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Tsukamoto Tatsuya - - 2010
Double fertilization, uniquely observed in plants, requires successful sperm cell delivery by the pollen tube to the female gametophyte, followed by migration, recognition and fusion of the two sperm cells with two female gametic cells. The female gametophyte not only regulates these steps but also controls the subsequent initiation of ...
Lin Suh-Chin J - - 2010
Kruppel-like transcription factors (Klfs) are essential for the induction and maintenance of pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), yet little is known about their roles in establishing the three lineages of the pre-implantation embryo. Here, we show that Klf5 is required for the formation of the trophectoderm (TE) and the ...
Yu Jianxin A JA Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210, - - 2011
Signaling through cell adhesion complexes plays a critical role in coordinating cytoskeletal remodeling necessary for efficient cell migration. During embryonic development, normal morphogenesis depends on a series of concerted cell movements; but the roles of cell adhesion signaling during these movements are poorly understood. The transparent zebrafish embryo provides an ...
Chen Xiuping - - 2010
This study was conducted to determine the effect of microinjection of a single blastomere from in vitro fertilization (IVF)-derived eight-cell embryo into eight-cell cloned embryos harboring the gene encoding recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), GFP, and NEO markers in bovine. The reconstructed chimeric embryos were assessed for their development to blastocyst, ...
Akagi Satoshi - - 2011
We examined the effects of treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), trichostatin A (TSA) and scriptaid (SCR), on the blastocyst formation rate in bovine somatic cell nuclear transferred (SCNT) embryos derived from fibroblast cells. Three fibroblast cell lines (L1, L2 and L3) were used as somatic cell donors to produce ...
Chan Xin Yi - - 2011
Spiralian embryogenesis is found in a number of animal phyla, but the molecular mechanisms that pattern these embryos remain poorly understood. A hallmark of spiralian development is the production of tiers of cells, called quartets, that share distinct developmental potentials. Many RNAs have been discovered that are segregated into particular ...
Tarkowski Andrzej K - - 2010
Cell and developmental studies have clarified how, by the time of implantation, the mouse embryo forms three primary cell lineages: epiblast (EPI), primitive endoderm (PE), and trophectoderm (TE). However, it still remains unknown when cells allocated to these three lineages become determined in their developmental fate. To address this question, ...
Yang Bz - - 2010
The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of cryopreservation of inter-subspecies cloned embryos in buffalo. In our experiment, river buffalo ear fibroblast nucleus was fused into swamp buffalo oocyte cytoplasm. The blastocyst formation rate for nuclear transfer of freshly thawed cells was not different from those of ...
Rathbone Alex J - - 2010
The birth of live animals following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has demonstrated that oocytes can reprogram the genome of differentiated cells. However, in all species the frequency of development of healthy offspring is low; for example, in sheep, approximately only 5% of blastocysts transferred develop to term, and less ...
Himaki Takehiro - - 2010
The present study was carried out to examine the effects of post-activation treatment of trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on in vitro development and transgene function of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos derived from Clawn miniature pig embryonic fibroblast (PEF) transfected with a bacterial endo-β-galactosidase C gene ...
Horii Takuro - - 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cells constitute a very important tool for regenerative medicine today. These ES cells, and human ES cells in particular, are almost all derived from embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and from in vitro culture (IVC); however, such in vitro manipulated embryos often show abnormal genomic ...
Liu Hong-Bo - - 2010
Xenotransplantation is a rapidly expanding field of research, and cloned miniature pigs are considered to be good model animals for its development. Although many animal species have been cloned, the success rate is very low, especially in the pig. To optimize the protocols for somatic cell nuclear transfer in the ...
Mesnard Daniel - - 2010
Axis formation and allocation of pluripotent progenitor cells to the germ layers are governed by the TGF-β-related Nodal precursor and its secreted proprotein convertases (PCs) Furin and Pace4. However, when and where Furin and Pace4 first become active have not been determined. To study the distribution of PCs, we developed ...
Zhong Jing - - 2011
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a class of highly glycosylated, widely distributed proteins in higher plants. In the previous study, we found that the green fluorescence from JIM13-labeled AGPs was mainly distributed in embryo proper and the basal part of suspensor but gradually disappeared after the torpedo-stage embryos in Arabidopsis. And ...
Fang Liao-Qiong - - 2010
Invasion process occurs both in mammalian embryo implantation during development and malignant cancer cell metastasis. We investigated the interactions between trophoblasts and metastatic cancer cells and found the phenomenon that mouse trophoblastic cells invaded the monolayer of malignant cancer cells in vitro and appeared the general trait of invasiveness to ...
Fernandez-Diaz Luis C - - 2010
Disruption of mouse Prep1, which codes for a homeodomain transcription factor, leads to embryonic lethality during post-implantation stages. Prep1(-/-) embryos stop developing after implantation and before anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) formation. In Prep1(-/-) embryos at E6.5 (onset of gastrulation), the AVE is absent and the proliferating extra-embryonic ectoderm and epiblast, ...
Stephenson Robert Odell - - 2010
The first two cell lineages in the mouse, the surface trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM), are morphologically distinguishable by E3.5, with the outer TE forming a polarized epithelial layer enclosing the apolar ICM. We show here that in mouse embryos completely lacking both maternal and zygotic E-cadherin (cadherin ...
Bock Istvan - - 2010
Sublethal high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment of cells was reported to enhance stress tolerance and to increase post-thawing survival after cryopreservation in mouse, swine and cattle. The goal of this study was to define if HHP stress tolerance depends on the embryos' stage of development and culture conditions, to describe ...
Brevini Tiziana A L - - 2010
The generation of porcine embryonic stem cells (pESC) would potentially have great impact in the biomedical field given the long-standing history of the pig as a prime animal model for pre-clinical biomedical applications. These cells would also be beneficial for the agricultural area, allowing efficient genetic engineering of this animal, ...
Meng Qinggang - - 2010
This study was designed to examine the effects of the presence of oocyte nuclei on the donor cell nuclear remodeling, including premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and DNA configuration, and subsequent embryo development. The results showed that: (1) the presence of oocyte MII spindles was more likely to induce donor cell ...
Sugimura Satoshi - - 2010
Oxygen consumption reflects overall metabolic activity of mammalian embryos. We measured oxygen consumption in individual porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos by modified scanning electrochemical microscopy. Oxygen consumption in IVF embryos rapidly increased at day 5 of the blastocyst stage (D5BL). IVF embryos that consumed ...
Liu Yan - - 2010
The central cell characterizes the angiosperm female gametophyte (embryo sac or megagametophyte) in that it directly participates in "double fertilization" to initiate endosperm development, a feature distinguishing angiosperm from all other plant taxa. Polygonum-type central cell is a binucleate cell that, upon fertilization with one of the two sperm cells, ...
Das Ziban Chandra - - 2010
The study investigated the feasibility of lyophilization for long-term preservation of somatic cells and embryonic development after whole cell intracytoplasmic injection (WCICI) into enucleated pig oocyte. Confluent cultured porcine fetal fibroblast (pFF) cells were lyophilized and stored at 4°C for at least 6 months. Results showed that compared to non-lyophilized ...
─îikoš Štefan - - 2010
Adiponectin, a pleiotropic hormone secreted from adipose tissue, can mediate some negative effects of obesity on female health, and can participate in the impaired reproductive performance of obese women. Using a mouse model, we investigated expression of adiponectin receptors in ovulated oocytes and in vivo derived preimplantation embryos, and tested ...
Dang-Nguyen Thanh Quang - - 2011
The following selection markers for in vitro-produced porcine embryos were investigated: the timing, pattern and evenness of the first cleavage and the timing of the second cleavage. The embryos that cleaved by 30 h post-insemination (hpi) developed to blastocysts at a significantly higher rate (60.9%) and with a significantly higher ...
Yi Meisheng - - 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells capable of differentiation into various cell types. Haploid ES cells elegantly combine the advantages of haploidy and pluripotency and offer a unique in vitro system for genetic analyses of molecular, cellular and developmental events in various cell lineages. Our recent success in generating ...
Sakaue Morito - - 2010
DNA methylation regulates development and many epigenetic processes in mammals, and it is required for somatic cell growth and survival. In contrast, embryonic stem (ES) cells can self-renew without DNA methylation. It remains unclear whether any lineage-committed cells can survive without DNA-methylation machineries. Unlike in somatic cells, DNA methylation is ...
Chen Lingyi - - 2010
Through proliferation and differentiation, a single cell, the zygote, can give rise to a complex organism composed of many types of cells. Up to the eight-cell embryo stage, the blastomeres are morphologically identical and distributed symmetrically in the mammalian embryo. Functionally, in some species, they are all totipotent. However, due ...
Bénazéraf Bertrand B Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, - - 2010
Vertebrate embryos are characterized by an elongated antero-posterior (AP) body axis, which forms by progressive cell deposition from a posterior growth zone in the embryo. Here, we used tissue ablation in the chicken embryo to demonstrate that the caudal presomitic mesoderm (PSM) has a key role in axis elongation. Using ...
Aw Sze Jet - - 2010
Fertilization in flowering plants involves two sperm cells and two female gametes, the egg cell and the central cell, progenitors of the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. The mechanisms triggering zygotic development are unknown and whether both parental genomes are required for zygotic development is unclear. In Arabidopsis, previous studies ...
Yang Hui - - 2010
Somatic nuclei can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state by nuclear transfer, cell fusion and expression of transcription factors. However, these reprogramming processes are very inefficient, which has greatly hindered efforts to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we report a new reprogramming strategy that combines the advantages of all ...
Ferrer-Vaquer Anna A Developmental Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY, - - 2010
Multicellular organisms arise from the generation of different cell types and the organization of cells into tissues and organs. Cells of metazoa display two main phenotypes, the ancestral epithelial state and the recent mesenchymal derivative. Epithelial cells are usually stationary and reside in two-dimensional sheets. By contrast mesenchymal cells are ...
Miao Kai - - 2011
Vector injection into the perivitelline space has emerged as the standard delivery method to transduce lentivirus to mammalian oocytes or one-cell embryos, but its application is limited by the need for high titers of lentivirus. Herein we developed a new method by using a Piezo impact micro-manipulator for injecting low ...
Ema Makoto - - 2010
This paper reviews studies in vivo and in vitro on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials including metallic and metal oxide-based particles, fullerenes (C(60)), carbon black (CB), and luminescent particles. Studies in vivo showed increased allergic susceptibility in offspring of mouse dams intranasally insufflated with respirable-size titanium dioxide ...
Heidari B - - 2010
The effects of the age of cell donor animal on in vitro development of ovine nuclear transfer (NT) embryos were investigated. Somatic donor cells were obtained from two different sources: (1) adult cells (adult fibroblast cells; AFC and adult cumulus cells; ACC); and (2) fetal fibroblasts (40-day-old; FFC-40 and 65-day-old; ...
Nishie Toshikazu - - 2010
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are important for various biological functions in the nervous system, the immune system, embryogenesis and in other tissues and processes. Lactosylceramide (LacCer), which is synthesized from glucosylceramide (GlcCer) by LacCer synthase, is a core structure of GSLs, including gangliosides. LacCer synthase was reported to be synthesized by the ...
Parfitt David-Emlyn DE Wellcome Trust/CR UK Gurdon Institute, Cambridge CB2 1QN, United - - 2010
Formation of inner and outer cells of the mouse embryo distinguishes pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) from differentiating trophectoderm (TE). Carm1, which methylates histone H3R17 and R26, directs cells to ICM rather that TE. To understand the mechanism by which this epigenetic modification directs cell fate, we generated embryos with ...
Bruce Alexander W AW The Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QN, United Kingdom. - - 2010
The temporal and spatial segregation of the two extra-embryonic cell lineages, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm (TE and PE respectively), from the pluripotent epiblast (EPI) during mammalian pre-implantation development are prerequisites for the successful implantation of the blastocyst. The mechanisms underlying these earliest stages of development remain a fertile topic for ...
Pribenszky Csaba - - 2010
In vitro culture, storage, and manipulation of gametes and embryos require meticulously adjusted conditions to avoid or minimize the harmful effects of uncontrolled stress. However, recent work indicates that a well-defined and properly applied stress may induce general adaptation and increase tolerance to various in vitro procedures. The aim of ...
Jeong Kilhun - - 2010
Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is central to cell division. Here, we report that Plk1 is critical for mitosis in the embryonic development of zebrafish. Using a combination of several cell biology tools, including single-cell live imaging applied to whole embryos, we show that Plk1 is essential for progression into mitosis ...
Romero C Cortez - - 2010
The objective of this study was to determine whether MVV can be transmitted by ovine embryos produced in vitro and whether the zona pellucida (ZP) provides any protection against MVV infection. Zona pellucida (ZP)-intact and ZP-free embryos, produced in vitro, at the 8-16 cell stage, were cocultured for 72h in ...
Januário Daniela Aparecida Nicolosi Foltran - - 2010
An increased risk of early pregnancy loss in women briefly exposed to high levels of ambient particulate matter during the preconceptional period was recently observed. The effects of this exposure on early embryo development are unknown. This study was designed to assess the dose-response and biological effects of diesel exhaust ...
Li Bingsi B Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, - - 2010
Polarity is a fundamental cellular feature that is critical for generating cell diversity and maintaining organ functions during development. In C. elegans, the one-cell embryo is polarized via asymmetric localization of the PAR proteins, which in turn are required to establish the future anterior-posterior axis of the embryo. PAR-3, a ...
Tan Youhua - - 2010
Microinjection has been demonstrated to be an effective technique to introduce foreign materials into biological cells. Despite the advance, whether cell injection can be used to characterize the mechanical properties of cells remains elusive. In this paper, extending the previously developed mechanical model, various constitutive materials are adopted to present ...
Pandey Alok - - 2010
To improve the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-derived embryos in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), skin fibroblast, cumulus, and granulosa cells were cultured up to the 15th passage and cloned embryos were produced from each cell type. At the 15th passage the cumulative population doublings (CPDs) in cumulus cells was ...
Everaert N - - 2010
1. Because CO(2) during the second half of incubation is known to influence air cell and blood gases, and embryo development, it is postulated that post-hatch development and ascites sensitivity could also be influenced. 2. An ascites susceptible (A) and an ascites resistant (E) broiler line were incubated under standard ...
Fernández-Rosas Elisabet - - 2010
Microchips can be fabricated, using semiconductor technologies, at microscopic level to be introduced into living cells for monitoring of intracellular parameters at a single cell level. As a first step towards intracellular chips development, silicon and polysilicon microparticles of controlled shape and dimensions were fabricated and introduced into human macrophages ...
Steen Joseph J Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, - - 2010
Vertebrate development is a complex orchestration of cell and tissue movements. Tracing individual cell positions can rapidly become a large-scale problem because cell numbers often grow exponentially in the early embryo. A typical approach consists of fluorescently marking small numbers of cells within a large number of embryos, followed by ...
Alarcon Vernadeth B - - 2010
In preimplantation mouse development, the first cell lineages to be established are the trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass. TE possesses epithelial features, including apical-basal cell polarity and intercellular junctions, which are crucial to generate a fluid-filled cavity in the blastocyst. Homologs of the partitioning defective (par) genes in Caenorhabditis ...
Lee Yung-I - - 2010
The suspensor plays an active role during the early embryo development of flowering plants. In orchids, the suspensor cells are highly vacuolated without structural specializations, and the possible mechanism(s) that enable the suspensor to serve as the nutrient uptake site is virtually unknown. Here, we used the fluorescent tracer CFDA ...
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