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Results 201 - 250 of 2162
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Shiraki Nobuaki - - 2010
Although there are several markers available for the identification of endoderm derivatives such as the lung, pancreas, liver, and intestine, there are still very few surface markers available for the prospective isolation of the definitive endoderm. Among these, CXCR4 has been used in combination with E-cadherin as a cell surface ...
Suwinska Aneta - - 2010
The objective of this study was to investigate the capability of bank vole (Myodes glareolus) embryonic cells to sustain their pluripotent character during in vitro culture, and to determine the optimal conditions for derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells. We compared the presence of specific pluripotency (Oct4, Ssea1) and differentiation ...
Bail Pierre-Yves Le - - 2010
Nuclear transfer has the potential to become one strategy for fish genetic resources management, by allowing fish reconstruction from cryopreserved somatic cells. Survival rates after nuclear transfer are still low however. The part played by unsuitable handling conditions is often questioned, but the different steps in the procedure are difficult ...
Gertsenstein Marina - - 2010
Genetically modified mouse strains derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells have become essential tools for functional genomics and biomedical research. Large scale mutagenesis projects are producing libraries of mutant C57BL/6 (B6) ES cells to enable the functional annotation of every gene of the mouse genome. To realize the utility of ...
Chuykin Ilya - - 2010
Previous attempts to isolate pluripotent cell lines from rat preimplantation embryo in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell culture conditions (serum and LIF) were unsuccessful, however the resulting cells exhibited the expression of such traditional pluripotency markers as SSEA-1 and alkaline phosphatase. We addressed the question, which kind of cell lineages ...
Dvash Tamar - - 2010
X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation mechanism essential for embryonic development and cell physiology. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst stage embryos have been used as a model system to understand XCI initiation and maintenance. Previous studies of undifferentiated female hESCs ...
Brown Kemar - - 2010
Prior to gastrulation in the mouse, all endodermal cells arise from the primitive endoderm of the blastocyst stage embryo. Primitive endoderm and its derivatives are generally referred to as extra-embryonic endoderm (ExEn) because the majority of these cells contribute to extra-embryonic lineages encompassing the visceral endoderm (VE) and the parietal ...
Brown Kemar - - 2010
Initial specification of cardiomyocytes in the mouse results from interactions between the extraembryonic anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) and the nascent mesoderm. However the mechanism by which AVE activates cardiogenesis is not well understood, and the identity of specific cardiogenic factors in the endoderm remains elusive. Most mammalian studies of the ...
Mayer Georg - - 2010
During embryonic development of segmented animals, body segments are thought to arise from the so-called "posterior growth zone" and the occurrence of this "zone" has been used to support the homology of segmentation between arthropods, annelids, and vertebrates. However, the term "posterior growth zone" is used ambiguously in the literature, ...
Teh Cathleen - - 2010
KillerRed (KR) is a novel photosensitizer that efficiently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in KR-expressing cells upon intense green or white light illumination in vitro, resulting in damage to their plasma membrane and cell death. We report an in vivo modification of this technique using a fluorescent microscope and membrane-tagged ...
Migeotte Isabelle I Developmental Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, New York, United States of - - 2010
Cell migration and cell rearrangements are critical for establishment of the body plan of vertebrate embryos. The first step in organization of the body plan of the mouse embryo, specification of the anterior-posterior body axis, depends on migration of the anterior visceral endoderm from the distal tip of the embryo ...
Somfai Tam?s - - 2010
This study was conducted to study the kinetics of initial cell divisions in relation with the cleavage patterns in viable (with the ability to develop to the blastocyst stage) and non-viable bovine embryos and parthenotes. The kinetics of in vitro development and cleavage patterns were observed by time lapse cinematography. ...
Price Alivia L - - 2010
In Parhyale hawaiensis, the first three divisions are holoblastic and asymmetric, resulting in an embryo comprised of eight cells-four macromeres and four micromeres. Lineage studies performed at this stage demonstrate that the progeny of each cell contribute to specific portions of different germ layers. However, it is not known if ...
Richards Tiffany - - 2010
Early preimplantation embryos are sensitive to external osmolarity and use novel mechanisms to accumulate organic osmolytes and thus control their cell volumes and maintain viability. However, these mechanisms are restricted to the cleavage stages of development, and it was unknown whether postcompaction embryos use organic osmolytes. Mouse embryos developing from ...
Monier Bruno B Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK. - - 2010
Partitioning tissues into compartments that do not intermix is essential for the correct morphogenesis of animal embryos and organs. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain compartmental cell sorting, mainly differential adhesion, but also regulation of the cytoskeleton or of cell proliferation. Nevertheless, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that keep ...
Blin Guillaume - - 2010
Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are pluripotent cells capable to give rise to any embryonic cell lineage. In culture, these cells form colonies creating their own niche. Depending upon the molecular and physico-chemical environment, the pluripotent cells oscillate between two metastable states of pluripotency either reminiscent of the inner cell mass ...
Shimozawa Nobuhiro - - 2010
Several cell types from the African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), such as red blood cells, primary culture cells from kidney, and the Vero cell line, are valuable sources for biomedical research and testing. Embryonic stem (ES) cells that are established from blastocysts have pluripotency to differentiate into these and other ...
Kurita Yoshihisa - - 2009
Despite easy access to bivalves, few studies have examined the development of these animals, at least in part because most bivalve eggs are very small. In addition, annotating cells of the early bivalve embryo is difficult because few landmarks are present. We conducted detailed cell annotations of the Japanese purple ...
Beebe Luke F S - - 2009
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a useful technique for the production of transgenic pigs that can be used for biomedical research. However, the efficiency of SCNT in pigs is low. In this study, we examined the effect of two postactivation treatments, cytochalasin B (CB) and trichostatin A (TSA), on ...
Sha Hong-ying - - 2009
To investigate nuclear donor and cytoplast recipient mitochondria fate and their effects on generation of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT)-derived human embryonic stem (ES)-like cells, iSCNT embryos were reconstructed between enucleated goat oocytes and human neural stem cells (hNSCs). A total of 10.74% cleaved embryos (13/121) developed to blastocyst ...
McGarry Thomas J - - 2009
GFP-expressing Xenopus tadpole made by transplanting a nucleus from a transgenic CMV-GFP blastula into an enucleated GFP(-) egg. The egg was enucleated using a new method, treatment with psoralens and ultraviolet light. See McGarry et al., Developmental Dynamics 238:2614-2621, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Kato Mihoko - - 2009
Cell migration is a common event during organogenesis, yet little is known about how migration is temporally coordinated with organ development. We are investigating stage-specific programs of cell migration using the linker cell (LC), a migratory cell crucial for male gonadogenesis of C. elegans. During the L3 and L4 larval ...
Buffone Mariano G MG University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, Philadelphia, PA, - - 2009
Following fertilization the transition from a highly differentiated oocyte to a totipotent 2-cell embryo requires two unique mitotic cell cycles. The first cell cycle is characterized by a prolonged G(1) phase, DNA replication (S phase) that occurs separately in the female and male pronuclei, and a short G(2) phase that ...
Kadar Eniko - - 2010
Benzotriazoles (BT) are applied as anticorrosive and de-icing agents and have been detected in a variety of aquatic ecosystems and municipal wastewater effluents. We have assessed the developmental effects of benzotriazole (CAS number 95-14-7) to the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (Chordata, Ascidiae). At 15 +/- 1 degrees C, the 24 ...
Shirazi A - - 2010
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of developmental stage of in vitro produced (IVP) ovine embryos and the type of vitrification procedure used on embryo cryotolerance. The IVP embryos were vitrified at five different developmental stages: 4-, 8- and 16-cell, morula, and blastocyst. For each stage, half of ...
Cardona-Costa J - - 2010
In zebrafish chimaerism experiments, the cell injection can involve intra-embryonic cell lyses by osmolar effects. Moreover, the donor cells can be injured during manipulation due to osmolar changes into the transplant pipette. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of manipulation medium osmolarity on embryonic survival and donor ...
Ellertsd?ttir El?n - - 2010
During embryonic development, the vertebrate vasculature is undergoing vast growth and remodeling. Blood vessels can be formed by a wide spectrum of different morphogenetic mechanisms, such as budding, cord hollowing, cell hollowing, cell wrapping and intussusception. Here, we describe the vascular morphogenesis that occurs in the early zebrafish embryo. We ...
Marikawa Yusuke Y Institute for Biogenesis Research, Department of Anatomy, Biochemistry and Physiology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, 651 Ilalo St. Biosciences Building 163 Honolulu, HI 96813, USA. - - 2009
The first cell lineage specification in mouse embryo development is the formation of trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst. This article is to review and discuss the current knowledge on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this particular event. Several transcription factors have been identified as ...
Roh-Johnson Minna M Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. - - 2009
The Arp2/3 complex is important for morphogenesis in various developmental systems, but specific in vivo roles for this complex in cells that move during morphogenesis are not well understood. We have examined cellular roles for Arp2/3 in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. In C. elegans, the first morphogenetic movement, gastrulation, is ...
Bao Siqin S Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QN, - - 2009
The pluripotent state, which is first established in the primitive ectoderm cells of blastocysts, is lost progressively and irreversibly during subsequent development. For example, development of post-implantation epiblast cells from primitive ectoderm involves significant transcriptional and epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation and X chromosome inactivation, which create a robust epigenetic ...
Juliano Celina E CE Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, 185 Meeting St., Providence, RI 02912, - - 2010
The translational regulator nanos is required for the survival and maintenance of primordial germ cells during embryogenesis. Three nanos homologs are present in the genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, all of which are expressed with different timing in the small micromere lineage. This lineage is set-aside during embryogenesis ...
Chen Jun-Yuan - - 2009
Three-dimensionally preserved embryos from the Precambrian Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation, Weng'an, Guizhou, southern China, have attracted great attention as the oldest fossil evidence yet found for multicellular animal life on Earth. Many embryos are early cleavage embryos and most of them yield a limited phylogenetic signal. Here we report the discovery ...
Harfouche Rania R Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, - - 2009
Therapeutic vasculogenesis is an emerging concept that can potentially be harnessed for the management of ischemic pathologies. The present study elucidates the potential coregulation of vasculogenesis by the heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan-rich cell-surface glycome and the transcriptome. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells in an in vitro embryoid body ...
Ohto Masa-aki - - 2009
Arabidopsis APETALA2 (AP2) controls seed mass maternally, with ap2 mutants producing larger seeds than wild type. Here, we show that AP2 influences development of the three major seed compartments: embryo, endosperm, and seed coat. AP2 appears to have a significant effect on endosperm development. ap2 mutant seeds undergo an extended ...
Chowdhury Farhan F Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801, - - 2010
Growing evidence suggests that physical microenvironments and mechanical stresses, in addition to soluble factors, help direct mesenchymal-stem-cell fate. However, biological responses to a local force in embryonic stem cells remain elusive. Here we show that a local cyclic stress through focal adhesions induced spreading in mouse embryonic stem cells but ...
Yi Meisheng - - 2009
Haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells combine haploidy and pluripotency, enabling direct genetic analyses of recessive phenotypes in vertebrate cells. Haploid cells have been elusive for culture, due to their inferior growth and genomic instability. Here, we generated gynogenetic medaka embryos and obtained three haploid ES cell lines that retained pluripotency ...
Srirattana Kanokwan - - 2010
This study investigated the effect of donor cell types on the developmental potential and quality of cloned swamp buffalo embryos in comparison with cloned cattle embryos. Fetal fibroblasts (FFs), ear fibroblasts (EFs), granulosa cells (GCs) and cumulus cells (CCs) were used as the donor cells in both buffalo and cattle. ...
Gordon Shira D - - 2009
Eggs of the polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma floridanum undergo a clonal phase of proliferation, which results in the formation of thousands of embryos called secondary morulae and two castes called reproductive and soldier larvae. C. floridanum establishes the germ line early in development, and prior studies indicate that embryos with primordial ...
Karmenyan Artashes V - - 2009
A high repetition rate (80 MHz) picosecond pulse (approximately 2 psec) infrared laser was used for the inactivation (functional enucleation) of oocytes and two-cell mouse embryos and also for the fusion of blastomeres of two-cell mouse embryos. The laser inactivation of both blastomeres of two-cell mouse embryos by irradiation of ...
Wang Hua-Feng - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Decaisnea insignis, known as 'dead man's fingers' (Lardizabalaceae), is widely distributed in China and the Himalayan foothill countries. This economically important plant, which is the only species in the genus, has not been the subject of any embryological studies aside from one brief, older paper that lacks ...
Elinson Richard P - - 2009
The deceptively simple evolutionary transition from complete, holoblastic cleavage of the zygote to incomplete, meroblastic cleavage occurred only once in tetrapods, with the evolution of the amniote egg. By examining the development of a frog with large eggs, we identified a new tissue called the nutritional endoderm, which provides a ...
Ciarletta P - - 2009
The purpose of this work is to provide a biomechanical model to investigate the interplay between cellular structures and the mechanical force distribution during the elongation process of Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Epithelial morphogenesis drives the elongation process of an ovoid embryo to become a worm-shaped embryo about four times longer ...
Brevini Tiziana A L - - 2009
Human parthenogenetic embryos have recently been proposed as an alternative, less controversial source of embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines; however many aspects related to the biology of parthenogenetic embryos and parthenogenetic derived cell lines still need to be elucidated. We present here results on human cell lines (HP1 and HP3) ...
Brevini Tiziana A L - - 2009
Human parthenogenetic embryos have recently been proposed as an alternative, less controversial source of embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines; however many aspects related to the biology of parthenogenetic embryos and parthenogenetic derived cell lines still need to be elucidated. We present here results on human cell lines (HP1 and HP3) ...
Frank Aubrey C AC Department of Molecular Biology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, - - 2009
After meiosis, the male germline of flowering plants undergoes two mitoses, producing two sperm that are carried within a pollen tube to an ovule. One sperm fuses with the egg to form the zygote and the other fuses with the central cell to form the primary endosperm. The mechanisms that ...
Zhao Xiao-yang - - 2009
Since the initial description of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells created by forced expression of four transcription factors in mouse fibroblasts, the technique has been used to generate embryonic stem (ES)-cell-like pluripotent cells from a variety of cell types in other species, including primates and rat. It has become a ...
Sritanaudomchai Hathaitip H Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, OR, - - 2009
The first lineage decision during mammalian development is the establishment of the trophectoderm (TE) and the inner cell mass (ICM). The caudal-type homeodomain protein Cdx2 is implicated in the formation and maintenance of the TE in the mouse. However, the role of CDX2 during early embryonic development in primates is ...
Jang Goo - - 2009
A recent emerging technology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), has been considered for conserving threatened or endangered species. Sapsaree is a native breed in Korea and has been designated as a Natural Monument. The aim of this study was to produce a Sapsaree by SCNT for breed conservation. Donor fibroblasts ...
Nichols Jennifer J Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK. - - 2009
Embryonic stem (ES) cells can be derived and propagated from multiple strains of mouse and rat through application of small-molecule inhibitors of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/Erk pathway and of glycogen synthase kinase 3. These conditions shield pluripotent cells from differentiation-inducing stimuli. We investigate the effect of these inhibitors on ...
Oda Mayumi - - 2009
Placental abnormalities occur frequently in cloned animals. Here, we attempted to isolate trophoblast stem (TS) cells from mouse blastocysts produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) at the blastocyst stage (NT blastocysts). Despite the predicted deficiency of the trophoblast cell lineage, we succeeded in isolating cell colonies with typical morphology ...
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