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Messerschmidt Daniel M - - 2010
Early lineage segregation in mouse development results in two, either CDX2- or OCT4/NANOG-positive, cell populations. CDX2-positive cells form the trophectoderm (TE), OCT4/NANOG-positive cells the inner cell mass (ICM). In a second lineage decision ICM cells segregate into Epiblast (EPI) and primitive endoderm (PE). EPI and PE formation depend on the ...
Canham Maurice A MA Institute for Stem Cell Research, Medical Research Council - Centre for Regenerative Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United - - 2010
ES cells are defined as self-renewing, pluripotent cell lines derived from early embryos. Cultures of ES cells are also characterized by the expression of certain markers thought to represent the pluripotent state. However, despite the widespread expression of key markers such as Oct4 and the appearance of a characteristic undifferentiated ...
Burch-Smith Tessa M TM Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, Koshland Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2010
Plasmodesmata (PD) transport developmentally important nucleic acids and proteins between plant cells. Primary PD form during cell division and are simple, linear channels. Secondary PD form in existing cell walls after cell division and are simple, twinned, or branched. PD function undergoes a marked reduction at the mid-torpedo stage of ...
Jedrusik Agnieszka A The Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, - - 2010
Divisions of polarised blastomeres that allocate polar cells to outer and apolar cells to inner positions initiate the first cell fate decision in the mouse embryo. Subsequently, outer cells differentiate into trophectoderm while inner cells retain pluripotency to become inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst. Elimination of zygotic expression ...
Lin Chih-Jen - - 2010
Tetraploid (4N) complementation assay is regard as the most stringent characterization test for the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells. The technology can generate mice fully derived from the injected ES cell (ES-4N) with 4N placentas. However, it remains a very inefficient procedure owing to a lack of information on ...
Guo Guoji - - 2010
Three distinct cell types are present within the 64-cell stage mouse blastocyst. We have investigated cellular development up to this stage using single-cell expression analysis of more than 500 cells. The 48 genes analyzed were selected in part based on a whole-embryo analysis of more than 800 transcription factors. We ...
Zhang Ying - - 2010
To explore the toxic effects of ethanol on axis formation during embryogenesis, zebrafish embryos at different developmental stages were treated with 3% ethanol for 3h. The effects of ethanol exposure appeared to be stage-dependent. The dome stage embryo was most sensible to form posterior split axes upon ethanol exposure. Morphological ...
Oda Mayumi - - 2010
Most conceptuses derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in mice undergo developmental arrest as a result of embryonic or extraembryonic defects. Even when fetuses survive to term, prominent placental overgrowth or placentomegaly is often present, indicating that SCNT affects the development of trophoblast cell lineage. The trophoblast cell lineage ...
Vassiliev Ivan - - 2010
We have developed a new method for the isolation of porcine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from in vivo-derived and in vitro-produced embryos. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of several ESC lines established using this method. Cells from these lines were passaged up to 14 times, during which they ...
Vandenberg Laura N - - 2010
How embryos consistently orient asymmetries of the left-right (LR) axis is an intriguing question, as no macroscopic environmental cues reliably distinguish left from right. Especially unclear are the events coordinating LR patterning with the establishment of the dorsoventral (DV) axes and midline determination in early embryos. In frog embryos, consistent ...
Tuckett Renee E - - 2010
Recent phylogenetic analysis has placed the aquatic family Hydatellaceae as an early-divergent angiosperm. Understanding seed dormancy, germination and desiccation tolerance of Hydatellaceae will facilitate ex situ conservation and advance hypotheses regarding angiosperm evolution. Seed germination experiments were completed on three species of south-west Australian Hydatellaceae, Trithuria austinensis, T. bibracteata and ...
Correia Sandra M - - 2010
The presence of an attached organ to somatic embryos of angiosperms connecting the embryo to the supporting tissue has been a subject of controversy. This study shows that 67% of the morphologically normal somatic embryos of Feijoa sellowiana possess this type of organ and that its formation was not affected ...
Kim S - - 2010
This study was aimed to establish embryonic stem (ES)-like cells from blastocysts derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pig. Somatic cells isolated from both day-30 fetus and neonatal cloned piglet were used for donor cells. A total of 60 blastocysts (46 and 14 derived from fetal and neonatal ...
Morris Samantha A SA Department of Physiology, Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EH, United - - 2010
A crucial question in mammalian development is how cells of the early embryo differentiate into distinct cell types. The first decision is taken when cells undertake waves of asymmetric division that generate one daughter on the inside and one on the outside of the embryo. After this division, some cells ...
Tropel Philippe - - 2010
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis allows the characterisation of embryos that carry a gene responsible for a severe monogenic disease and to transfer to the mother's uterus only the unaffected one(s). The genetically affected embryos can be used to establish human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines. We are currently establishing a cell ...
Harkness Linda - - 2010
The derivation and characterisation of human embryonic stem cells provides a source of pluripotent stem cells with potential for clinical applications. Utilising locally sourced embryos from two IVF clinics, we derived and characterised five new cell lines for use in a non-clinical setting. Analysis of clinical data showed that the ...
Miyata Hirotoshi - - 2010
Preliminary data from a prospective randomized study of assisted hatching (AH) of thawed human blastocysts demonstrated that the rate of complete hatching was significantly higher for AH performed near the inner cell mass (ICM) than for AH at the side opposite to the ICM. This suggests the existence of polarity ...
Hamanaka Gen - - 2010
Here, we show that mesenchyme cells have a novel morphogenetic function in epithelial cell proliferation in starfish embryos. Blastula embryos were injected with pure populations of mesenchyme cells and the total cell numbers in the treated embryos were subsequently determined at different developmental stages. When a total of 40-50 mesenchyme ...
Katayama Mika - - 2010
The development of blastomeres separated from two-cell stage murine embryos has been compared. Blastomeres were removed from the zona pellucida (ZP) and cultured individually; the twin embryos were compared during their progression to blastocyst in terms of development rate, cell number, morphology, conformation at the four-cell stage, and CDX2 and ...
Taei Adeleh - - 2010
In this study, we focused on the derivation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) from preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)-analyzed and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)-analyzed embryos. Out of 62 fresh PGD/PGS-analyzed embryos, 22 embryos reached the blastocyst stage. From 12 outgrowth blastocysts, we derived four hESC lines onto a feeder layer. ...
Singh H - - 2010
Our limited understanding of the processes underlying steroid hormonal control of human endometrial receptivity is largely due to the lack of a relevant model system. To overcome scarcity of material, we have developed a model in which mouse embryos attach to human Ishikawa cells, which express functional steroid hormone receptors. ...
Eagleson Gerald W - - 2010
The periodic albino of Xenopus laevis displays a transitory presence of black melanin pigment in the embryo but looses this during tadpole development. This mutation, involving a recessive allele, affects melanogenesis in dermal melanophore pigment cells. It has been suggested that the mutation is intrinsic to the melanophore cell itself ...
Sun Hong - - 2010
The shear stress effect on directional expansion of pro embryogenic masses (PEMs) and suspensor cell development of somatic embryos of Norway spruce (Picea abies) at the proliferation stage was studied by a direct and quantitative image analysis system. The experimental system allowed for detailed observations of the effect of hydrodynamic ...
Kissa Karima - - 2010
The ontogeny of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during embryonic development is still highly debated, especially their possible lineage relationship to vascular endothelial cells. The first anatomical site from which cells with long-term HSC potential have been isolated is the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM), more specifically the vicinity of the dorsal aortic floor. ...
Higaki Shogo - - 2010
This study aimed to produce fertile zebrafish (Danio rerio) possessing germ cells (gametes) that originated from cryopreserved primordial germ cells (PGCs). First, to improve the vitrification procedure of PGCs in segmentation stage embryos, dechorionated yolk-intact and yolk-removed embryos, the PGCs of which were labeled with green fluorescent protein, were cooled ...
De Repentigny Yves - - 2010
Generation of mouse chimeras is useful for the elucidation of gene function. In the present report, we describe a new technique for the production of chimeras by injection of R1 embryonic stem (ES) cells into the perivitelline space of one-cell stage mouse embryos. One-cell embryos are injected with 2-6 ES ...
Martinez-Diaz Mario A - - 2010
The present study assessed changes in epigenetic markers and pre- and postimplantation development in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) porcine embryos after treatment with the inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACi), Trichostatin A (TSA). Embryos were generated using in vitro matured oocytes and nuclei from either a male fetal fibroblast (FF) ...
Zhao Qingguo - - 2010
Androgenetic embryonic stem (aES) cells, produced by pronuclear transplantation, offer an important autologous pluripotent stem cell source. However, the isolation of aES cells, particularly individual-specific aES cells, with the use of fertilized embryos has limited the practical applications of this technology in humans. In this study, we applied a new ...
Kobolak Julianna - - 2010
Pluripotent stem cells would have great potential in cell therapies and drug development when genetically matched with the patient; thus, histocompatible cells could be used in transplantation therapy or as a source of patient-specific cells for drug testing. Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-generated via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or ...
Kojima Aoi - - 2010
Lissoclinum punctatum is a colonial ascidian that harbors the symbiotic prokaryotic alga Prochloron in its tunic and in the peribranchial and common cloacal cavities. Most symbiotic cells in the tunic are intracellular (tunic phycocytes), while those in the cavities are extracellular. We found that neither gametes nor embryos brooded in ...
Schwarz K R L - - 2010
The importance of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in bovine oocyte maturation was investigated. Oocytes were in vitro matured with the NOS inhibitor N(w)-L-nitro-arginine methyl-ester (10(-7), 10(-5) and 10(-3) m L-NAME) and metaphase II (MII) rates and embryo development and quality were assessed. The effect of L-NAME (10(-7) m) during pre-maturation ...
Fishilevich Elane - - 2010
Engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytosis ensures the removal of unwanted and defective cells. We developed a genetically encoded marker for cell engulfment, pHMA, which consists of the pH-Sensitive derivative of GFP, pHluorin, fused to the actin-binding domain of Moesin. In healthy cells of Drosophila embryos and cultured cells, pHMA ...
Zhao Jianguo J National Swine Resource and Research Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, - - 2010
Faulty epigenetic reprogramming of somatic nuclei is likely to be a major cause of low success observed in all mammals produced through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). It has been demonstrated that the developmental competence of SCNT embryos in several species were significantly enhanced via treatment of histone deacetylase inhibitors ...
Miyoshi Kazuchika - - 2010
Reversine, a 2-(4-morpholinoanilino)-6-cyclohexylaminopurine analog, can induce dedifferentiation of myogenic lineage-committed cells into multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells, from which osteoblasts and adipocytes redifferentiate under lineage-specific inducing conditions. Although the molecular mechanism of how reversine causes dedifferentiation of a differentiated cell has not been fully elucidated, we speculated that it would be ...
Johnson D S - - 2010
Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) has been used in an attempt to determine embryonic aneuploidy. Techniques that use new molecular methods to determine the karyotype of an embryo are expanding the scope of PGS. We introduce a new method for PGS, termed 'parental support', which leverages microarray measurements from parental DNA ...
Hemberger Myriam M Laboratory for Developmental Genetics and Imprinting, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, UK. - - 2010
Recent years have seen considerable advances in our understanding of early mammalian development leading up to the establishment of the first cell lineages, with important implications for the behavior of stem cells derived from the early embryo. Dramatic new insights have also propelled the field of epigenetics with the identification ...
Sato Akiko - - 2010
In angiosperms, a zygote generally divides into an asymmetric two-celled embryo consisting of an apical and a basal cell. This unequal division of the zygote is a putative first step for formation of the apical-basal axis of plants and is a fundamental feature of early embryogenesis and morphogenesis in angiosperms. ...
Ooka Shioh - - 2010
We have cloned and studied Hp-ECPN, an encephalopsin orthologue of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Hp-ecpn cDNA was produced and found to contain a 1461-bp open reading frame that encodes 486 amino acids. Accumulation of Hp-ecpn mRNA and protein expression occurred at the 14 h postfertilization (hpf) swimming blastula stage ...
Zhang Y L - - 2010
Expression of recombinant human lysosomal acid beta-glucosidase (hGCase) by a transgenic animal bioreactor, using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), would decrease the cost of producing this product. The objective was to establish an effective procedure to prepare hGCase transgenic donor cells and nuclear transfer (NT) embryos to produce hGCase protein ...
Li Hong-Ju - - 2010
In flowering plants, gametogenesis generates multicellular male and female gametophytes. In the model system Arabidopsis, the male gametophyte or pollen grain contains two sperm cells and a vegetative cell. The female gametophyte or embryo sac contains seven cells, namely one egg, two synergids, one central cell and three antipodal cells. ...
Ross Pablo J - - 2010
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns ...
Stein Paula - - 2010
Fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a powerful technique that can be used to understand better the biology of fertilization, in addition to a form of assisted reproduction both in humans and in endangered species. Mouse is often the model organism of choice to study mammalian fertilization. The ability ...
Han Zhiming - - 2010
Nuclear transfer methods provide an invaluable means of dissecting the genetic and epigenetic control of development, as well as the interactions between ooplasm and nucleus in the oocyte and early embryo. These procedures also provide novel means of manipulating animal genomes (e.g., through cloning with genetically engineered cells), and also ...
Kelly Richard D W - - 2010
The persistence of A-type nuclear lamin in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos has been proposed as a marker for incomplete nuclear reprogramming. Using monoclonal antibodies to A/C- (A/C-346 and A/C-131C3) and B-type lamin, we compared distribution during early development of bovine IVF, parthenogenetic and SCNT embryos. A/C-346 staining was ...
Khillan Jaspal S - - 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass of a mammalian blastocyst represent unlimited source of all types of cells for regenerative medicine and for drug discovery. Mouse and human ES cells require mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells to maintain their undifferentiated state which involve additional time-consuming and ...
Martins-Taylor Kristen - - 2010
Since mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells was first derived in 1981, the ability of this unprecedented cell type to self-renew and differentiate without limit has revolutionized the discovery tools that are used to study gene functions and development. Furthermore, they have inspired others to hunt for similar cells from other ...
Zou Jian - - 2010
Cells change extensively in their locations and property during embryogenesis. These changes are regulated by the interactions between the cells and their environment. Chimeric embryos, which are composed of cells of different genetic background, are great tools to study the cell-cell interactions mediated by genes of interest. The embryonic transparency ...
DeChiara Thomas M - - 2010
In conventional methods for the generation of genetically modified mice, gene-targeted embryonic stem (ES) cells are injected into blastocyst-stage embryos or are aggregated with morula-stage embryos, which are then transferred to the uterus of a surrogate mother. F0 generation mice born from the embryos are chimeras composed of genetic contributions ...
Schwarzerová Katerina - - 2010
Somatic embryogenesis in spruce is a process of high importance for biotechnology, yet it comprises of orchestrated series of events whose cellular and molecular details are not well understood. In this study, we examined the role of actin cytoskeleton during somatic embryogenesis in Norway spruce line AFO 541 by means ...
Shiraki Nobuaki - - 2010
Although there are several markers available for the identification of endoderm derivatives such as the lung, pancreas, liver, and intestine, there are still very few surface markers available for the prospective isolation of the definitive endoderm. Among these, CXCR4 has been used in combination with E-cadherin as a cell surface ...
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