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Results 401 - 450 of 2444
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Monje-Casas Fernando F David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2009
Components of the mitotic exit network (MEN), a signaling pathway that triggers exit from mitosis, localize to the spindle pole body (SPB) that migrates into the daughter cell during anaphase but are largely absent from the SPB that remains in the mother cell. Through the analysis of one of the ...
Spano Alessandra - - 2008
The changes of the microtubular network induced by microtubule destabilizing (Vinblastine, VBL) and stabilizing (Taxol, TAX) agents were studied in NIH/3T3 fibroblastic cells in conventional culture conditions (NIHb) and in a subpopulation (NIHs), obtained after serum deprivation and expressing different morphofunctional features and higher cytokinetic activity. In this cell model, ...
Sarli Vasiliki - - 2008
Kinesin spindle protein (KSP), a member of the kinesin superfamily of microtubule-based motors, plays a critical role in mitosis as it mediates centrosome separation and bipolar spindle assembly and maintenance. Inhibition of KSP function leads to cell cycle arrest at mitosis with the formation of monoastral microtubule arrays, and ultimately, ...
Sheval E V - - 2008
The extensive use of herbicides in agriculture becomes an important factor in environmental pollution, especially in case of slowly degradable compounds. Some agents act on plants during a long period of time, even if a very low concentration of the herbicide remains in the soil. Here, we investigated the toxicological ...
Diaz-Font Anna A Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, - - 2008
Posttranslational modifications of tubulin likely generate the functional diversity of microtubules. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Loktev and colleagues (2008) describe a novel protein BBIP10 with dual roles: it is required for ciliogenesis as well as acetylation and stabilization of microtubules.
Grissom Paula M - - 2009
Fission yeast expresses two kinesin-8s, previously identified and characterized as products of the klp5(+) and klp6(+) genes. These polypeptides colocalize throughout the vegetative cell cycle as they bind cytoplasmic microtubules during interphase, spindle microtubules, and/or kinetochores during early mitosis, and the interpolar spindle as it elongates in anaphase B. Here, ...
Kawamura Eiko - - 2008
MOR1, the Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of the Xenopus microtubule-associated protein MAP215, is required for spatial organization of the acentrosomal microtubule arrays of plant cells. To determine how loss of MOR1 function affects microtubule dynamics, we compared various parameters of microtubule dynamics in the temperature-sensitive mor1-1 mutant at its permissive and ...
Gonzalez Cayetano - - 2008
Cell polarity is inherent to animal development and requires microtubules. In essentially all non-terminally differentiated somatic and male germ-line animal cells, microtubule organisation is governed by centrosomes. Animal development without centrosomes would therefore seem inconceivable. The claim of flies without centrosomes may appear to challenge this notion. Does it?
Tian Yun - - 2008
To study the effects of suppressed alpha-mannosidase Man2c1 gene expression on EC9706 human esophageal carcinoma cells, the cells were treated with short interfering RNA. Growth inhibition of EC9706 cells was observed when Man2c1 expression was inhibited in this way. Flow cytometric analysis showed accumulation of cells in S and G(2)-M ...
Cizmecioglu Onur - - 2008
In mammalian cells, the centrosome consists of a pair of centrioles and amorphous pericentriolar material. The centrosome duplicates once per cell cycle. Polo like kinases (Plks) perform crucial functions in cell cycle progression and during mitosis. The polo-like kinase-2, Plk2, is activated near the G(1)/S phase transition, and plays an ...
Aquilano Katia - - 2010
Garlic organosulphur compounds have been successfully used as redox anti-proliferative agents. In this work, we dissect the effects of diallyl disulphide (DADS) focusing on the events upstream of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We demonstrate that DADS is able to cause early morphological changes, cytoskeleton ...
Rasi M Qasim - - 2009
Katanin is a microtubule-severing protein that participates in the regulation of cell cycle progression and in ciliary disassembly, but its precise role is not known for either activity. Our data suggest that in Chlamydomonas, katanin severs doublet microtubules at the proximal end of the flagellar transition zone, allowing disengagement of ...
Paterson Ian - - 2009
By exploiting a Still-Gennari HWE coupling with a common C11-C26 aldehyde, a series of C2-C6 modified analogues of the microtubule-stabilising marine natural product dictyostatin were synthesised and evaluated in vitro for growth inhibition against a range of human cancer cell lines, including the (P-glycoprotein efflux-mediated) Taxol-resistant NCI/ADR cell line. Removal ...
Jonassen Julie A JA Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, - - 2008
Primary cilia project from the surface of most vertebrate cells and are thought to be sensory organelles. Defects in primary cilia lead to cystic kidney disease, although the ciliary mechanisms that promote and maintain normal renal function remain incompletely understood. In this work, we generated a floxed allele of the ...
Liu Hong - - 2008
The kinetochore is a protein complex that assembles on centromeric DNA to mediate chromosome-microtubule interaction. Most eukaryotic cells form the spindle and establish kinetochore-microtubule interaction during mitosis, but budding yeast cells finish these processes in S-phase. It has long been noticed that the S-phase spindle in budding yeast is shorter ...
Amin Mohammed Abdullahel - - 2008
NPM (nucleophosmin; also known as B23) is an abundantly and ubiquitously expressed multifunctional nucleolar phosphoprotein, which is involved in numerous cellular processes, including ribosome biogenesis, protein chaperoning and centrosome duplication; however, the role of NPM in the cell cycle still remains unknown. In the present study, we show dynamic localization ...
Tresch Stefan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The herbicidal mode of action of flamprop-M-methyl [methyl N-benzoyl-N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-D-alaninate] was investigated. RESULTS: For initial characterization, a series of bioassays was used, which indicated a mode of action similar to that of mitotic disrupter herbicides. Cytochemical fluorescence studies, which included monoclonal antibodies against polymerized tubulin, were applied to elucidate effects ...
Johnson Mary Kathrine - - 2008
CHO cells can be arrested with hydoxyurea at the beginning of the DNA synthesis phase of the cell cycle. Subsequent treatment with the xanthine, caffeine, induces cells to bypass the S-phase checkpoint and enter unscheduled mitosis [Schlegel and Pardee,1986, Science 232:1264-1266]. These treated cells build a normal spindle and distribute ...
Tikhonenko Irina - - 2008
The proper assembly and operation of the mitotic spindle is essential to ensure the accurate segregation of chromosomes and to position the cytokinetic furrow during cell division in eukaryotes. Not only are dynamic microtubules required but also the concerted actions of multiple motor proteins are necessary to effect spindle pole ...
Lee Sang Hyun - - 2008
The mitotic arrest-deficient protein Mad1 forms a complex with Mad2, which is required for imposing mitotic arrest on cells in which the spindle assembly is perturbed. By mass spectrometry of affinity-purified Mad2-associated factors, we identified the translocated promoter region (Tpr), a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), as a ...
Nicholson-Dykstra Susan M SM Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03755, - - 2008
The Arp2/3 complex-mediated assembly and protrusion of a branched actin network at the leading edge occurs during cell migration, although some studies suggest it is not essential. In order to test the role of Arp2/3 complex in leading edge protrusion, Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts and Jurkat T cells were depleted of ...
Shepard Blythe D BD Department of Biology, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064, - - 2008
We have been using polarized, hepatic WIF-B cells to examine ethanol-induced liver injury. These cells polarize in culture and maintain numerous liver-specific activities including the ability to metabolize alcohol. Previously, we found that microtubules were more highly acetylated and more stable in ethanol-treated WIF-B cells and that increased microtubule acetylation ...
Amin Mohammed Abdullahel - - 2008
Nucleophosmin (NPM) is an abundantly expressed multifunctional nucleolar phosphoprotein. Here we show that depletion of NPM by RNA interference causes defects in cell division, followed by an arrest of DNA synthesis due to activation of a p53-dependent checkpoint response in HeLa cells. Depletion of NPM leads to mitotic arrest due ...
Walker Margaret E - - 2008
Toxoplasma gondii infection triggers host microtubule rearrangement and organelle recruitment around the parasite vacuole. Factors affecting initial stages of microtubule remodeling are unknown. To illuminate the mechanism, we tested the hypothesis that the parasite actively remodels host microtubules. Utilizing heat-killed parasites and time-lapse analysis, we determined microtubule rearrangement requires living ...
Nagayama Kazuaki - - 2008
The effects of actin filaments (AFs) and microtubules (MTs) on quasi-in situ tensile properties and intracellular force balance were studied in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). A SMC cultured on substrates was held using a pair of micropipettes, gradually detached from the substrate while maintaining in situ cell ...
Balestra Fernando R - - 2008
Microtubules assume a variety of structures throughout the different stages of the cell cycle. Ensuring the correct assembly of such structures is essential to guarantee cell division. During mitosis, it is well established that the spindle assembly checkpoint monitors the correct attachment of sister chromatids to the mitotic spindle. However, ...
Zaia A A - - 2009
Expressed by squamous mucosal keratinocytes, calprotectin is a complex of two EF-hand calcium-binding proteins of the S100 subfamily (S100A8 and S100A9) with significant antimicrobial activity. Calprotectin-expressing cells resist invasion by Porphyromonas gingivalis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium). To understand the interactions between calprotectin and invasive bacteria, ...
Ma Y - - 2008
Inhibition of protein deacetylation arrests cells in mitosis, but the mechanism is unknown. To understand why inhibiting protein deacetylation causes cell cycle arrest, we treated HeLa cells beyond G1/S transition with trichostatin A (TSA), a potent protein deacetylase inhibitor, and found that the cells arrested at prometaphase with ectopic spindles ...
Klaile Esther - - 2008
In order to maintain genomic integrity during mitosis, cells assemble the mitotic spindle to separate sister chromosomes to the two daughter cells. A variety of motor- and non motor-proteins are involved in the organization and regulation of this complex apparatus. DNA polymerase delta-interacting protein 38 (PDIP38) is a highly conserved ...
Kais Zeina Z Department of Biomedical Informatics, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, - - 2008
Centrosomes are the organelles that organize microtubule networks and establish the bipolar mitotic spindle, which is essential for the segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Proper duplication of centrosomes is necessary to prevent genetic instability, thus control of this organelle is important in the suppression of tumorigenesis. The BRCA1 dependent ...
Borysova M K - - 2008
It is well established that B-Raf signaling through the MAP kinase (ERK) pathways plays a prominent role in regulating cell proliferation but how it does this is not completely understood. Here, we show that B-Raf serves a physiological role during mitosis in human somatic cells. Knockdown of B-Raf using short ...
Kikuchi Keiji - - 2008
Invadopodia, small protrusions formed at ventral membranes of several types of invasive cancer cells upon contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM), are implicated in cell invasion; however, the relationship between invadopodia formation and cell invasion through the ECM is still unknown. To correlate the formation of membrane protrusions and cell ...
Vaughan Erin E - - 2008
The success of viral and nonviral gene delivery relies on the ability of DNA-based vectors to traverse the cytoplasm and reach the nucleus. We, as well as other researchers, have shown that plasmids utilize the microtubule network and its associated motor proteins to traffic toward the nucleus. While disruption of ...
Stawiecka-Mirota Marta - - 2008
Human Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase is involved in protein trafficking, signal transduction and oncogenesis. Nedd4 with an inactive WW4 domain is toxic to yeast cells. We report here that actin cytoskeleton is abnormal in yeast cells expressing the NEDD4 or NEDD4w4 gene and these cells are more sensitive to Latrunculin A, ...
Levy Jennifer R JR Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6085, - - 2008
During directed cell migration, the movement of the nucleus is coupled to the forward progression of the cell. The microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein is required for both cell polarization and cell motility. Here, we investigate the mechanism by which dynein contributes to directed migration. Knockdown of dynein slows protrusion of ...
Rathinasamy Krishnan - - 2008
Using time-lapse confocal microscopy and enhanced green fluorescent protein-tubulin transfected MCF-7 cells, we found that a tubulin-targeted antimitotic agent, benomyl at its half-maximal proliferation inhibitory concentration (5 microM) strongly suppressed the rate and extent of growing and shortening excursions of individual microtubules in MCF-7 cells without noticeably depolymerizing the microtubule ...
Dempe Julia S - - 2008
In cultured cells, curcumin (CUR) causes cell death by interfering with mitosis and leading to fragmented nuclei and disrupted microtubules, a process named mitotic catastrophe. In order to clarify the role of the known CUR metabolites hexahydro-CUR (HHC) and CUR-glucuronide (CUR-gluc) in mitotic catastrophe, the effects of CUR were studied ...
Van Zijl Catherina - - 2008
The influence of 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) was investigated on cell growth, morphology and spindle formation in a tumorigenic (MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (MCF-12A) epithelial breast cell line. Inhibition of cell growth was more pronounced in the MCF-7 cells compared to the MCF-12A cells following 2ME treatment. Dose-dependent studies (10(-5)-10(-9) M) revealed that ...
Bhattacharya Rajat - - 2008
Mammals use tubulin from multiple genes to construct microtubules. Some genes are expressed in a tissue specific manner, while others are expressed in almost all cell types. beta5-Tubulin is a minor, ubiquitous isoform whose overexpression was recently shown to disrupt microtubules. Using inhibitory RNA, we now report that suppression of ...
Kato Asuka - - 2008
Cofilin regulates actin filament dynamics by stimulating actin filament disassembly and plays a critical role in cytokinesis and chemotactic migration. Aip1 (actin-interacting protein 1), also called WDR1 (WD-repeat protein 1), is a highly conserved WD-repeat protein in eukaryotes and promotes cofilin-mediated actin filament disassembly in vitro; however, little is known ...
Rana Shushan - - 2008
Stathmin 1 (STMN1), also known as p17, p18, p19, 19K, metablastin, oncoprotein 18, LAP 18 and Op18, is a 19 kDa cytosolic protein. It was the first discovered member of a family of phylogenetically related microtubule-destabilizing phosphoproteins critically involved in the construction and function of the mitotic spindle. A threshold ...
Higaki Takumi - - 2008
Responses of plant cells to environmental stresses often involve morphological changes, differentiation and redistribution of various organelles and cytoskeletal network. Tobacco BY-2 cells provide excellent model system for in vivo imaging of these intracellular events. Treatment of the cell cycle-synchronized BY-2 cells with a proteinaceous oomycete elicitor, cryptogein, induces highly ...
Civril Filiz - - 2008
The attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules during mitosis is a delicate and intricate process on which eukaryotic cells critically depend to maintain their ploidy. In this issue of Genes & Development, Gassmann and colleagues (pp. 2385-2399 present an analysis of the recently discovered Spindly/SPDL-1 protein that casts new lights ...
Gergely Fanni - - 2008
Cells with extra centrosomes rely entirely on centrosome clustering mechanisms to assemble a bipolar spindle and to divide in a bipolar fashion. To identify the pathways involved in suppression of multipolarity, Kwon, Godinho, and colleagues (pp. 2189-2203) have set up a genome-wide screen in Drosophila S2 cells. Surprisingly, they found ...
Coelho Paula A - - 2008
Chromosome segregation requires sister chromatid resolution. Condensins are essential for this process since they organize an axial structure where topoisomerase II can work. How sister chromatid separation is coordinated with chromosome condensation and decatenation activity remains unknown. We combined four-dimensional (4D) microscopy, RNA interference (RNAi), and biochemical analyses to show ...
Wühr Martin M Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. - - 2008
Size specification of macromolecular assemblies in the cytoplasm is poorly understood [1]. In principle, assemblies could scale with cell size or use intrinsic mechanisms. For the mitotic spindle, scaling with cell size is expected, because the function of this assembly is to physically move sister chromatids into the center of ...
Acilan Ceyda - - 2008
Having the correct number of centrosomes is crucial for proper chromosome segregation during cell division and for the prevention of aneuploidy, a hallmark of many cancer cells. Several recent studies (Basto et al., 2008; Kwon et al., 2008; Yang et al., 2008) reveal the importance of mechanisms that protect against ...
Wang Weiping - - 2008
Mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on IPL1 kinase, which genetically interacts with GLC8. The metazoan homologue of GLC8 is inhibitor-2 (I-2), but its function is not understood. We found endogenous and ectopic I-2 localized to the spindle, midzone, and midbody of mitotic human epithelial ARPE-19 cells. Knockdown of I-2 by ...
Baldini Giovanna - - 2008
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein (SPARC) is a secreted glycoprotein involved in several biological processes such as tissue remodeling, embryonic development, cell/extracellular matrix interactions, and cell migration. In particular, SPARC affects bone remodeling through the regulation of both differentiation/survival of osteoblasts and bone extracellular matrix synthesis/turnover. Here, we ...
King Randall W RW Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2008
Aneuploid cells are frequently observed in human tumors, suggesting that aneuploidy may play an important role in the development of cancer. In this review, I discuss the processes that may give rise to aneuploid cells in normal tissue and in tumors. Aneuploid cells may arise directly from diploid cells through ...
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