryo form the trophectoderm (TE), a process requiring the transcription factor Tead4. Here, we show that transcriptionally active Tead4 can induce Cdx2 and other trophoblast genes in parallel in embryonic stem cells. In embryos, the Tead4 coactivator protein Yap localizes to nuclei of outside ...
Li Jianyuan - - 2009
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was used to generate patient-specific embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from blastocysts cloned by nuclear transfer (ntESCs). In this study, a total of 135 oocytes were obtained from 12 healthy donors (30-35 years). Human oocytes, obtained within 2 h following transvaginal aspiration, were enucleated using a ...
Larina Irina V IV Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2009
The development of the cardiovascular system is a highly dynamic process dependent on multiple signaling pathways regulating proliferation, differentiation, migration, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. To characterize cell and tissue dynamics during the formation of the cardiovascular system in mice, we generated a novel transgenic mouse line, Tg(Flk1::myr-mCherry), in which endothelial ...
Siqueira da Fonseca S A - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed at determining whether human immature dental pulp stem cells (hIDPSC) would be able to contribute to different cell types in mouse blastocysts without damaging them. Also, we analysed whether these blastocysts would progress further into embryogenesis when implanted to the uterus of foster mice, ...
Lei Lei - - 2009
Polyploid mouse embryos are important models for understanding the mechanisms of cleavage and preimplantation development in mammals. In this study, hexaploid (6n) mouse embryos were produced by the electrofusion of blastomeres from diploid (2n) and tetraploid (4n) embryos at the 2-cell stage. Furthermore, the developmental pattern of hexaploid embryos was ...
Liu Hong-Bo - - 2009
Miniature pigs are valuable for research in xenotransplantation and as models for investigating human diseases. Although many mammalian species have been cloned, the success rates have been very low, especially in the pig. In the present study, an attempt was made to optimize somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) protocols for ...
Fu J-J - - 2009
Embryo implantation involves invasion of placental extravillous trophoblast cell (EVTs) into the uterus. Hyperactive EVT invasion occurs in hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinomas. We have previously demonstrated that the 20S proteasome is involved in mouse embryo implantation and its action is mediated via regulating the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinase ...
Horng Jiun-Lin - - 2009
It is important to maintain internal pH homeostasis in biological systems. In our previous studies, H(+)-ATPase-rich (HR) cells were found to be responsible for proton secretion in the skin of zebrafish embryos during development. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to acidic and basic waters to investigate the regulation ...
Hao, Ru
The main aim of this thesis was to find out which donor cells would be most suitable for production of cloned rabbits with a targeted modification of their genome, and their corresponding patterns of reprogramming hetero- and euchromatic histone modifications (H3K4m2/3 and H3K27m3). For these purposes, we carried out NT ...
Naruse Kenji - - 2009
Streptolysin O (SLO) is a known bacterial protein that forms very large pores in the plasma membranes of mammalian cells. SLO has been used in the delivery of proteins into living cells following permeabilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of SLO treatment in donor cells ...
Kwiatkowski Adam V AV Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2009
A complex program of cell intrinsic and extrinsic signals guide cortical development. Although genetic studies in mice have uncovered roles for numerous genes and gene families in multiple aspects of corticogenesis, determining their cell autonomous functions is often complicated by pleiotropic defects. Here we describe a novel lentiviral-based method to ...
Zeng Xin-Xin I XX Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, - - 2009
Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine to generate phosphatidic acid and choline. Studies in cultured cells and Drosophila melanogaster have implicated PLD in the regulation of many cellular functions, including intracellular vesicle trafficking, cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the function of PLD in vertebrate development has not been explored. Here we ...
Fujimori Toshihiko - - 2009
During the 4 days after fertilization, the mouse embryo proceeds in its development within the zona pellucida and reaches the blastocyst stage, when a newly formed embryonic-abembryonic (E-Ab) axis is settled before implantation. The previous findings suggested that the shape of the zona pellucida, which may function as an environmental ...
Gavrilov Svetlana - - 2009
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) hold great promise for use in regenerative medicine. However, the extraordinary potential of hESC as therapeutic tools is tempered by ethical, moral and political issues surrounding their derivation from human embryos. It has previously been proposed that ethical criteria applied to essential organ donation could ...
Geach Timothy J TJ Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, UKNW7 - - 2009
Bio-electrosprays, a recently pioneered direct cell engineering approach, have been demonstrated to handle living cells including stem cells for the development of active specialized and unspecialized microenvironments. This electric field driven technique is currently undergoing vigorous development where the technique is racing towards possible clinical utility. Although this direct cell ...
Arnold Sebastian J - - 2009
Genetic studies have identified the key signalling pathways and developmentally regulated transcription factors that govern cell lineage allocation and axis patterning in the early mammalian embryo. Recent advances have uncovered details of the molecular circuits that tightly control cell growth and differentiation in the mammalian embryo from the blastocyst stage, ...
Rehm E Jay - - 2009
The great diversity of arthropod body plans, together with our detailed understanding of fruit fly development, makes arthropods a premier taxon for examining the evolutionary diversification of developmental patterns and hence the diversity of extant life. Crustaceans, in particular, show a remarkable range of morphologies and provide a useful outgroup ...
Maalouf Walid E - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Genome reprogramming in early mouse embryos is associated with nuclear reorganization and particular features such as the peculiar distribution of centromeric and pericentric heterochromatin during the first developmental stage. This zygote-specific heterochromatin organization could be observed both in maternal and paternal pronuclei after natural fertilization as well as in ...
- - 2009
Embryo of an annual fish (Austrolebias charrua) in the last dormancy stage, diapause III. The embryo, surrounded by a transparent vitelline envelope, is in the pre-hatching stage. A prominent eye and part of the pigmented body and tail are apparent. Why annual fishes? Annual fishes (Order Cyprinodontiformes) are a special ...
Goulding Morgan Q - - 2009
Cell lineage studies in mollusk embryos have documented numerous variations on the lophotrochozoan theme of spiral cleavage. In the experimentally tractable embryo of the mud snail Ilyanassa, cell lineage has previously been described only up to the 29-cell stage. Here I provide a chronology of cell divisions in Ilyanassa to ...
Plück Anne - - 2009
Since the technique of introducing a targeted mutation ('gene targeting') into the mouse genome was published almost 20 years ago (Cell 51:503-512, 1987), the number of mouse mutants (mouse models) is increasing, especially after the advent of the full mouse genomic sequence in 2002 and the human genomic sequences in ...
Winkler Johannes - - 2009
The derivation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cell lines has opened up new areas of research in basic and applied science, most significantly in developmental biology and regenerative medicine. While application-oriented research has for the most part focussed on obtaining differentiated, organotypic cells from ES cells for future cell grafting ...
Sliwinska Elwira - - 2009
The completion of germination of seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana is marked by the appearance of the radicle through the surrounding endosperm and testa. Using confocal microscopy and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transformed embryos to highlight the epidermal cell walls it has been possible to conduct time-lapse photography of individual embryos during ...
Díez-Torre Alejandro - - 2009
In recent years, the reversion of the cancer phenotype of human melanoma cells in developing zebrafish and chick embryos has been reported. The aim of this review is to revise these and other related contributions regarding the regulation of embryonic cancer and to provide a framework with which to understand ...
Sasikumar Satish - - 2009
Intracellular membrane trafficking regulates a wide variety of developmental processes, including cell and tissue morphogenesis. Here we report developmental expression of Drosophila Rab11, a small GTP-binding protein, required for both endocytic recycling and exocytosis. Rab11 is expressed in the epithelial cell types of diverse lineages at all developmental stages, beginning ...
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