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Dang-Nguyen Thanh Quang - - 2011
The following selection markers for in vitro-produced porcine embryos were investigated: the timing, pattern and evenness of the first cleavage and the timing of the second cleavage. The embryos that cleaved by 30 h post-insemination (hpi) developed to blastocysts at a significantly higher rate (60.9%) and with a significantly higher ...
Yi Meisheng - - 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells capable of differentiation into various cell types. Haploid ES cells elegantly combine the advantages of haploidy and pluripotency and offer a unique in vitro system for genetic analyses of molecular, cellular and developmental events in various cell lineages. Our recent success in generating ...
Sakaue Morito - - 2010
DNA methylation regulates development and many epigenetic processes in mammals, and it is required for somatic cell growth and survival. In contrast, embryonic stem (ES) cells can self-renew without DNA methylation. It remains unclear whether any lineage-committed cells can survive without DNA-methylation machineries. Unlike in somatic cells, DNA methylation is ...
Chen Lingyi - - 2010
Through proliferation and differentiation, a single cell, the zygote, can give rise to a complex organism composed of many types of cells. Up to the eight-cell embryo stage, the blastomeres are morphologically identical and distributed symmetrically in the mammalian embryo. Functionally, in some species, they are all totipotent. However, due ...
Bénazéraf Bertrand B Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, - - 2010
Vertebrate embryos are characterized by an elongated antero-posterior (AP) body axis, which forms by progressive cell deposition from a posterior growth zone in the embryo. Here, we used tissue ablation in the chicken embryo to demonstrate that the caudal presomitic mesoderm (PSM) has a key role in axis elongation. Using ...
Aw Sze Jet - - 2010
Fertilization in flowering plants involves two sperm cells and two female gametes, the egg cell and the central cell, progenitors of the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. The mechanisms triggering zygotic development are unknown and whether both parental genomes are required for zygotic development is unclear. In Arabidopsis, previous studies ...
Yang Hui - - 2010
Somatic nuclei can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state by nuclear transfer, cell fusion and expression of transcription factors. However, these reprogramming processes are very inefficient, which has greatly hindered efforts to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we report a new reprogramming strategy that combines the advantages of all ...
Ferrer-Vaquer Anna A Developmental Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY, - - 2010
Multicellular organisms arise from the generation of different cell types and the organization of cells into tissues and organs. Cells of metazoa display two main phenotypes, the ancestral epithelial state and the recent mesenchymal derivative. Epithelial cells are usually stationary and reside in two-dimensional sheets. By contrast mesenchymal cells are ...
Miao Kai - - 2011
Vector injection into the perivitelline space has emerged as the standard delivery method to transduce lentivirus to mammalian oocytes or one-cell embryos, but its application is limited by the need for high titers of lentivirus. Herein we developed a new method by using a Piezo impact micro-manipulator for injecting low ...
Ema Makoto - - 2010
This paper reviews studies in vivo and in vitro on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials including metallic and metal oxide-based particles, fullerenes (C(60)), carbon black (CB), and luminescent particles. Studies in vivo showed increased allergic susceptibility in offspring of mouse dams intranasally insufflated with respirable-size titanium dioxide ...
Heidari B - - 2010
The effects of the age of cell donor animal on in vitro development of ovine nuclear transfer (NT) embryos were investigated. Somatic donor cells were obtained from two different sources: (1) adult cells (adult fibroblast cells; AFC and adult cumulus cells; ACC); and (2) fetal fibroblasts (40-day-old; FFC-40 and 65-day-old; ...
Nishie Toshikazu - - 2010
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are important for various biological functions in the nervous system, the immune system, embryogenesis and in other tissues and processes. Lactosylceramide (LacCer), which is synthesized from glucosylceramide (GlcCer) by LacCer synthase, is a core structure of GSLs, including gangliosides. LacCer synthase was reported to be synthesized by the ...
Parfitt David-Emlyn DE Wellcome Trust/CR UK Gurdon Institute, Cambridge CB2 1QN, United - - 2010
Formation of inner and outer cells of the mouse embryo distinguishes pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) from differentiating trophectoderm (TE). Carm1, which methylates histone H3R17 and R26, directs cells to ICM rather that TE. To understand the mechanism by which this epigenetic modification directs cell fate, we generated embryos with ...
Bruce Alexander W AW The Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QN, United Kingdom. - - 2010
The temporal and spatial segregation of the two extra-embryonic cell lineages, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm (TE and PE respectively), from the pluripotent epiblast (EPI) during mammalian pre-implantation development are prerequisites for the successful implantation of the blastocyst. The mechanisms underlying these earliest stages of development remain a fertile topic for ...
Pribenszky Csaba - - 2010
In vitro culture, storage, and manipulation of gametes and embryos require meticulously adjusted conditions to avoid or minimize the harmful effects of uncontrolled stress. However, recent work indicates that a well-defined and properly applied stress may induce general adaptation and increase tolerance to various in vitro procedures. The aim of ...
Jeong Kilhun - - 2010
Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is central to cell division. Here, we report that Plk1 is critical for mitosis in the embryonic development of zebrafish. Using a combination of several cell biology tools, including single-cell live imaging applied to whole embryos, we show that Plk1 is essential for progression into mitosis ...
Romero C Cortez - - 2010
The objective of this study was to determine whether MVV can be transmitted by ovine embryos produced in vitro and whether the zona pellucida (ZP) provides any protection against MVV infection. Zona pellucida (ZP)-intact and ZP-free embryos, produced in vitro, at the 8-16 cell stage, were cocultured for 72h in ...
Januário Daniela Aparecida Nicolosi Foltran - - 2010
An increased risk of early pregnancy loss in women briefly exposed to high levels of ambient particulate matter during the preconceptional period was recently observed. The effects of this exposure on early embryo development are unknown. This study was designed to assess the dose-response and biological effects of diesel exhaust ...
Li Bingsi B Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, - - 2010
Polarity is a fundamental cellular feature that is critical for generating cell diversity and maintaining organ functions during development. In C. elegans, the one-cell embryo is polarized via asymmetric localization of the PAR proteins, which in turn are required to establish the future anterior-posterior axis of the embryo. PAR-3, a ...
Tan Youhua - - 2010
Microinjection has been demonstrated to be an effective technique to introduce foreign materials into biological cells. Despite the advance, whether cell injection can be used to characterize the mechanical properties of cells remains elusive. In this paper, extending the previously developed mechanical model, various constitutive materials are adopted to present ...
Pandey Alok - - 2010
To improve the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-derived embryos in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), skin fibroblast, cumulus, and granulosa cells were cultured up to the 15th passage and cloned embryos were produced from each cell type. At the 15th passage the cumulative population doublings (CPDs) in cumulus cells was ...
Everaert N - - 2010
1. Because CO(2) during the second half of incubation is known to influence air cell and blood gases, and embryo development, it is postulated that post-hatch development and ascites sensitivity could also be influenced. 2. An ascites susceptible (A) and an ascites resistant (E) broiler line were incubated under standard ...
Fernández-Rosas Elisabet - - 2010
Microchips can be fabricated, using semiconductor technologies, at microscopic level to be introduced into living cells for monitoring of intracellular parameters at a single cell level. As a first step towards intracellular chips development, silicon and polysilicon microparticles of controlled shape and dimensions were fabricated and introduced into human macrophages ...
Steen Joseph J Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, - - 2010
Vertebrate development is a complex orchestration of cell and tissue movements. Tracing individual cell positions can rapidly become a large-scale problem because cell numbers often grow exponentially in the early embryo. A typical approach consists of fluorescently marking small numbers of cells within a large number of embryos, followed by ...
Alarcon Vernadeth B - - 2010
In preimplantation mouse development, the first cell lineages to be established are the trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass. TE possesses epithelial features, including apical-basal cell polarity and intercellular junctions, which are crucial to generate a fluid-filled cavity in the blastocyst. Homologs of the partitioning defective (par) genes in Caenorhabditis ...
Lee Yung-I - - 2010
The suspensor plays an active role during the early embryo development of flowering plants. In orchids, the suspensor cells are highly vacuolated without structural specializations, and the possible mechanism(s) that enable the suspensor to serve as the nutrient uptake site is virtually unknown. Here, we used the fluorescent tracer CFDA ...
Messerschmidt Daniel M - - 2010
Early lineage segregation in mouse development results in two, either CDX2- or OCT4/NANOG-positive, cell populations. CDX2-positive cells form the trophectoderm (TE), OCT4/NANOG-positive cells the inner cell mass (ICM). In a second lineage decision ICM cells segregate into Epiblast (EPI) and primitive endoderm (PE). EPI and PE formation depend on the ...
Canham Maurice A MA Institute for Stem Cell Research, Medical Research Council - Centre for Regenerative Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United - - 2010
ES cells are defined as self-renewing, pluripotent cell lines derived from early embryos. Cultures of ES cells are also characterized by the expression of certain markers thought to represent the pluripotent state. However, despite the widespread expression of key markers such as Oct4 and the appearance of a characteristic undifferentiated ...
Burch-Smith Tessa M TM Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, Koshland Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2010
Plasmodesmata (PD) transport developmentally important nucleic acids and proteins between plant cells. Primary PD form during cell division and are simple, linear channels. Secondary PD form in existing cell walls after cell division and are simple, twinned, or branched. PD function undergoes a marked reduction at the mid-torpedo stage of ...
Jedrusik Agnieszka A The Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, - - 2010
Divisions of polarised blastomeres that allocate polar cells to outer and apolar cells to inner positions initiate the first cell fate decision in the mouse embryo. Subsequently, outer cells differentiate into trophectoderm while inner cells retain pluripotency to become inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst. Elimination of zygotic expression ...
Lin Chih-Jen - - 2010
Tetraploid (4N) complementation assay is regard as the most stringent characterization test for the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells. The technology can generate mice fully derived from the injected ES cell (ES-4N) with 4N placentas. However, it remains a very inefficient procedure owing to a lack of information on ...
Guo Guoji - - 2010
Three distinct cell types are present within the 64-cell stage mouse blastocyst. We have investigated cellular development up to this stage using single-cell expression analysis of more than 500 cells. The 48 genes analyzed were selected in part based on a whole-embryo analysis of more than 800 transcription factors. We ...
Zhang Ying - - 2010
To explore the toxic effects of ethanol on axis formation during embryogenesis, zebrafish embryos at different developmental stages were treated with 3% ethanol for 3h. The effects of ethanol exposure appeared to be stage-dependent. The dome stage embryo was most sensible to form posterior split axes upon ethanol exposure. Morphological ...
Oda Mayumi - - 2010
Most conceptuses derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in mice undergo developmental arrest as a result of embryonic or extraembryonic defects. Even when fetuses survive to term, prominent placental overgrowth or placentomegaly is often present, indicating that SCNT affects the development of trophoblast cell lineage. The trophoblast cell lineage ...
Vassiliev Ivan - - 2010
We have developed a new method for the isolation of porcine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from in vivo-derived and in vitro-produced embryos. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of several ESC lines established using this method. Cells from these lines were passaged up to 14 times, during which they ...
Vandenberg Laura N - - 2010
How embryos consistently orient asymmetries of the left-right (LR) axis is an intriguing question, as no macroscopic environmental cues reliably distinguish left from right. Especially unclear are the events coordinating LR patterning with the establishment of the dorsoventral (DV) axes and midline determination in early embryos. In frog embryos, consistent ...
Tuckett Renee E - - 2010
Recent phylogenetic analysis has placed the aquatic family Hydatellaceae as an early-divergent angiosperm. Understanding seed dormancy, germination and desiccation tolerance of Hydatellaceae will facilitate ex situ conservation and advance hypotheses regarding angiosperm evolution. Seed germination experiments were completed on three species of south-west Australian Hydatellaceae, Trithuria austinensis, T. bibracteata and ...
Correia Sandra M - - 2010
The presence of an attached organ to somatic embryos of angiosperms connecting the embryo to the supporting tissue has been a subject of controversy. This study shows that 67% of the morphologically normal somatic embryos of Feijoa sellowiana possess this type of organ and that its formation was not affected ...
Kim S - - 2010
This study was aimed to establish embryonic stem (ES)-like cells from blastocysts derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pig. Somatic cells isolated from both day-30 fetus and neonatal cloned piglet were used for donor cells. A total of 60 blastocysts (46 and 14 derived from fetal and neonatal ...
Morris Samantha A SA Department of Physiology, Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EH, United - - 2010
A crucial question in mammalian development is how cells of the early embryo differentiate into distinct cell types. The first decision is taken when cells undertake waves of asymmetric division that generate one daughter on the inside and one on the outside of the embryo. After this division, some cells ...
Tropel Philippe - - 2010
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis allows the characterisation of embryos that carry a gene responsible for a severe monogenic disease and to transfer to the mother's uterus only the unaffected one(s). The genetically affected embryos can be used to establish human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines. We are currently establishing a cell ...
Harkness Linda - - 2010
The derivation and characterisation of human embryonic stem cells provides a source of pluripotent stem cells with potential for clinical applications. Utilising locally sourced embryos from two IVF clinics, we derived and characterised five new cell lines for use in a non-clinical setting. Analysis of clinical data showed that the ...
Miyata Hirotoshi - - 2010
Preliminary data from a prospective randomized study of assisted hatching (AH) of thawed human blastocysts demonstrated that the rate of complete hatching was significantly higher for AH performed near the inner cell mass (ICM) than for AH at the side opposite to the ICM. This suggests the existence of polarity ...
Hamanaka Gen - - 2010
Here, we show that mesenchyme cells have a novel morphogenetic function in epithelial cell proliferation in starfish embryos. Blastula embryos were injected with pure populations of mesenchyme cells and the total cell numbers in the treated embryos were subsequently determined at different developmental stages. When a total of 40-50 mesenchyme ...
Katayama Mika - - 2010
The development of blastomeres separated from two-cell stage murine embryos has been compared. Blastomeres were removed from the zona pellucida (ZP) and cultured individually; the twin embryos were compared during their progression to blastocyst in terms of development rate, cell number, morphology, conformation at the four-cell stage, and CDX2 and ...
Taei Adeleh - - 2010
In this study, we focused on the derivation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) from preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)-analyzed and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)-analyzed embryos. Out of 62 fresh PGD/PGS-analyzed embryos, 22 embryos reached the blastocyst stage. From 12 outgrowth blastocysts, we derived four hESC lines onto a feeder layer. ...
Singh H - - 2010
Our limited understanding of the processes underlying steroid hormonal control of human endometrial receptivity is largely due to the lack of a relevant model system. To overcome scarcity of material, we have developed a model in which mouse embryos attach to human Ishikawa cells, which express functional steroid hormone receptors. ...
Eagleson Gerald W - - 2010
The periodic albino of Xenopus laevis displays a transitory presence of black melanin pigment in the embryo but looses this during tadpole development. This mutation, involving a recessive allele, affects melanogenesis in dermal melanophore pigment cells. It has been suggested that the mutation is intrinsic to the melanophore cell itself ...
Sun Hong - - 2010
The shear stress effect on directional expansion of pro embryogenic masses (PEMs) and suspensor cell development of somatic embryos of Norway spruce (Picea abies) at the proliferation stage was studied by a direct and quantitative image analysis system. The experimental system allowed for detailed observations of the effect of hydrodynamic ...
Kissa Karima - - 2010
The ontogeny of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during embryonic development is still highly debated, especially their possible lineage relationship to vascular endothelial cells. The first anatomical site from which cells with long-term HSC potential have been isolated is the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM), more specifically the vicinity of the dorsal aortic floor. ...
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