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Zhao Qingguo - - 2010
Androgenetic embryonic stem (aES) cells, produced by pronuclear transplantation, offer an important autologous pluripotent stem cell source. However, the isolation of aES cells, particularly individual-specific aES cells, with the use of fertilized embryos has limited the practical applications of this technology in humans. In this study, we applied a new ...
Kobolak Julianna - - 2010
Pluripotent stem cells would have great potential in cell therapies and drug development when genetically matched with the patient; thus, histocompatible cells could be used in transplantation therapy or as a source of patient-specific cells for drug testing. Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-generated via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or ...
Kojima Aoi - - 2010
Lissoclinum punctatum is a colonial ascidian that harbors the symbiotic prokaryotic alga Prochloron in its tunic and in the peribranchial and common cloacal cavities. Most symbiotic cells in the tunic are intracellular (tunic phycocytes), while those in the cavities are extracellular. We found that neither gametes nor embryos brooded in ...
Schwarz K R L - - 2010
The importance of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in bovine oocyte maturation was investigated. Oocytes were in vitro matured with the NOS inhibitor N(w)-L-nitro-arginine methyl-ester (10(-7), 10(-5) and 10(-3) m L-NAME) and metaphase II (MII) rates and embryo development and quality were assessed. The effect of L-NAME (10(-7) m) during pre-maturation ...
Zhao Jianguo - - 2010
Faulty epigenetic reprogramming of somatic nuclei is likely to be a major cause of low success observed in all mammals produced through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). It has been demonstrated that the developmental competence of SCNT embryos in several species were significantly enhanced via treatment of histone deacetylase inhibitors ...
Fishilevich Elane - - 2010
Engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytosis ensures the removal of unwanted and defective cells. We developed a genetically encoded marker for cell engulfment, pHMA, which consists of the pH-Sensitive derivative of GFP, pHluorin, fused to the actin-binding domain of Moesin. In healthy cells of Drosophila embryos and cultured cells, pHMA ...
Miyoshi Kazuchika - - 2010
Reversine, a 2-(4-morpholinoanilino)-6-cyclohexylaminopurine analog, can induce dedifferentiation of myogenic lineage-committed cells into multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells, from which osteoblasts and adipocytes redifferentiate under lineage-specific inducing conditions. Although the molecular mechanism of how reversine causes dedifferentiation of a differentiated cell has not been fully elucidated, we speculated that it would be ...
Johnson D S - - 2010
Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) has been used in an attempt to determine embryonic aneuploidy. Techniques that use new molecular methods to determine the karyotype of an embryo are expanding the scope of PGS. We introduce a new method for PGS, termed 'parental support', which leverages microarray measurements from parental DNA ...
Hemberger Myriam M Laboratory for Developmental Genetics and Imprinting, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, UK. - - 2010
Recent years have seen considerable advances in our understanding of early mammalian development leading up to the establishment of the first cell lineages, with important implications for the behavior of stem cells derived from the early embryo. Dramatic new insights have also propelled the field of epigenetics with the identification ...
Sato Akiko - - 2010
In angiosperms, a zygote generally divides into an asymmetric two-celled embryo consisting of an apical and a basal cell. This unequal division of the zygote is a putative first step for formation of the apical-basal axis of plants and is a fundamental feature of early embryogenesis and morphogenesis in angiosperms. ...
Ooka Shioh - - 2010
We have cloned and studied Hp-ECPN, an encephalopsin orthologue of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Hp-ecpn cDNA was produced and found to contain a 1461-bp open reading frame that encodes 486 amino acids. Accumulation of Hp-ecpn mRNA and protein expression occurred at the 14 h postfertilization (hpf) swimming blastula stage ...
Zhang Y L - - 2010
Expression of recombinant human lysosomal acid beta-glucosidase (hGCase) by a transgenic animal bioreactor, using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), would decrease the cost of producing this product. The objective was to establish an effective procedure to prepare hGCase transgenic donor cells and nuclear transfer (NT) embryos to produce hGCase protein ...
Li Hong-Ju - - 2010
In flowering plants, gametogenesis generates multicellular male and female gametophytes. In the model system Arabidopsis, the male gametophyte or pollen grain contains two sperm cells and a vegetative cell. The female gametophyte or embryo sac contains seven cells, namely one egg, two synergids, one central cell and three antipodal cells. ...
Ross Pablo J - - 2010
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns ...
Stein Paula - - 2010
Fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a powerful technique that can be used to understand better the biology of fertilization, in addition to a form of assisted reproduction both in humans and in endangered species. Mouse is often the model organism of choice to study mammalian fertilization. The ability ...
Han Zhiming - - 2010
Nuclear transfer methods provide an invaluable means of dissecting the genetic and epigenetic control of development, as well as the interactions between ooplasm and nucleus in the oocyte and early embryo. These procedures also provide novel means of manipulating animal genomes (e.g., through cloning with genetically engineered cells), and also ...
Kelly Richard D W - - 2010
The persistence of A-type nuclear lamin in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos has been proposed as a marker for incomplete nuclear reprogramming. Using monoclonal antibodies to A/C- (A/C-346 and A/C-131C3) and B-type lamin, we compared distribution during early development of bovine IVF, parthenogenetic and SCNT embryos. A/C-346 staining was ...
Khillan Jaspal S - - 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass of a mammalian blastocyst represent unlimited source of all types of cells for regenerative medicine and for drug discovery. Mouse and human ES cells require mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells to maintain their undifferentiated state which involve additional time-consuming and ...
Martins-Taylor Kristen - - 2010
Since mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells was first derived in 1981, the ability of this unprecedented cell type to self-renew and differentiate without limit has revolutionized the discovery tools that are used to study gene functions and development. Furthermore, they have inspired others to hunt for similar cells from other ...
Zou Jian - - 2010
Cells change extensively in their locations and property during embryogenesis. These changes are regulated by the interactions between the cells and their environment. Chimeric embryos, which are composed of cells of different genetic background, are great tools to study the cell-cell interactions mediated by genes of interest. The embryonic transparency ...
DeChiara Thomas M - - 2010
In conventional methods for the generation of genetically modified mice, gene-targeted embryonic stem (ES) cells are injected into blastocyst-stage embryos or are aggregated with morula-stage embryos, which are then transferred to the uterus of a surrogate mother. F0 generation mice born from the embryos are chimeras composed of genetic contributions ...
Schwarzerová Katerina - - 2010
Somatic embryogenesis in spruce is a process of high importance for biotechnology, yet it comprises of orchestrated series of events whose cellular and molecular details are not well understood. In this study, we examined the role of actin cytoskeleton during somatic embryogenesis in Norway spruce line AFO 541 by means ...
Shiraki Nobuaki - - 2010
Although there are several markers available for the identification of endoderm derivatives such as the lung, pancreas, liver, and intestine, there are still very few surface markers available for the prospective isolation of the definitive endoderm. Among these, CXCR4 has been used in combination with E-cadherin as a cell surface ...
Suwinska Aneta - - 2010
The objective of this study was to investigate the capability of bank vole (Myodes glareolus) embryonic cells to sustain their pluripotent character during in vitro culture, and to determine the optimal conditions for derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells. We compared the presence of specific pluripotency (Oct4, Ssea1) and differentiation ...
Bail Pierre-Yves Le - - 2010
Nuclear transfer has the potential to become one strategy for fish genetic resources management, by allowing fish reconstruction from cryopreserved somatic cells. Survival rates after nuclear transfer are still low however. The part played by unsuitable handling conditions is often questioned, but the different steps in the procedure are difficult ...
Gertsenstein Marina - - 2010
Genetically modified mouse strains derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells have become essential tools for functional genomics and biomedical research. Large scale mutagenesis projects are producing libraries of mutant C57BL/6 (B6) ES cells to enable the functional annotation of every gene of the mouse genome. To realize the utility of ...
Chuykin Ilya - - 2010
Previous attempts to isolate pluripotent cell lines from rat preimplantation embryo in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell culture conditions (serum and LIF) were unsuccessful, however the resulting cells exhibited the expression of such traditional pluripotency markers as SSEA-1 and alkaline phosphatase. We addressed the question, which kind of cell lineages ...
Dvash Tamar - - 2010
X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation mechanism essential for embryonic development and cell physiology. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst stage embryos have been used as a model system to understand XCI initiation and maintenance. Previous studies of undifferentiated female hESCs ...
Migeotte Isabelle - - 2010
Cell migration and cell rearrangements are critical for establishment of the body plan of vertebrate embryos. The first step in organization of the body plan of the mouse embryo, specification of the anterior-posterior body axis, depends on migration of the anterior visceral endoderm from the distal tip of the embryo ...
Brown Kemar - - 2010
Prior to gastrulation in the mouse, all endodermal cells arise from the primitive endoderm of the blastocyst stage embryo. Primitive endoderm and its derivatives are generally referred to as extra-embryonic endoderm (ExEn) because the majority of these cells contribute to extra-embryonic lineages encompassing the visceral endoderm (VE) and the parietal ...
Brown Kemar - - 2010
Initial specification of cardiomyocytes in the mouse results from interactions between the extraembryonic anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) and the nascent mesoderm. However the mechanism by which AVE activates cardiogenesis is not well understood, and the identity of specific cardiogenic factors in the endoderm remains elusive. Most mammalian studies of the ...
Mayer Georg - - 2010
During embryonic development of segmented animals, body segments are thought to arise from the so-called "posterior growth zone" and the occurrence of this "zone" has been used to support the homology of segmentation between arthropods, annelids, and vertebrates. However, the term "posterior growth zone" is used ambiguously in the literature, ...
Teh Cathleen - - 2010
KillerRed (KR) is a novel photosensitizer that efficiently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in KR-expressing cells upon intense green or white light illumination in vitro, resulting in damage to their plasma membrane and cell death. We report an in vivo modification of this technique using a fluorescent microscope and membrane-tagged ...
Somfai Tam?s - - 2010
This study was conducted to study the kinetics of initial cell divisions in relation with the cleavage patterns in viable (with the ability to develop to the blastocyst stage) and non-viable bovine embryos and parthenotes. The kinetics of in vitro development and cleavage patterns were observed by time lapse cinematography. ...
Price Alivia L - - 2010
In Parhyale hawaiensis, the first three divisions are holoblastic and asymmetric, resulting in an embryo comprised of eight cells-four macromeres and four micromeres. Lineage studies performed at this stage demonstrate that the progeny of each cell contribute to specific portions of different germ layers. However, it is not known if ...
Richards Tiffany - - 2010
Early preimplantation embryos are sensitive to external osmolarity and use novel mechanisms to accumulate organic osmolytes and thus control their cell volumes and maintain viability. However, these mechanisms are restricted to the cleavage stages of development, and it was unknown whether postcompaction embryos use organic osmolytes. Mouse embryos developing from ...
Monier Bruno B Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK. - - 2010
Partitioning tissues into compartments that do not intermix is essential for the correct morphogenesis of animal embryos and organs. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain compartmental cell sorting, mainly differential adhesion, but also regulation of the cytoskeleton or of cell proliferation. Nevertheless, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that keep ...
Blin Guillaume - - 2010
Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are pluripotent cells capable to give rise to any embryonic cell lineage. In culture, these cells form colonies creating their own niche. Depending upon the molecular and physico-chemical environment, the pluripotent cells oscillate between two metastable states of pluripotency either reminiscent of the inner cell mass ...
Shimozawa Nobuhiro - - 2010
Several cell types from the African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), such as red blood cells, primary culture cells from kidney, and the Vero cell line, are valuable sources for biomedical research and testing. Embryonic stem (ES) cells that are established from blastocysts have pluripotency to differentiate into these and other ...
Kurita Yoshihisa - - 2009
Despite easy access to bivalves, few studies have examined the development of these animals, at least in part because most bivalve eggs are very small. In addition, annotating cells of the early bivalve embryo is difficult because few landmarks are present. We conducted detailed cell annotations of the Japanese purple ...
Beebe Luke F S - - 2009
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a useful technique for the production of transgenic pigs that can be used for biomedical research. However, the efficiency of SCNT in pigs is low. In this study, we examined the effect of two postactivation treatments, cytochalasin B (CB) and trichostatin A (TSA), on ...
Sha Hong-ying - - 2009
To investigate nuclear donor and cytoplast recipient mitochondria fate and their effects on generation of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT)-derived human embryonic stem (ES)-like cells, iSCNT embryos were reconstructed between enucleated goat oocytes and human neural stem cells (hNSCs). A total of 10.74% cleaved embryos (13/121) developed to blastocyst ...
McGarry Thomas J - - 2009
GFP-expressing Xenopus tadpole made by transplanting a nucleus from a transgenic CMV-GFP blastula into an enucleated GFP(-) egg. The egg was enucleated using a new method, treatment with psoralens and ultraviolet light. See McGarry et al., Developmental Dynamics 238:2614-2621, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Kato Mihoko - - 2009
Cell migration is a common event during organogenesis, yet little is known about how migration is temporally coordinated with organ development. We are investigating stage-specific programs of cell migration using the linker cell (LC), a migratory cell crucial for male gonadogenesis of C. elegans. During the L3 and L4 larval ...
Buffone Mariano G - - 2009
Following fertilization the transition from a highly differentiated oocyte to a totipotent 2-cell embryo requires two unique mitotic cell cycles. The first cell cycle is characterized by a prolonged G(1) phase, DNA replication (S phase) that occurs separately in the female and male pronuclei, and a short G(2) phase that ...
Kadar Eniko - - 2010
Benzotriazoles (BT) are applied as anticorrosive and de-icing agents and have been detected in a variety of aquatic ecosystems and municipal wastewater effluents. We have assessed the developmental effects of benzotriazole (CAS number 95-14-7) to the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (Chordata, Ascidiae). At 15 +/- 1 degrees C, the 24 ...
Shirazi A - - 2010
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of developmental stage of in vitro produced (IVP) ovine embryos and the type of vitrification procedure used on embryo cryotolerance. The IVP embryos were vitrified at five different developmental stages: 4-, 8- and 16-cell, morula, and blastocyst. For each stage, half of ...
Cardona-Costa J - - 2010
In zebrafish chimaerism experiments, the cell injection can involve intra-embryonic cell lyses by osmolar effects. Moreover, the donor cells can be injured during manipulation due to osmolar changes into the transplant pipette. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of manipulation medium osmolarity on embryonic survival and donor ...
Ellertsd?ttir El?n - - 2010
During embryonic development, the vertebrate vasculature is undergoing vast growth and remodeling. Blood vessels can be formed by a wide spectrum of different morphogenetic mechanisms, such as budding, cord hollowing, cell hollowing, cell wrapping and intussusception. Here, we describe the vascular morphogenesis that occurs in the early zebrafish embryo. We ...
Roh-Johnson Minna - - 2009
The Arp2/3 complex is important for morphogenesis in various developmental systems, but specific in vivo roles for this complex in cells that move during morphogenesis are not well understood. We have examined cellular roles for Arp2/3 in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. In C. elegans, the first morphogenetic movement, gastrulation, is ...
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