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Smirnova Galina - - 2011
Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in bacterial cells, participating in maintenance of redox balance in the cytoplasm and in defense against many toxic compounds and stresses. In this study we demonstrate that in aerobic, exponentially growing Escherichia coli culture endogenous reduced glutathione undergoes continuous transmembrane cycling between the cells ...
Polimeni Manuela - - 2011
How anti-neoplastic agents induce multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells and the role of glutathione (GSH) in the activation of pumps such as the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) are still open questions. In this paper we illustrate that a doxorubicin-resistant human colon cancer cell line (HT29-DX), exhibiting decreased doxorubicin accumulation ...
Psurski Mateusz - - 2011
A series of 15 mostly new dialkoxyphosphoryl alkyl and aralkyl isothiocyanates were synthesized using two alternative strategies, and their in vitro antiproliferative activity against several cancer cell lines (including drug resistant) is here demonstrated. The IC(50) values measured for the new compounds are within the range of 6.3-21.5μM, and they ...
Genoux-Bastide Estelle - - 2011
Multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MRP1) belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. MRP1 mediates MDR (multidrug resistance) by causing drug efflux either by conjugation to glutathione (GSH) or by co-transport with free GSH (without covalent bonding between the drug and GSH). We recently reported that the calcium channel blocker verapamil can ...
Singh Harminder Pal - - 2011
Indiscriminate adoption and use of cell phone technology has tremendously increased the levels of electromagnetic field radiations (EMFr) in the natural environment. It has raised the concerns among the scientists regarding the possible risks of EMFr to living organisms. However, not much has been done to assess the damage caused ...
Gutiérrez-Praena Daniel - - 2011
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a cyanotoxin produced by several freshwater cyanobacteria species, has been reported to cause human and animal intoxications. CYN is a potent inhibitor of protein and glutathione synthesis. In order to study these effects, various in vitro models have been used, which are representative of the organs targeted by ...
Lee Kibeom - - 2011
Glutathione (GSH) is an abundant nonprotein thiol that plays numerous roles within the cell. Previously, we showed that Lactobacillus salivarius has the capacity to mount a glutathione-mediated acid-tolerance response. In the present work we provide evidence of a requirement for GSH by Lactobacillus reuteri and have studied the role of ...
Terashita Y - - 2011
Miniature pigs share many similar characteristics such as anatomy, physiology and body size with humans and are expected to become important animal models for therapeutic cloning using embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In the present study, we observed that miniature pig SCNT blastocysts possessed ...
N'guessan Prudence - - 2011
The p53-transcriptional target TP53INP1 is a potent stress-response protein promoting p53 activity. We previously showed that ectopic over-expression of TP53INP1 facilitates cell cycle arrest as well as cell death. Here we report a study investigating cell death in mice deficient for TP53INP1. Surprisingly, we evidence enhanced stress-induced apoptosis in TP53INP1-deficient ...
Yamada Shigehiro - - 2011
Brachyury plays a pivotal role in the notochord formation in ascidian embryos. Ciona intestinalis Noto4 (Ci-Noto4) was isolated as a gene downstream of Ci-Bra. This gene encodes a 307 amino-acid protein with a C-terminal phosphotyrosine interaction domain (PTB/PID). Expression of Ci-Noto4 commences at the neural plate stage and is specific ...
Song Langying - - 2011
Atrioventricular (AV) cushions are the precursors of AV septum and valves. In this study, we examined roles of Smad4 during AV cushion development using a conditional gene inactivation approach. We found that endothelial/endocardial inactivation of Smad4 led to the hypocellular AV cushion defect and that both reduced cell proliferation and ...
Braunstein Marsela - - 2011
Early thymocytes possess multilineage potential, which is progressively restricted as cells transit through the double-negative stages of T-cell development. DN1 cells retain the ability to become natural killer cells, dendritic cells, B cells, and myeloid cells as well as T cells, but these options are lost by the DN3 stage. ...
Pike Kelly A - - 2011
T-cell polarization is required for cell migration and cell-cell interactions, cellular behaviors crucial for lymphocyte differentiation. Despite expression of the epithelial polarity network in T cells, neither its contribution to thymocyte polarity nor its requirement during development is known. We report here that depletion of the polarity protein Scribble in ...
Vandenberg Laura N - - 2010
The frog embryo knows its left from its right as early as the first cell cleavage. Here, at the 2-cell stage, one blastomere was injected with the fluorescent dye Oregon Green, while the other blastomere was injected with Rhodamine. The resulting pattern in the mature tadpole reveals the concordance of ...
Ozawa Manabu M Department of Animal Sciences and DH Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601, - - 2011
To develop a simple method to purify blastomeres of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) lineage using magnetic activated cell sorting. Prospective laboratory study. Embryology research laboratory. None. Trophectoderm cells of zona-free blastocysts were labeled with concanavalin A conjugated to FITC, and every nucleus in the blastocyst was labeled ...
Hall Vanessa J - - 2010
Characterization of the pluripotent cell populations within the porcine embryo is essential for understanding pluripotency and self-renewal regulation in the inner cell mass (ICM) and epiblast. In this study, we perform detailed ultrastructural and molecular characterization of the developing pluripotent cell population as it develops from the ICM to the ...
Kanayama Masaki - - 2010
The spider Achaearanea tepidariorum is emerging as a non-insect model for studying developmental biology. However, the availability of microinjection into early embryos of this spider has not been reported. We defined the early embryonic stages in A. tepidariorum and applied microinjection to its embryos. During the preblastoderm 16- and 32-nucleus ...
Tsukamoto Tatsuya - - 2010
Double fertilization, uniquely observed in plants, requires successful sperm cell delivery by the pollen tube to the female gametophyte, followed by migration, recognition and fusion of the two sperm cells with two female gametic cells. The female gametophyte not only regulates these steps but also controls the subsequent initiation of ...
Lin Suh-Chin J - - 2010
Kruppel-like transcription factors (Klfs) are essential for the induction and maintenance of pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), yet little is known about their roles in establishing the three lineages of the pre-implantation embryo. Here, we show that Klf5 is required for the formation of the trophectoderm (TE) and the ...
Yu Jianxin A JA Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210, - - 2011
Signaling through cell adhesion complexes plays a critical role in coordinating cytoskeletal remodeling necessary for efficient cell migration. During embryonic development, normal morphogenesis depends on a series of concerted cell movements; but the roles of cell adhesion signaling during these movements are poorly understood. The transparent zebrafish embryo provides an ...
Chen Xiuping - - 2010
This study was conducted to determine the effect of microinjection of a single blastomere from in vitro fertilization (IVF)-derived eight-cell embryo into eight-cell cloned embryos harboring the gene encoding recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), GFP, and NEO markers in bovine. The reconstructed chimeric embryos were assessed for their development to blastocyst, ...
Akagi Satoshi - - 2011
We examined the effects of treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), trichostatin A (TSA) and scriptaid (SCR), on the blastocyst formation rate in bovine somatic cell nuclear transferred (SCNT) embryos derived from fibroblast cells. Three fibroblast cell lines (L1, L2 and L3) were used as somatic cell donors to produce ...
Chan Xin Yi - - 2011
Spiralian embryogenesis is found in a number of animal phyla, but the molecular mechanisms that pattern these embryos remain poorly understood. A hallmark of spiralian development is the production of tiers of cells, called quartets, that share distinct developmental potentials. Many RNAs have been discovered that are segregated into particular ...
Tarkowski Andrzej K - - 2010
Cell and developmental studies have clarified how, by the time of implantation, the mouse embryo forms three primary cell lineages: epiblast (EPI), primitive endoderm (PE), and trophectoderm (TE). However, it still remains unknown when cells allocated to these three lineages become determined in their developmental fate. To address this question, ...
Yang Bz - - 2010
The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of cryopreservation of inter-subspecies cloned embryos in buffalo. In our experiment, river buffalo ear fibroblast nucleus was fused into swamp buffalo oocyte cytoplasm. The blastocyst formation rate for nuclear transfer of freshly thawed cells was not different from those of ...
Rathbone Alex J - - 2010
The birth of live animals following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has demonstrated that oocytes can reprogram the genome of differentiated cells. However, in all species the frequency of development of healthy offspring is low; for example, in sheep, approximately only 5% of blastocysts transferred develop to term, and less ...
Himaki Takehiro - - 2010
The present study was carried out to examine the effects of post-activation treatment of trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on in vitro development and transgene function of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos derived from Clawn miniature pig embryonic fibroblast (PEF) transfected with a bacterial endo-β-galactosidase C gene ...
Horii Takuro - - 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cells constitute a very important tool for regenerative medicine today. These ES cells, and human ES cells in particular, are almost all derived from embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and from in vitro culture (IVC); however, such in vitro manipulated embryos often show abnormal genomic ...
Liu Hong-Bo - - 2010
Xenotransplantation is a rapidly expanding field of research, and cloned miniature pigs are considered to be good model animals for its development. Although many animal species have been cloned, the success rate is very low, especially in the pig. To optimize the protocols for somatic cell nuclear transfer in the ...
Mesnard Daniel - - 2010
Axis formation and allocation of pluripotent progenitor cells to the germ layers are governed by the TGF-β-related Nodal precursor and its secreted proprotein convertases (PCs) Furin and Pace4. However, when and where Furin and Pace4 first become active have not been determined. To study the distribution of PCs, we developed ...
Zhong Jing - - 2011
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a class of highly glycosylated, widely distributed proteins in higher plants. In the previous study, we found that the green fluorescence from JIM13-labeled AGPs was mainly distributed in embryo proper and the basal part of suspensor but gradually disappeared after the torpedo-stage embryos in Arabidopsis. And ...
Fang Liao-Qiong - - 2010
Invasion process occurs both in mammalian embryo implantation during development and malignant cancer cell metastasis. We investigated the interactions between trophoblasts and metastatic cancer cells and found the phenomenon that mouse trophoblastic cells invaded the monolayer of malignant cancer cells in vitro and appeared the general trait of invasiveness to ...
Fernandez-Diaz Luis C - - 2010
Disruption of mouse Prep1, which codes for a homeodomain transcription factor, leads to embryonic lethality during post-implantation stages. Prep1(-/-) embryos stop developing after implantation and before anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) formation. In Prep1(-/-) embryos at E6.5 (onset of gastrulation), the AVE is absent and the proliferating extra-embryonic ectoderm and epiblast, ...
Stephenson Robert Odell - - 2010
The first two cell lineages in the mouse, the surface trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM), are morphologically distinguishable by E3.5, with the outer TE forming a polarized epithelial layer enclosing the apolar ICM. We show here that in mouse embryos completely lacking both maternal and zygotic E-cadherin (cadherin ...
Bock Istvan - - 2010
Sublethal high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment of cells was reported to enhance stress tolerance and to increase post-thawing survival after cryopreservation in mouse, swine and cattle. The goal of this study was to define if HHP stress tolerance depends on the embryos' stage of development and culture conditions, to describe ...
Brevini Tiziana A L - - 2010
The generation of porcine embryonic stem cells (pESC) would potentially have great impact in the biomedical field given the long-standing history of the pig as a prime animal model for pre-clinical biomedical applications. These cells would also be beneficial for the agricultural area, allowing efficient genetic engineering of this animal, ...
Meng Qinggang - - 2010
This study was designed to examine the effects of the presence of oocyte nuclei on the donor cell nuclear remodeling, including premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and DNA configuration, and subsequent embryo development. The results showed that: (1) the presence of oocyte MII spindles was more likely to induce donor cell ...
Sugimura Satoshi - - 2010
Oxygen consumption reflects overall metabolic activity of mammalian embryos. We measured oxygen consumption in individual porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos by modified scanning electrochemical microscopy. Oxygen consumption in IVF embryos rapidly increased at day 5 of the blastocyst stage (D5BL). IVF embryos that consumed ...
Liu Yan - - 2010
The central cell characterizes the angiosperm female gametophyte (embryo sac or megagametophyte) in that it directly participates in "double fertilization" to initiate endosperm development, a feature distinguishing angiosperm from all other plant taxa. Polygonum-type central cell is a binucleate cell that, upon fertilization with one of the two sperm cells, ...
Das Ziban Chandra - - 2010
The study investigated the feasibility of lyophilization for long-term preservation of somatic cells and embryonic development after whole cell intracytoplasmic injection (WCICI) into enucleated pig oocyte. Confluent cultured porcine fetal fibroblast (pFF) cells were lyophilized and stored at 4°C for at least 6 months. Results showed that compared to non-lyophilized ...
Čikoš Štefan - - 2010
Adiponectin, a pleiotropic hormone secreted from adipose tissue, can mediate some negative effects of obesity on female health, and can participate in the impaired reproductive performance of obese women. Using a mouse model, we investigated expression of adiponectin receptors in ovulated oocytes and in vivo derived preimplantation embryos, and tested ...
Dang-Nguyen Thanh Quang - - 2011
The following selection markers for in vitro-produced porcine embryos were investigated: the timing, pattern and evenness of the first cleavage and the timing of the second cleavage. The embryos that cleaved by 30 h post-insemination (hpi) developed to blastocysts at a significantly higher rate (60.9%) and with a significantly higher ...
Yi Meisheng - - 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells capable of differentiation into various cell types. Haploid ES cells elegantly combine the advantages of haploidy and pluripotency and offer a unique in vitro system for genetic analyses of molecular, cellular and developmental events in various cell lineages. Our recent success in generating ...
Sakaue Morito - - 2010
DNA methylation regulates development and many epigenetic processes in mammals, and it is required for somatic cell growth and survival. In contrast, embryonic stem (ES) cells can self-renew without DNA methylation. It remains unclear whether any lineage-committed cells can survive without DNA-methylation machineries. Unlike in somatic cells, DNA methylation is ...
Chen Lingyi - - 2010
Through proliferation and differentiation, a single cell, the zygote, can give rise to a complex organism composed of many types of cells. Up to the eight-cell embryo stage, the blastomeres are morphologically identical and distributed symmetrically in the mammalian embryo. Functionally, in some species, they are all totipotent. However, due ...
Bénazéraf Bertrand B Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, - - 2010
Vertebrate embryos are characterized by an elongated antero-posterior (AP) body axis, which forms by progressive cell deposition from a posterior growth zone in the embryo. Here, we used tissue ablation in the chicken embryo to demonstrate that the caudal presomitic mesoderm (PSM) has a key role in axis elongation. Using ...
Aw Sze Jet - - 2010
Fertilization in flowering plants involves two sperm cells and two female gametes, the egg cell and the central cell, progenitors of the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. The mechanisms triggering zygotic development are unknown and whether both parental genomes are required for zygotic development is unclear. In Arabidopsis, previous studies ...
Yang Hui - - 2010
Somatic nuclei can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state by nuclear transfer, cell fusion and expression of transcription factors. However, these reprogramming processes are very inefficient, which has greatly hindered efforts to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we report a new reprogramming strategy that combines the advantages of all ...
Ferrer-Vaquer Anna A Developmental Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY, - - 2010
Multicellular organisms arise from the generation of different cell types and the organization of cells into tissues and organs. Cells of metazoa display two main phenotypes, the ancestral epithelial state and the recent mesenchymal derivative. Epithelial cells are usually stationary and reside in two-dimensional sheets. By contrast mesenchymal cells are ...
Miao Kai - - 2011
Vector injection into the perivitelline space has emerged as the standard delivery method to transduce lentivirus to mammalian oocytes or one-cell embryos, but its application is limited by the need for high titers of lentivirus. Herein we developed a new method by using a Piezo impact micro-manipulator for injecting low ...
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