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Results 351 - 400 of 2444
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Kitamura Mari - - 2009
Dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) induced tetraploidy and multinucleation in V79 cells. While the highest yield of tetraploids and multinucleated cells was at 1.25 microM of DMAIII, the mitotic index was highest at DMAIII 2.5 microM due to mitotic arrest. Mitosis was not observed at 5 microM. We observed V79 cells treated ...
Borojerdi Jennifer P - - 2009
The centrosome directs chromosomal migration by a complex process of tubulin-chromatin binding. In this contribution centrosomal abnormalities, including centrosomal amplification, were explored in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and normal human mammary epithelial cells (NHMECs) exposed to the antiretroviral drug zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, AZT). Centrosomal amplification/fragmentation was observed in both cell types ...
Shen Qi - - 2009
The midbody is a structural organelle formed in late phase mitosis which is responsible for completion of cytokinesis. Although various kinds of proteins have been found to distribute or immigrate to this organelle, their functions have still not been completely worked out. In this study, we demonstrated that NAT10 (N-acetyltransferase ...
Das Amlan - - 2009
In the present study, we have investigated the effect of the aqueous extract of cigarette smoke (AECS) on tubulin-microtubule, a major cytoskeleton protein that maintains cellular morphology and participates in cell division. We found that treatment of AECS results in the loss of both structural and functional properties of tubulin-microtubule. ...
Wysong Deborah R - - 2009
The spindle assembly checkpoint functions during mitosis to ensure that chromosomes are properly aligned in mitotic cells prior to the onset of anaphase, thereby ensuring an equal segregation of genetic material to each daughter cell. Defects in the function of this checkpoint lead to aneuploidy, and eventually to cell death ...
von Dassow George - - 2009
Animal cells are deformable, yet live together bound into tissues. Consequently, physical perturbations imposed by neighbors threaten to disrupt the spatial coordination of cell cleavage with chromosome segregation during mitosis. Emerging evidence demonstrates that animal cells integrate multiple positional cues during cleavage-furrow induction, perhaps to facilitate error correction. Classical work ...
Tikhonenko Irina - - 2009
Kinesins are a diverse superfamily of motor proteins that drive organelles and other microtubule-based movements in eukaryotic cells. These motors play important roles in multiple events during both interphase and cell division. Dictyostelium discoideum contains 13 kinesin motors, 12 of which are grouped into nine families, plus one orphan. Functions ...
Prinz Helge - - 2009
A series of 10-(2-oxo-2-phenylethylidene)-10H-anthracen-9-ones were synthesized and evaluated for interactions with tubulin and for antiproliferative activity against a panel of human and rodent tumor cell lines. The 4-methoxy analogue 17b was most potent, displaying IC(50) values ranging from 40 to 80 nM, including multidrug resistant phenotypes, and had excellent activity ...
Kleinschmidt Markus A - - 2009
LIN9 has been described as a regulator of G(1)/S and G(2)/M progression of the cell cycle in invertebrates and human cell lines. To elucidate the in vivo function of LIN9 during vertebrate development, we took advantage of the teleost zebrafish (Danio rerio). By means of antisense morpholinos we show here ...
Piao Tian - - 2009
Cilia and flagella are dynamic organelles that are assembled and disassembled during cell differentiation, during stress, and during the cell cycle. Although intraflagellar transport (IFT) is well documented to be responsible for transport of ciliary/flagellar precursors from the cell body to the flagella, little is known about the molecular mechanisms ...
Cummings Cristina M - - 2009
The proper regulation of factors involved in mitosis is crucial to ensure normal cell division. Levels and activities of proteins are regulated in many ways, one of which is ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. E3 ubiquitin ligases are involved in targeting specific substrates for degradation by facilitating their ubiquitination. In seeking to ...
Singer Stephan - - 2009
Dynamic instability of the microtubule network modulates processes such as cell division and motility, as well as cellular morphology. Overexpression of the microtubule-destabilizing phosphoprotein stathmin is frequent in human malignancies and represents a promising therapeutic target. Although stathmin inhibition gives rise to antineoplastic effects, additional and functionally redundant microtubule-interacting proteins ...
DiMaio Michael A - - 2009
HMN-176 is a potential new cancer therapeutic known to retard the proliferation of tumor cell lines. Here, we show that this compound inhibits meiotic spindle assembly in surf clam oocytes and delays satisfaction of the spindle assembly checkpoint in human somatic cells by inducing the formation of short and/or multipolar ...
Su Ling - - 2009
Previous studies demonstrated that p190RhoGAP (p190) negatively affects cytokinesis in a RhoGAP-dependent manner, suggesting that regulation of Rho may be a critical mechanism of p190 action during cytokinesis. P190 localizes to the cleavage furrow (CF) of dividing cells, and its levels decrease during late mitosis by an ubiquitin-mediated mechanism, consistent ...
Bezanilla Magdalena - - 2009
To divide asymmetrically, the mitotic spindle is moved from the cell center to the cortex, a process that requires astral microtubules and the microtubule-based motor dynein. New work examining spindle positioning in large oocytes shows that in these cells actin and actin polymerization plays a key role.
Máthé Csaba - - 2009
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a heptapeptide cyanotoxin, known to be a potent inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases in eukaryotes. Our aim was to investigate the effect of MC-LR on the organization of microtubules and mitotic chromatin in relation to its possible effects on cell and whole organ morphology ...
Loncarek Jadranka - - 2009
The centrosome, an organelle comprising centrioles and associated pericentriolar material, is the major microtubule organizing center in animal cells. For the cell to form a bipolar mitotic spindle and ensure proper chromosome segregation at the end of each cell cycle, it is paramount that the cell contains two and only ...
Graham Amy C - - 2009
Exosome complexes are 3' to 5' exoribonucleases composed of subunits that are critical for numerous distinct RNA metabolic (ribonucleometabolic) pathways. Several studies have implicated the exosome subunits Rrp6 and Dis3 in chromosome segregation and cell division but the functional relevance of these findings remains unclear. Here, we report that, in ...
Arora Sonia - - 2009
Microtubule-stabilizing and microtubule-destabilizing agents are commonly used as anticancer agents. Although highly effective, success with these agents has been limited due to their relative insolubility, cumbersome synthesis/purification, toxic side effects, and development of multidrug resistance. Hence, the identification of improved agents that circumvent one or more of these problems is ...
Hamao Kozue - - 2009
Microtubule reorganization is necessary for many cellular functions such as cell migration, cell polarity and cell division. Dynamin was originally identified as a microtubule-binding protein. Previous limited digestion experiment revealed that C-terminal 100-amino acids proline rich domain (PRD) of dynamin is responsible for microtubule binding in vitro. However, as obvious ...
Pekarski Krista L - - 2009
Spindle cell lipoma of the suprasellar region has not been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 4-year-old male with a suprasellar spindle cell lipoma. The patient presented with headaches and visual disturbances. An imaging study revealed a 4 to 5-mm suprasellar mass that was initially thought ...
DeMoe Joanna H - - 2009
In mitosis, the kinetochores of chromosomes that lack full microtubule attachments and/or mechanical tension activate a signaling pathway called the mitotic spindle checkpoint that blocks progression into anaphase and prevents premature segregation of the chromatids until chromosomes become aligned at the metaphase plate. The spindle checkpoint is responsible for arresting ...
Uchida Kazuhiko S K - - 2009
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors the attachment of microtubules to the kinetochore and inhibits anaphase when microtubule binding is incomplete. The SAC might also respond to tension; however, how cells can sense tension and whether its detection is important to satisfy the SAC remain controversial. We generated a HeLa ...
Vazquez-Martin Alejandro - - 2009
Using a high-resolution, automated confocal high-content imaging system, we investigated the sub-cellular localization of the Serine 2481-autophosphorylated form of mTOR (PP-mTOR(Ser2481)) during mitosis and cytokinesis in human cancer cells. PP-mTOR(Ser2481) exhibited a punctate nuclear distribution in interphase cancer cells, with the number of PP-mTOR(Ser2481) nuclear speckles positively relating with the ...
Mandal Rajni V - - 2009
Spindle cell lipoma is a benign lipomatous tumor, which usually arises on the back of the neck, shoulder or upper back of males in the third to seventh decade of life. We report herein an unusual infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma arising in the nose of a 53-year-old man. The ...
Staiger Christopher J - - 2009
Metazoan cells harness the power of actin dynamics to create cytoskeletal arrays that stimulate protrusions and drive intracellular organelle movements. In plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is understood to participate in cell elongation; however, a detailed description and molecular mechanism(s) underpinning filament nucleation, growth, and turnover are lacking. Here, we ...
Rusan Nasser M - - 2009
Tight regulation of centrosome duplication is critical to ensure that centrosome number doubles once and only once per cell cycle. Superimposed onto this centrosome duplication cycle is a functional centrosome cycle in which they alternate between phases of quiescence and robust microtubule (MT) nucleation and MT-anchoring activities. In vertebrate cycling ...
Bazile Franck - - 2009
Translationally controlled tumor-associated protein (TCTP) is a ubiquitous and highly conserved protein implicated in cancers. Here, we demonstrate that interactions of TCTP with microtubules (MTs) are functionally important but indirect, and we reveal novel interaction of TCTP with the actin cytoskeleton. Firstly, immunofluorescence in Xenopus XL2 cells revealed cytoplasmic fibers ...
Mackay Douglas R - - 2009
Accurate inheritance of genomic content during cell division is dependent on synchronized changes in cellular organization and chromosome dynamics. Elucidating how these events are coordinated is necessary for a complete understanding of cell proliferation. Previous in vitro studies have suggested that the nuclear pore protein Nup153 is a good candidate ...
Minc Nicolas - - 2009
Microtubules (MTs) participate in the spatial regulation of actin-based processes such as cytokinesis and cell polarization. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a rod-shaped cell that exhibits polarized cell growth at cell tips. MT plus ends contact and shrink from the cell tips and contribute to polarity regulation. Here, we ...
Fujita, Miki
Growth anisotropy, in which cells grow predominantly in one direction, is common in plant cells, and an essential event for plant form and function. The direction and degree of growth anisotropy are governed by the mechanical properties of the primary cell wall. When aligned in a parallel manner, cellulose microfibrils ...
Bane Fiona T - - 2009
Microtubule assembly and disassembly is required for the maintenance of cell structure, mobility, and division. However, the cellular and biochemical implications of microtubule disruption are not fully understood. Using a proteomic approach, we found that the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, cyclophilin A, was increased in plasma membrane extracts from chronic myeloid leukemia ...
Fant Xavier - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In differentiating myoblasts, the microtubule network is reorganized from a centrosome-bound, radial array into parallel fibres, aligned along the long axis of the cell. Concomitantly, proteins of the centrosome relocalize from the pericentriolar material to the outer surface of the nucleus. The mechanisms that govern this relocalization are largely ...
Barral Yves - - 2009
The mitotic spindle is mostly perceived as a symmetric structure. However, in many cell divisions, the two poles of the spindle organize asters with different dynamics, associate with different biomolecules or subcellular domains, and perform different functions. In this chapter, we describe some of the most prominent examples of spindle ...
Allan Viki - - 2009
Microtubule motors drive the movement of many different cargoes in eukaryotic cells. A combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches has led to a better understanding of their mechanism of action and function and are also revealing that the microtubule track itself may have an important role to play ...
Park Su Young - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The mitotic exit network (MEN) is required for events at the end of mitosis such as degradation of mitotic cyclins and cytokinesis. Bub2 and its binding partner Bfa1 act as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) to negatively regulate the MEN GTPase Tem1. The Bub2/Bfa1 checkpoint pathway is required to ...
Kamiya Ritsu - - 2009
Chlamydomonas, an organism that offers a variety of flagella-deficient mutants, has been very important for studies of cilia and flagella. Motility assessment of mutant flagella at various levels helps us understand the function of specific axonemal proteins and structures for flagellar function. Measurements of gross cell movements are useful to ...
Wang Xiangming - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The serine/threonine kinase BUB1 (Budding Uninhibited by Benzimidazole 1) was originally identified in yeast as a checkpoint protein, based on its mutant's incapacity of delaying the cell cycle in response to loss of microtubules. Our understanding of its function is primarily from studies carried out in yeast S. cerevisiae. ...
Rajagopalan Vidyalakshmi - - 2009
Cilia and eukaryotic flagella are important structures required for the motility of cells, the movement of medium across the surfaces of cells, and the connections between the receptor and synthetic portions of sensory cells. The axoneme forms the cytoskeleton of the cilium comprising several hundreds of proteins that assemble into ...
Prosser Suzanna L - - 2009
The formation of a bipolar spindle is essential for the equal segregation of duplicated DNA into two daughter cells during mitosis. Spindle bipolarity is largely dependent on the mitotic cell possessing two centrosomes that can each establish one spindle pole. The centrosome is also now known to regulate many other ...
Laufs Patrick - - 2009
A recent report shows that cells in the Arabidopsis apical meristem orientate their cortical microtubules along mechanical stress patterns generated during tissue morphogenesis. This in turn is expected to influence the mechanical properties of the cell via the modification of the cortical microtubule network and the cell wall. This feedback ...
Kopecká Marie - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The cytoskeleton was investigated as a potential target for the inhibition of cell division in Fellomyces fuzhouensis CBS 8243 related to Cryptococcus neoformans. METHODS: Vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel, methyl benzimidazole-2-yl carbamate (BCM), thiabendazole, cytochalasins A, B and D and latrunculin A were added to yeast extract peptone dextrose medium containing ...
Foethke Dietrich - - 2009
The cytoskeleton is essential for the maintenance of cell morphology in eukaryotes. In fission yeast, for example, polarized growth sites are organized by actin, whereas microtubules (MTs) acting upstream control where growth occurs. Growth is limited to the cell poles when MTs undergo catastrophes there and not elsewhere on the ...
Cheung Chun Hei Antonio - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Survivin is a dual function protein. It inhibits the apoptosis of cells by inhibiting caspases, and also promotes cell growth by stabilizing microtubules during mitosis. Over-expression of survivin has been demonstrated to induce drug-resistance to various chemo-therapeutic agents such as cisplatin (DNA damaging agent) and paclitaxel (microtubule stabilizer) in ...
Hutchins James R A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Ran GTPase has multiple functions during the cell division cycle, including nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear envelope formation. The activity of Ran is determined by both its guanine nucleotide-bound state and its subcellular localization. RESULTS: Here, we have characterised the localisation and mobility of Ran coupled to ...
Monje-Casas Fernando - - 2009
Components of the mitotic exit network (MEN), a signaling pathway that triggers exit from mitosis, localize to the spindle pole body (SPB) that migrates into the daughter cell during anaphase but are largely absent from the SPB that remains in the mother cell. Through the analysis of one of the ...
Magnani Ivana - - 2009
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that the sustained expression of MARK4L transcripts in glioma and neural progenitors (NHNPs) declines after exposure to antisense MARK4L oligonucleotides in glioblastoma cell lines. Array-CGH confirmed the genomic duplication of MARK4L identified by FISH in a glioblastoma cell line. This background together with literature data ...
Liu Leyuan - - 2009
Survival and evolution of aneuploid cells after an asymmetric segregation of chromosomes at mitosis may be the common initiating event and underlying cause of the genetic diversity and adaptability of cancers. We hypothesize that mechanisms exist to detect impending aneuploidy and prevent it before completion of an aberrant mitosis. The ...
Ling Yuen Chyao - - 2009
Microtubule arrays are remodeled as cells proceed through the cell cycle. It is important to understand how remodeling is regulated in time and space. In fission yeast, the conserved microtubule associated TACC/TOG complex plays an important role in organizing microtubules throughout the cell cycle. Here we show that this complex ...
Tischer Christian - - 2009
Microtubules (MTs) are central to the organisation of the eukaryotic intracellular space and are involved in the control of cell morphology. For these purposes, MT polymerisation dynamics are tightly regulated. Using automated image analysis software, we investigate the spatial dependence of MT dynamics in interphase fission yeast cells with unprecedented ...
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