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Tuckett Renee E - - 2010
Recent phylogenetic analysis has placed the aquatic family Hydatellaceae as an early-divergent angiosperm. Understanding seed dormancy, germination and desiccation tolerance of Hydatellaceae will facilitate ex situ conservation and advance hypotheses regarding angiosperm evolution. Seed germination experiments were completed on three species of south-west Australian Hydatellaceae, Trithuria austinensis, T. bibracteata and ...
Correia Sandra M - - 2010
The presence of an attached organ to somatic embryos of angiosperms connecting the embryo to the supporting tissue has been a subject of controversy. This study shows that 67% of the morphologically normal somatic embryos of Feijoa sellowiana possess this type of organ and that its formation was not affected ...
Kim S - - 2010
This study was aimed to establish embryonic stem (ES)-like cells from blastocysts derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pig. Somatic cells isolated from both day-30 fetus and neonatal cloned piglet were used for donor cells. A total of 60 blastocysts (46 and 14 derived from fetal and neonatal ...
Morris Samantha A SA Department of Physiology, Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EH, United - - 2010
A crucial question in mammalian development is how cells of the early embryo differentiate into distinct cell types. The first decision is taken when cells undertake waves of asymmetric division that generate one daughter on the inside and one on the outside of the embryo. After this division, some cells ...
Tropel Philippe - - 2010
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis allows the characterisation of embryos that carry a gene responsible for a severe monogenic disease and to transfer to the mother's uterus only the unaffected one(s). The genetically affected embryos can be used to establish human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines. We are currently establishing a cell ...
Harkness Linda - - 2010
The derivation and characterisation of human embryonic stem cells provides a source of pluripotent stem cells with potential for clinical applications. Utilising locally sourced embryos from two IVF clinics, we derived and characterised five new cell lines for use in a non-clinical setting. Analysis of clinical data showed that the ...
Miyata Hirotoshi - - 2010
Preliminary data from a prospective randomized study of assisted hatching (AH) of thawed human blastocysts demonstrated that the rate of complete hatching was significantly higher for AH performed near the inner cell mass (ICM) than for AH at the side opposite to the ICM. This suggests the existence of polarity ...
Hamanaka Gen - - 2010
Here, we show that mesenchyme cells have a novel morphogenetic function in epithelial cell proliferation in starfish embryos. Blastula embryos were injected with pure populations of mesenchyme cells and the total cell numbers in the treated embryos were subsequently determined at different developmental stages. When a total of 40-50 mesenchyme ...
Katayama Mika - - 2010
The development of blastomeres separated from two-cell stage murine embryos has been compared. Blastomeres were removed from the zona pellucida (ZP) and cultured individually; the twin embryos were compared during their progression to blastocyst in terms of development rate, cell number, morphology, conformation at the four-cell stage, and CDX2 and ...
Taei Adeleh - - 2010
In this study, we focused on the derivation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) from preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)-analyzed and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)-analyzed embryos. Out of 62 fresh PGD/PGS-analyzed embryos, 22 embryos reached the blastocyst stage. From 12 outgrowth blastocysts, we derived four hESC lines onto a feeder layer. ...
Singh H - - 2010
Our limited understanding of the processes underlying steroid hormonal control of human endometrial receptivity is largely due to the lack of a relevant model system. To overcome scarcity of material, we have developed a model in which mouse embryos attach to human Ishikawa cells, which express functional steroid hormone receptors. ...
Eagleson Gerald W - - 2010
The periodic albino of Xenopus laevis displays a transitory presence of black melanin pigment in the embryo but looses this during tadpole development. This mutation, involving a recessive allele, affects melanogenesis in dermal melanophore pigment cells. It has been suggested that the mutation is intrinsic to the melanophore cell itself ...
Sun Hong - - 2010
The shear stress effect on directional expansion of pro embryogenic masses (PEMs) and suspensor cell development of somatic embryos of Norway spruce (Picea abies) at the proliferation stage was studied by a direct and quantitative image analysis system. The experimental system allowed for detailed observations of the effect of hydrodynamic ...
Kissa Karima - - 2010
The ontogeny of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during embryonic development is still highly debated, especially their possible lineage relationship to vascular endothelial cells. The first anatomical site from which cells with long-term HSC potential have been isolated is the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM), more specifically the vicinity of the dorsal aortic floor. ...
Higaki Shogo - - 2010
This study aimed to produce fertile zebrafish (Danio rerio) possessing germ cells (gametes) that originated from cryopreserved primordial germ cells (PGCs). First, to improve the vitrification procedure of PGCs in segmentation stage embryos, dechorionated yolk-intact and yolk-removed embryos, the PGCs of which were labeled with green fluorescent protein, were cooled ...
De Repentigny Yves - - 2010
Generation of mouse chimeras is useful for the elucidation of gene function. In the present report, we describe a new technique for the production of chimeras by injection of R1 embryonic stem (ES) cells into the perivitelline space of one-cell stage mouse embryos. One-cell embryos are injected with 2-6 ES ...
Martinez-Diaz Mario A - - 2010
The present study assessed changes in epigenetic markers and pre- and postimplantation development in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) porcine embryos after treatment with the inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACi), Trichostatin A (TSA). Embryos were generated using in vitro matured oocytes and nuclei from either a male fetal fibroblast (FF) ...
Zhao Qingguo - - 2010
Androgenetic embryonic stem (aES) cells, produced by pronuclear transplantation, offer an important autologous pluripotent stem cell source. However, the isolation of aES cells, particularly individual-specific aES cells, with the use of fertilized embryos has limited the practical applications of this technology in humans. In this study, we applied a new ...
Kobolak Julianna - - 2010
Pluripotent stem cells would have great potential in cell therapies and drug development when genetically matched with the patient; thus, histocompatible cells could be used in transplantation therapy or as a source of patient-specific cells for drug testing. Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-generated via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or ...
Kojima Aoi - - 2010
Lissoclinum punctatum is a colonial ascidian that harbors the symbiotic prokaryotic alga Prochloron in its tunic and in the peribranchial and common cloacal cavities. Most symbiotic cells in the tunic are intracellular (tunic phycocytes), while those in the cavities are extracellular. We found that neither gametes nor embryos brooded in ...
Schwarz K R L - - 2010
The importance of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in bovine oocyte maturation was investigated. Oocytes were in vitro matured with the NOS inhibitor N(w)-L-nitro-arginine methyl-ester (10(-7), 10(-5) and 10(-3) m L-NAME) and metaphase II (MII) rates and embryo development and quality were assessed. The effect of L-NAME (10(-7) m) during pre-maturation ...
Fishilevich Elane - - 2010
Engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytosis ensures the removal of unwanted and defective cells. We developed a genetically encoded marker for cell engulfment, pHMA, which consists of the pH-Sensitive derivative of GFP, pHluorin, fused to the actin-binding domain of Moesin. In healthy cells of Drosophila embryos and cultured cells, pHMA ...
Zhao Jianguo J National Swine Resource and Research Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, - - 2010
Faulty epigenetic reprogramming of somatic nuclei is likely to be a major cause of low success observed in all mammals produced through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). It has been demonstrated that the developmental competence of SCNT embryos in several species were significantly enhanced via treatment of histone deacetylase inhibitors ...
Miyoshi Kazuchika - - 2010
Reversine, a 2-(4-morpholinoanilino)-6-cyclohexylaminopurine analog, can induce dedifferentiation of myogenic lineage-committed cells into multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells, from which osteoblasts and adipocytes redifferentiate under lineage-specific inducing conditions. Although the molecular mechanism of how reversine causes dedifferentiation of a differentiated cell has not been fully elucidated, we speculated that it would be ...
Johnson D S - - 2010
Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) has been used in an attempt to determine embryonic aneuploidy. Techniques that use new molecular methods to determine the karyotype of an embryo are expanding the scope of PGS. We introduce a new method for PGS, termed 'parental support', which leverages microarray measurements from parental DNA ...
Hemberger Myriam M Laboratory for Developmental Genetics and Imprinting, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, UK. - - 2010
Recent years have seen considerable advances in our understanding of early mammalian development leading up to the establishment of the first cell lineages, with important implications for the behavior of stem cells derived from the early embryo. Dramatic new insights have also propelled the field of epigenetics with the identification ...
Sato Akiko - - 2010
In angiosperms, a zygote generally divides into an asymmetric two-celled embryo consisting of an apical and a basal cell. This unequal division of the zygote is a putative first step for formation of the apical-basal axis of plants and is a fundamental feature of early embryogenesis and morphogenesis in angiosperms. ...
Ooka Shioh - - 2010
We have cloned and studied Hp-ECPN, an encephalopsin orthologue of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Hp-ecpn cDNA was produced and found to contain a 1461-bp open reading frame that encodes 486 amino acids. Accumulation of Hp-ecpn mRNA and protein expression occurred at the 14 h postfertilization (hpf) swimming blastula stage ...
Zhang Y L - - 2010
Expression of recombinant human lysosomal acid beta-glucosidase (hGCase) by a transgenic animal bioreactor, using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), would decrease the cost of producing this product. The objective was to establish an effective procedure to prepare hGCase transgenic donor cells and nuclear transfer (NT) embryos to produce hGCase protein ...
Li Hong-Ju - - 2010
In flowering plants, gametogenesis generates multicellular male and female gametophytes. In the model system Arabidopsis, the male gametophyte or pollen grain contains two sperm cells and a vegetative cell. The female gametophyte or embryo sac contains seven cells, namely one egg, two synergids, one central cell and three antipodal cells. ...
Ross Pablo J - - 2010
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns ...
Stein Paula - - 2010
Fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a powerful technique that can be used to understand better the biology of fertilization, in addition to a form of assisted reproduction both in humans and in endangered species. Mouse is often the model organism of choice to study mammalian fertilization. The ability ...
Han Zhiming - - 2010
Nuclear transfer methods provide an invaluable means of dissecting the genetic and epigenetic control of development, as well as the interactions between ooplasm and nucleus in the oocyte and early embryo. These procedures also provide novel means of manipulating animal genomes (e.g., through cloning with genetically engineered cells), and also ...
Kelly Richard D W - - 2010
The persistence of A-type nuclear lamin in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos has been proposed as a marker for incomplete nuclear reprogramming. Using monoclonal antibodies to A/C- (A/C-346 and A/C-131C3) and B-type lamin, we compared distribution during early development of bovine IVF, parthenogenetic and SCNT embryos. A/C-346 staining was ...
Khillan Jaspal S - - 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass of a mammalian blastocyst represent unlimited source of all types of cells for regenerative medicine and for drug discovery. Mouse and human ES cells require mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells to maintain their undifferentiated state which involve additional time-consuming and ...
Martins-Taylor Kristen - - 2010
Since mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells was first derived in 1981, the ability of this unprecedented cell type to self-renew and differentiate without limit has revolutionized the discovery tools that are used to study gene functions and development. Furthermore, they have inspired others to hunt for similar cells from other ...
Zou Jian - - 2010
Cells change extensively in their locations and property during embryogenesis. These changes are regulated by the interactions between the cells and their environment. Chimeric embryos, which are composed of cells of different genetic background, are great tools to study the cell-cell interactions mediated by genes of interest. The embryonic transparency ...
DeChiara Thomas M - - 2010
In conventional methods for the generation of genetically modified mice, gene-targeted embryonic stem (ES) cells are injected into blastocyst-stage embryos or are aggregated with morula-stage embryos, which are then transferred to the uterus of a surrogate mother. F0 generation mice born from the embryos are chimeras composed of genetic contributions ...
Schwarzerová Katerina - - 2010
Somatic embryogenesis in spruce is a process of high importance for biotechnology, yet it comprises of orchestrated series of events whose cellular and molecular details are not well understood. In this study, we examined the role of actin cytoskeleton during somatic embryogenesis in Norway spruce line AFO 541 by means ...
Shiraki Nobuaki - - 2010
Although there are several markers available for the identification of endoderm derivatives such as the lung, pancreas, liver, and intestine, there are still very few surface markers available for the prospective isolation of the definitive endoderm. Among these, CXCR4 has been used in combination with E-cadherin as a cell surface ...
Suwinska Aneta - - 2010
The objective of this study was to investigate the capability of bank vole (Myodes glareolus) embryonic cells to sustain their pluripotent character during in vitro culture, and to determine the optimal conditions for derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells. We compared the presence of specific pluripotency (Oct4, Ssea1) and differentiation ...
Bail Pierre-Yves Le - - 2010
Nuclear transfer has the potential to become one strategy for fish genetic resources management, by allowing fish reconstruction from cryopreserved somatic cells. Survival rates after nuclear transfer are still low however. The part played by unsuitable handling conditions is often questioned, but the different steps in the procedure are difficult ...
Gertsenstein Marina - - 2010
Genetically modified mouse strains derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells have become essential tools for functional genomics and biomedical research. Large scale mutagenesis projects are producing libraries of mutant C57BL/6 (B6) ES cells to enable the functional annotation of every gene of the mouse genome. To realize the utility of ...
Chuykin Ilya - - 2010
Previous attempts to isolate pluripotent cell lines from rat preimplantation embryo in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell culture conditions (serum and LIF) were unsuccessful, however the resulting cells exhibited the expression of such traditional pluripotency markers as SSEA-1 and alkaline phosphatase. We addressed the question, which kind of cell lineages ...
Dvash Tamar - - 2010
X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation mechanism essential for embryonic development and cell physiology. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst stage embryos have been used as a model system to understand XCI initiation and maintenance. Previous studies of undifferentiated female hESCs ...
Brown Kemar - - 2010
Prior to gastrulation in the mouse, all endodermal cells arise from the primitive endoderm of the blastocyst stage embryo. Primitive endoderm and its derivatives are generally referred to as extra-embryonic endoderm (ExEn) because the majority of these cells contribute to extra-embryonic lineages encompassing the visceral endoderm (VE) and the parietal ...
Brown Kemar - - 2010
Initial specification of cardiomyocytes in the mouse results from interactions between the extraembryonic anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) and the nascent mesoderm. However the mechanism by which AVE activates cardiogenesis is not well understood, and the identity of specific cardiogenic factors in the endoderm remains elusive. Most mammalian studies of the ...
Mayer Georg - - 2010
During embryonic development of segmented animals, body segments are thought to arise from the so-called "posterior growth zone" and the occurrence of this "zone" has been used to support the homology of segmentation between arthropods, annelids, and vertebrates. However, the term "posterior growth zone" is used ambiguously in the literature, ...
Teh Cathleen - - 2010
KillerRed (KR) is a novel photosensitizer that efficiently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in KR-expressing cells upon intense green or white light illumination in vitro, resulting in damage to their plasma membrane and cell death. We report an in vivo modification of this technique using a fluorescent microscope and membrane-tagged ...
Migeotte Isabelle I Developmental Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, New York, United States of - - 2010
Cell migration and cell rearrangements are critical for establishment of the body plan of vertebrate embryos. The first step in organization of the body plan of the mouse embryo, specification of the anterior-posterior body axis, depends on migration of the anterior visceral endoderm from the distal tip of the embryo ...
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