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Tesar Paul J - - 2007
The application of human embryonic stem (ES) cells in medicine and biology has an inherent reliance on understanding the starting cell population. Human ES cells differ from mouse ES cells and the specific embryonic origin of both cell types is unclear. Previous work suggested that mouse ES cells could only ...
Negishi Takefumi - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Orientation and positioning of the cell division plane are essential for generation of invariant cleavage patterns and for unequal cell divisions during development. Precise control of the division plane is important for appropriate partitioning of localized factors, spatial arrangement of cells for proper intercellular interactions, and size control of ...
Uchiumi Takao - - 2007
The female gamete, the egg cell, is a specially differentiated haploid cell that develops into an embryo following fertilization. In the present study, we analyzed egg cell lysates by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometry-based proteomics technology and identified the major proteins expressed in rice egg cells. ...
Arenas-Mena Cesar - - 2007
Two major variants of the stereotypic spiral cleavage correlate with distinct developmental modes in polychaetes. Indirect development through a feeding trochophore larva correlates with development from four equal-sized blastomeres, whereas direct development correlates with unequal cleavage characterized by a large dorsal blastomere precursor maternally predetermined. The equal-size spiral cleavage of ...
Henckel Amandine - - 2007
It is generally assumed that the developmental program of embryogenesis relies on epigenetic mechanisms. However, a mechanistic link between epigenetic marks and cell fate decisions had not been established so far. In a recent article, Torres-Padilla and colleagues show that epigenetic information and, more precisely, histone arginine methylation mediated by ...
Zhou H - - 2007
This study was conducted to reconstruct heterogeneous embryos using equine skin fibroblast cells as donor karyoplasts and the bovine oocytes as recipient cytoplast for investigating the reprogramming of equine somatic cell nuclear in bovine oocyte cytoplasm and the developmental potential of the reconstructed embryos. Adult horse skin fibroblast cells serum-starved ...
Navara Christopher S - - 2007
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are a powerful research tool enabling the generation of mice with custom genetics, the study of the earliest stages of mammalian differentiation in vitro and, with the isolation of human ES cells, the potential of cell-based therapies for a number of diseases including Parkinson's and Type ...
Barton M Kathryn - - 2007
In this issue of Developmental Cell, Nodine and colleagues show that two related leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases, RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE1 and TOADSTOOL2, are critical in establishing radial pattern in the Arabidopsis embryo (Nodine et al., 2007). Embryos lacking these kinases show replacement of outer cell fates with inner cell fates.
Regina Hansen, Susanne Busch
Single cell of the diatom Attheya septentrionalis from the Arkona Sea.
Jones, Melissa Theresa
Galanin is a highly conserved, 29-30 amino acid long putative neuropepide widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system of several adult species. This protein has been shown to affect the secretion of several hormones and the proliferation of some small cell lung cancer and lactotroph cell lines. Galanin ...
Chan Wen-Hsiung - - 2007
Citrinin (CTN), a mycotoxin that is often found as a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, has been demonstrated to have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells. In this study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of CTN on mouse blastocysts and subsequent early development in vitro and ...
Chen Sung Ho - - 2007
Translationally controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) is an evolutionally highly conserved protein which has been implicated in many cellular functions that are related to cell growth, death, and even the allergic response of the host. To address the physiological roles of TCTP, we generated TCTP knockout mice by targeted gene disruption. ...
Shi Deshun - - 2007
Cloning of buffalos (Bubalus bubalis) through nuclear transfer is a potential alternative approach in genetic improvement of buffalos. However, to our knowledge, cloned offspring of buffalos derived from embryonic, fetal, or somatic cells have not yet been reported. Thus, factors affecting the nuclear transfer of buffalo somatic cells were examined, ...
Zhu Zi-Yu - - 2007
In this study, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are used as models of agamogony and syngamy, respectively. In order to elucidate the reasons of low efficiency of somatic cell cloning, cytoskeletal and nuclear organization in cloned mouse embryos was monitored before and during the first ...
Buchholz Daniel R - - 2007
The egg of the direct-developing frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, has 20 x the volume as that of the model amphibian, Xenopus laevis. Increased egg size led to the origin of nutritional endoderm, a novel cell type that provides nutrition but does not differentiate into digestive tract tissues. As the E. coqui ...
Takatori Naohito - - 2007
The epidermis of an ascidian larva derived from animal-hemisphere cells is regionalized along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis through inductive signals emanating from vegetal-hemisphere cells in early stages of the development. Previously, we showed by blastomere isolation and ablation experiments that the contact between the animal and vegetal hemispheres until the ...
Kishi M - - 2007
In the present study, the development in vitro and in vivo of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed with embryonic cells (blastomeres) at the 32- to 63-cell (sixth cell cycle) and 64- to 127-cell (seventh cell cycle) stages was investigated to determine the optimum range of embryonic cell cycles for yielding ...
Kashyap Bhavani B Department of Biological Sciences, and Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844-3051, - - 2007
The exposure of the developing human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the visual system. One common phenotype seen in humans exposed to ethanol in utero is microphthalmia. The objective of this study was to describe the effects of ethanol during retinal ...
Torisawa Yu-suke - - 2007
The formation of spherical aggregates of cells called embryoid bodies (EBs) is an indispensable step in many protocols in which embryonic stem (ES) cells are differentiated to other cell types. Appropriate morphology and embryo size are critical for the sequential developmental stages of naturally conceived embryos. Likewise, regulating the size ...
Kurotaki Yoko - - 2007
The mechanisms controlling the establishment of the embryonic-abembryonic (E-Ab) axis of the mammalian blastocyst are controversial. We used in vitro time-lapse imaging and in vivo lineage labeling to provide evidence that the E-Ab axis of the mouse blastocyst is generated independently of early cell lineage. Rather, both the boundary between ...
Narumiya Hiromichi - - 2007
Endocardial cells and cardiomyocytes differentiate from the cardiogenic mesoderm at about the same time during development. Although in vitro embryonic stem (ES) cell systems have been used to study the differentiation of various types of cell lineages, including cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and vascular endothelial cells, differentiation of endocardial cells, ...
Tobe Hiroshi - - 2007
Austrobaileyales, comprising the four families Austrobaileyaceae, Trimeniaceae, Schisandraceae, and Illiciaceae, are included in the basal angiosperms along with Amborellaceae and Nymphaeaceae. Here, we present the first developmental study of the female gametophyte in Austrobaileya scandens, the only species of Austrobaileyaceae, which are sister to the rest of the Austrobaileyales. Austrobaileya ...
Giraldo Gomez, Angelica Maria
Investigations into the importance of the nuclear integrity of the donor cell prior to nuclear transfer (NT) are limited. In Experiment 1, the proliferative characteristics, chromosomal stability and level of histone phosphorylation in cell lines established by explants and enzymatic dissociation at different population doublings (PDs) were investigated. The cells ...
Li Y - - 2007
Although inter-species SCNT may be useful for increasing and preserving populations of endangered species, there are many reports that inter-species nuclear transfer embryos only develop to the blastocyst stage. In this study, yak-bovine SCNT blastocysts were successfully implanted in the surrogate bovine uterus but failed to develop to term or ...
Verma V - - 2007
This study was carried out to isolate and characterize buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells from in vitro-produced embryos. Inner cell mass (ICM) cells were isolated either mechanically or by enzymatic digestion from 120 blastocysts whereas 28 morulae were used for the isolation of blastomeres mechanically. The ICM cells/ blastomeres ...
Wang Hai - - 2007
To investigate the effects of different states of donor cells on the development of reconstructed sheep embryos, we designed five treatments of donor cells, including cell passage, cell size, serum starvation, colchicine treatment and gene transfection. Results are as follows: (I) Compared with 16-18 passage cells, the morula/blastocyst rate of ...
Newmark Judith A - - 2007
The number of cells in a preimplantation embryo is directly correlated to the health and viability of the embryo. There are currently no methods to count the number of cells in late-stage preimplantation embryos noninvasively. We assessed the ability of optical quadrature microscopy (OQM) to count the number of cells ...
Uchiumi Takao - - 2007
In vitro fertilization (IVF) systems using isolated male and female gametes have been utilized to dissect fertilization-induced events in angiosperms, such as egg activation, zygote development and early embryogenesis, as the female gametophytes of plants are deeply embedded within ovaries. In this study, a rice IVF system was established to ...
Lengerke Claudia - - 2007
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold unique promise for the development of cell replacement therapies, but derivation of therapeutic products from ESCs is hampered by immunological barriers. Creation of HLA-typed ESC banks, or derivation of customized ESC lines by somatic cell nuclear transfer, have been envisioned for engineering histocompatible ESC-derived products. ...
Hua Song - - 2008
The objective of the study was to investigate interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryonic potential and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segregation during preimplantation development. We generated bovine-ovine reconstructed embryos via iSCNT using bovine oocytes as recipient cytoplasm and ovine fetal fibroblast as donor cells. Chromosome composition, the total cell number ...
Fu Wenqing - - 2007
A novel possible approach to the derivation of human embryonic stem (ES) cell's analogues, named tetraploid meiosis (TM) cells, derived from a prospective patient's or a senior's (PS) somatic cells is described. In this procedure, most of the resulting cells' mitochondrial DNA, if not all, is also from the PS's ...
Elliott Thomas A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To develop a mouse model to investigate the possible causes for increased success rates when lysed cells are removed from thawed embryos. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Clinical IVF laboratory. INTERVENTION(S): Assisted hatching, cell lysis, and removal of lysed cells. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Embryonic growth rate and morphology. RESULT(S): The ...
Ito Yoshihiro - - 2007
In current and past practice, murine or primate embryonic stem (ES) cells are usually cultured on live nurse cells for growth that keeps the cells in an undifferentiated state. It is troublesome, however, to prepare nurse cells for each cell culture and it is difficult to completely remove the nurse ...
Talbot Neil C - - 2007
Two porcine cell lines of yolk-sac visceral endoderm, designated as PE-1 and PE-2, were derived from in vivo 11-d porcine blastocysts that were either ovoid (PE-1) or at the early tubular stage of elongation (PE-2). Primary and secondary culture of the cell lines was done on STO feeder cells. The ...
Chen N - - 2007
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is not successful so far in non-human primates. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stimulation cycles (first and repeat) on oocyte retrieval and in vitro maturation (IVM) and to evaluate the effects of stimulation cycles and donor cell type (cumulus ...
Chan Wen-hsiung - - 2007
AIM: To examine the cytotoxic effects of genistein, an isoflavone compound, on early postimplantation embryonic development in vitro. METHODS: Mouse blastocysts were incubated in medium with or without genistein (25 or 50 micromol/L) or daidzein (50 micromol/L) for 24 h. Cell proliferation and growth was investigated by dual differential staining, ...
Okahara-Narita Junko - - 2007
In nonhuman primates (NHPs), there have so far been few reports about nuclear transfer (NT), especially using adult somatic cells. The objective of this study was to determine the developmental competence of NT embryos derived from various somatic cells embryonic stem (ES), amniotic epithelial, cumulus, or fetal fibroblast cells] and ...
Torres-Padilla Maria-Elena ME The Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, - - 2007
It has been generally accepted that the mammalian embryo starts its development with all cells identical, and only when inside and outside cells form do differences between cells first emerge. However, recent findings show that cells in the mouse embryo can differ in their developmental fate and potency as early ...
Foster Helen A - - 2007
Gametogenesis and embryogenesis are dynamic developmental stages marked by extensive modifications in the organization of the genome and nuclear architecture. In the literature it is conveyed that only B-type lamins are required in these early stages of development and that A-type lamins are not present or required until differentiation of ...
Sun Hong - - 2007
A balance between proliferation and apoptosis is crucial for cellular homeostasis, and its disruption leading to enhanced cellular proliferation and uncontrolled growth are hallmarks of cancer. Genetic manipulation in the mouse offers a powerful approach to delineate the roles of genes in carcinogenesis and determine the molecular and cellular basis ...
Jenik Pablo D - - 2007
Early embryonic development in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana follows a predictable sequence of cell divisions. Anatomical hallmarks and the expression of marker genes in dynamic patterns indicate that new cell fates are established with virtually every round of mitosis. Although some of the factors regulating these early patterning events ...
Klimanskaya Irina - - 2007
This protocol details a method to derive human embryonic stem (hES) cells from single blastomeres. Blastomeres are removed from morula (eight-cell)-stage embryos and cultured until they form multicell aggregates. These blastomere-derived cell aggregates are plated into microdrops seeded with mitotically inactivated feeder cells, and then connected with neighboring microdrops seeded ...
Laurincik Jozef - - 2007
Transcription of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes occurs in the nucleolus and results in ribosome biogenesis. The rRNA gene activation and the associated nucleolus formation may be used as a marker for the activation of the embryonic genome in mammalian embryos and, thus serve to evaluate the developmental potential of ...
Piliszek Anna - - 2007
Foetal fibroblasts (FFs) labelled with vital fluorescent dye were microsurgically introduced into eight-cell mouse embryos, three cells to each embryo. FFs were first identified in the inner cell mass (ICM) in about one-third of embryos, whereas in three quarters of embryos FFs were located among trophoblast cells. Some elimination of ...
Ferreira Christina Ramires - - 2007
The mechanisms controlling the outcome of donor cell-derived mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in cloned animals remain largely unknown. This research was designed to investigate the kinetics of somatic and embryonic mtDNA in reconstructed bovine embryos during preimplantation development, as well as in cloned animals. The experiment involved two different procedures of ...
Strange Kevin - - 2007
Cell culture is an invaluable tool for investigation of basic biological processes. However, technical hurdles including low cell yield, poor cell differentiation and poor attachment to the growth substrate have limited the use of this tool for studies of the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. This protocol describes a method ...
Chen Da-Yuan - - 2007
Our and other previous studies have shown that telophase enucleation is an efficient method for preparing recipient cytoplasts in nuclear transfer. Conventional methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer either by electro-fusion or direct nucleus injection have very low efficiency in animal somatic cell cloning. To simplify the manipulation procedure and ...
Fulka Josef J - - 2007
It is now more than nine years since Dolly, the world's first somatic cell cloned mammal was born, and the success of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still disappointingly low. Only about 3-5% of reconstructed embryos develop to term, and it is also evident that even if some clones ...
Du Yutao - - 2007
Successful cryopreservation of porcine embryos offers a promising perspective in the fields of agriculture, animal science, and human medical research. The objective of the present work was to establish a system facilitating the cryopreservation of porcine embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Several key techniques including micromanipulator-based enucleation, ...
Merico Valeria - - 2007
Chromosomes, sub-chromosomal regions and genes are repositioned during cell differentiation to acquire a cell-type-specific spatial organization. The constraints that are responsible for this cell-type-specific spatial genome positioning are unknown. In this study we addressed the question of whether epigenetic genome modifications may represent constraints to the acquisition of a specific ...
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