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Results 301 - 350 of 2444
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Kaestner Phillip - - 2009
The mitotic Aurora kinases, including Aurora-A and Aurora- B, are attractive novel targets for anticancer therapy, and inhibitory drugs have been developed that are currently undergoing clinical trials. However, the molecular mechanisms how these drugs induce tumor cell death are poorly understood. We have addressed this question by comparing the ...
Li Rong - - 2009
Sperm associated antigen 8 (SPAG8), a testis-specific protein produced during male germ cell differentiation, was isolated from a human testis expression library using antibodies found in the serum obtained from an infertile woman. It was found to have a close functional relationship with microtubules. In this study, we generated a ...
Chang Fred - - 2009
For cell morphogenesis, the cell must establish distinct spatial domains at specified locations at the cell surface. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of cell polarity in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. These are simple rod-shaped cells that form cortical domains at cell tips for cell growth and at the ...
Zuo Peijun - - 2009
Lead (Pb) produces aggresome-like inclusion bodies (IBs) in target cells as a toxic response. Our prior work shows metallothionein (MT) is required for this process. We used MT-I/II double knockout (MT-null) and parental wild-type (WT) cell lines to further explore the formation process of Pb-induced IBs. Unlike WT cells, MT-null ...
Schmoranzer Jan - - 2009
Centrosome orientation toward the leading edge of migrating cells depends on dynein and microtubules (MTs), as well as a number of signaling factors at the leading edge. However, centrosomes are maintained at the cell center during orientation in fibroblasts, suggesting that factors working at sites other than the leading edge ...
Qian Pingping - - 2009
Pavement cells have an interlocking jigsaw puzzle-shaped leaf surface pattern. Twenty-three genes involved in the pavement cell morphogenesis were discovered until now. The mutations of these genes through various means lead to pavement cell shape defects, such as loss or lack of interdigitation, the reduction of lobing, gaps between lobe ...
Lee Jungmin - - 2009
Centrobin/Nip2 was initially identified as a centrosome protein that is critical for centrosome duplication and spindle assembly. In the present study, we determined the expression and subcellular localization of centrobin in selected mouse tissues. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the centrobin-specific band of 100 kDa was detected in all tissues tested ...
Ringhoff Danielle N - - 2009
Stathmin is a microtubule-destabilizing protein ubiquitously expressed in vertebrates and highly expressed in many cancers. In several cell types, stathmin regulates the partitioning of tubulin between unassembled and polymer forms, but the mechanism responsible for partitioning has not been determined. We examined stathmin function in two cell systems: mouse embryonic ...
Edler Michael C - - 2009
(-)-Rhazinilam was spontaneously generated from a natural product during isolation. In cultured cells, it causes microtubule bundle formation, like those caused by paclitaxel. With tubulin, (-)-rhazinilam causes formation of an aberrant spiral polymer. Using glutamate and GTP, we developed an assay for spiral formation and applied it to 17 new ...
Tallada Victor A - - 2009
The fission yeast spindle pole body (SPB) comprises a cytoplasmic structure that is separated from an ill-defined nuclear component by the nuclear envelope. Upon mitotic commitment, the nuclear envelope separating these domains disperses as the two SPBs integrate into a hole that forms in the nuclear envelope. The SPB component ...
Quann Emily J - - 2009
The reorientation of the T cell microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) toward the antigen-presenting cell enables the directional secretion of cytokines and lytic factors. By single-cell photoactivation of the T cell antigen receptor, we show that MTOC polarization is driven by localized accumulation of diacylglycerol (DAG). MTOC reorientation was closely preceded first ...
Fielding Andrew B - - 2009
The cytoskeleton is composed of three major constituents: actin filaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules. These are vital for numerous normal cellular processes including cell spreading and migration, intracellular organelle transport, mechanical strength, mitosis and cytokinesis. Deregulation of cytoskeletal components can lead to cells developing several oncogenic phenotypes; for example increased ...
Bekier Michael E - - 2009
Cell death induced by agents that disrupt microtubules can kill cells by inducing a prolonged mitotic block. This mitotic block is dependent on the spindle assembly checkpoint, a surveillance system that ensures the bipolar attachment of chromosomes to the mitotic spindle before the onset of anaphase. Under some conditions, the ...
De Rycker Manu - - 2009
High-content cell-based screens provide a powerful tool to identify new chemicals that interfere with complex biological processes. Here, we describe the identification of a new inhibitor of microtubule dynamics (micropolyin) using a high-content screen. Integrated high-resolution imaging allowed for fast selection of hits and progression to target identification. Treatment of ...
Schmidt Thorsten I - - 2009
Centrioles function as the major components of centrosomes, which organize microtubule (MT) arrays in proliferating cells, and as basal bodies for primary cilia formation in quiescent cells. Centrioles and basal bodies are structurally similar, barrel-shaped organelles composed of MTs. In proliferating cells, two new centrioles, termed procentrioles, form during the ...
Kohlmaier Gregor G Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, - - 2009
The centrosome is the principal microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of animal cells. Accurate centrosome duplication is fundamental for genome integrity and entails the formation of one procentriole next to each existing centriole, once per cell cycle. The procentriole then elongates to eventually reach the same size as the centriole. The ...
Mana-Capelli Sebastian - - 2009
Centrins are a family of proteins within the calcium-binding EF-hand superfamily. In addition to their archetypical role at the microtubule organizing center (MTOC), centrins have acquired multiple functionalities throughout the course of evolution. For example, centrins have been linked to different nuclear activities, including mRNA export and DNA repair. Dictyostelium ...
DeWard Aaron D - - 2009
Formins assemble non-branched actin filaments and modulate microtubule dynamics during cell migration and cell division. At the end of mitosis formins contribute to the generation of actin filaments that form the contractile ring. Rho small GTP-binding proteins activate mammalian diaphanous-related (mDia) formins by directly binding and disrupting an intramolecular autoinhibitory ...
Amé Jean-Christophe - - 2009
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in the regulation of chromatin structure, DNA metabolism, cell division and cell death. Through the hydrolysis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) has a crucial role in the control of life-and-death balance following DNA insult. Comprehension of PARG function has been hindered ...
Kuriyama Ryoko - - 2009
Cancer cells frequently induce aberrant centrosomes, which have been implicated in cancer initiation and progression. Human colorectal cancer cells, HCT116, contain aberrant centrioles composed of disorganized cylindrical microtubules and displaced appendages. These cells also express unique centrosome-related structures associated with a subset of centrosomal components, including gamma-tubulin, centrin and PCM1. ...
González-Novo Alberto - - 2009
We have characterized the DBF2 gene, encoding a protein kinase of the NDR family in Candida albicans, and demonstrate that this gene is essential for cell viability. Conditional mutants were constructed by using the MET3 promoter to analyse the phenotype of cells lacking this kinase. The absence of Dbf2 resulted ...
Panteris Emmanuel - - 2009
The preprophase band and mitotic spindle of dividing protodermal cells of wild-type Zea mays leaves include few actin filaments. Surprisingly, abundant actin filaments were observed in the above arrays, in dividing protodermal cells in the leaves of the brick1 mutant. The same abundance was observed in the spindle of Taxol-treated ...
Schober Joseph M - - 2009
Remodeling of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons is thought to be coupled; however, the interplay between these two systems is not fully understood. We show a microtubule end-binding protein, EB1, is required for formation of polarize morphology and motility of melanoma cells. EB1 depletion decreased lamellipodia protrusion, and resulted in loss ...
Lu Fei - - 2009
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Centrosome duplication normally parallels with DNA replication and is responsible for correct segregation of replicated DNA into the daughter cells. Although geminin interacts with Cdt1 to prevent loading of MCMs (minichromosome maintenance proteins) on to the replication origins, inactivation of geminin nevertheless causes centrosome over-duplication in addition to ...
Cunha-Ferreira Inês - - 2009
Centrioles are essential for the formation of microtubule-derived structures, including cilia, flagella and centrosomes. These structures are involved in a variety of functions, from cell motility to division. In most dividing animal cells, centriole formation is coupled to the chromosome cycle. However, this is not the case in certain specialized ...
Hamilton Douglas W - - 2009
Anisotropic substrata such as micromachined grooves can control cell shape, orientation, and the direction of cell movement, a phenomena termed topographic guidance. Although many types of cells exhibit topographic guidance, little is known regarding cell responses to conflicting topographic cues. We employed a substratum with intersecting grooves in order to ...
Tsang William Y WY Department of Pathology, NYU School of Medicine and Cancer Institute, Smilow Research Building, New York, NY 10016, - - 2009
Centrosomes duplicate only once per cell cycle, but the controls that govern this process are largely unknown. We have identified Cep76, a centriolar protein that interacts with CP110. Cep76 is expressed at low levels in G1 and is induced in S and G2 phase, during which point centrioles have already ...
Katsura Mari - - 2009
Rad51C is a central component of two complexes formed by five Rad51 paralogs in vertebrates. These complexes are involved in repairing DNA double-strand breaks through homologous recombination. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting that the paralogs may prevent aneuploidy by controlling centrosome integrity, Rad51C's role in maintaining chromosome stability remains unclear. Here ...
Bicek Andrew D - - 2009
Microtubules (MTs) have been proposed to act mechanically as compressive struts that resist both actomyosin contractile forces and their own polymerization forces to mechanically stabilize cell shape. To identify the origin of MT bending, we directly observed MT bending and F-actin transport dynamics in the periphery of LLC-PK1 epithelial cells. ...
Woodruff Jeffrey B - - 2009
Dynein is a minus-end-directed microtubule motor important for mitotic spindle positioning. In budding yeast, dynein activity is restricted to anaphase when the nucleus enters the bud neck, yet the nature of the underlying regulatory mechanism is not known. Here, the microtubule-associated protein She1p is identified as a novel regulator of ...
Sahasrabuddhe Amogh A - - 2009
In general, coronins play an important role in actin-based processes, and are expressed in a variety of eukaryotic cells, including Leishmania. Here, we show that Leishmania coronin preferentially distributes to the distal tip during cytokinesis, and interacts with microtubules through a microtubule-based motor, kinesin K39. We further show that reduction ...
Salmela Anna-Leena - - 2009
Fisetin is a natural flavonol present in edible vegetables, fruits and wine at 2-160 microg/g concentrations and an ingredient in nutritional supplements with much higher concentrations. The compound has been reported to exert anticarcinogenic effects as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity via its ability to act as an inhibitor ...
Duan Q Q Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, - - 2009
To understand if there exists a functional interaction between arsenic trioxide and paclitaxel in vitro. HeLa and HCT116 (rho53(+/+) and rho53(-/-)) cells were treated with As2O3 and/or paclitaxel for various times. Treated cells were collected for analyses using a combination of flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. Because As(2)O(3) ...
Theis Mirko - - 2009
Proliferation of mammalian cells requires the coordinated function of many proteins to accurately divide a cell into two daughter cells. Several RNAi screens have identified previously uncharacterised genes that are implicated in mammalian cell division. The molecular function for these genes needs to be investigated to place them into pathways. ...
Varela Elisa - - 2009
The mechanism of chromatin compaction in mitosis has been well studied, while little is known about what controls chromatin decompaction in early G1 phase. We have localized the Condensin subunit Brn1 to a compact spiral of rDNA in mitotic budding yeast cells. Brn1 release and the resulting rDNA decompaction in ...
McCarthy Campbell Erin K EK Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of - - 2009
The displacement of the mitotic spindle to one side of a cell is important for many cells to divide unequally. While recent progress has begun to unveil some of the molecular mechanisms of mitotic spindle displacement, far less is known about how spindle displacement is precisely timed. A conserved mitotic ...
Wu Yanrui - - 2009
DIXDC1 is a Dishevelled-Axin (DIX) domain-containing protein involved in neural development and Wnt signaling pathway. Besides the DIX domain, DIXDC1 also contains a coiled-coil domain (MTH domain), which is a common feature of centrosomal proteins. We have demonstrated that exogenously expressed GFP-tag fused DIXDC1 co-localize with gamma-tubulin both at interphase ...
Inoue Toshiaki - - 2009
We previously identified SIRT2, a deacetylase for tubulin and histone H4, as a protein downregulated in gliomas, and reported that exogenously-expressed SIRT2 arrests the cell cycle prior to entry into mitosis to prevent chromosomal instability in response to microtubule inhibitors (MTIs) such as nocodazole, characteristics previously reported for the CHFR ...
Acquaviva Claire - - 2009
FOP is a centrosomal protein originally discovered as a fusion partner of FGFR1 in patients with a rare stem cell myeloproliferative disorder. In DT40 chicken lymphocytes, we show that the normal FOP protein localizes at the centrosome throughout the cell cycle and preferentially accumulates at the distal end of the ...
Moutinho-Pereira Sara - - 2009
Cytoskeleton microtubules undergo a reversible metamorphosis as cells enter and exit mitosis to build a transient mitotic spindle required for chromosome segregation. Centrosomes play a dominant but dispensable role in microtubule (MT) organization throughout the animal cell cycle, supporting the existence of concurrent mechanisms that remain unclear. Here we investigated ...
Stolz Ailine - - 2009
The mitotic spindle checkpoint represents a signal transduction pathway that prevents the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned on a metaphase plate. Partial inactivation of this checkpoint allows premature separation of sister chromatids and results in aneuploidy, which might contribute to tumorigenesis. Unlike other cell cycle checkpoints, ...
Wühr Martin - - 2009
Microtubules play a central role in centering the nucleus or mitotic spindle in eukaryotic cells. However, despite common use of microtubules for centering, physical mechanisms can vary greatly, and depend on cell size and cell type. In the small fission yeast cells, the nucleus can be centered by pushing forces ...
Nakai Ryuichiro - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of inhibition of Eg5 (kinesin spindle protein), a mitotic kinesin that plays an essential role in establishing mitotic spindle bipolarity, by the novel small molecule inhibitor K858. K858 was selected in a phenotype-based forward chemical genetics screen as an antimitotic ...
Azimzadeh Juliette - - 2009
Centrin has been shown to be involved in centrosome biogenesis in a variety of eukaryotes. In this study, we characterize hPOC5, a conserved centrin-binding protein that contains Sfi1p-like repeats. hPOC5 is localized, like centrin, in the distal portion of human centrioles. hPOC5 recruitment to procentrioles occurs during G2/M, a process ...
Oakley, Carol
Topographic guidance refers to reactions of cells with the topography of their substratum and includes alterations in cell shape, orientation and polarity of movement. Current hypotheses focus on the cytoskeleton although most observations have been limited to cells that were already oriented with their substratum topography. In this thesis I ...
Fedyanina Olga S - - 2009
Tubulin-folding cofactor D plays a major role in the formation of functional tubulin heterodimers, the subunits of microtubules (MTs) that are essential for cell division. Previous work has suggested that, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cofactor D function is required during G(1) or S phases of the cell cycle, and when it ...
Soung Nak-Kyun - - 2009
Outer dense fiber 2 (ODF2) was initially identified as a major component of the sperm tail cytoskeleton, and was later suggested to be localized to somatic centrosomes and required for the formation of primary cilia. Here we show that a splice variant of hODF2 called hCenexin1, but not hODF2 itself, ...
Iuchi Katsuya - - 2009
Our previous study showed that organobismuth compounds induce apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia cells, although solid tumor cell lines were relatively resistant. Herein, we investigated the primary cellular target of these compounds in HeLa cells. One organobismuth compound, bi-chlorodibenzo[c,f][1,5]thiabismocine (compound 3), arrested the cell cycle at G(2)/M as assessed by ...
Rello-Varona Santiago - - 2009
Tetraploid cells may constitute a metastable intermediate between normal euploidy and cancer-associated aneuploidy. Tetraploid cells are relatively more resistant against DNA damaging agents and are genetically unstable, due to their tendency towards multipolar, asymmetric division. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies for the selective removal of tetraploid cells. Here, ...
Zeng C J Tracy - - 2009
Although cells of flowering plants lack a structurally defined microtubule-organizing center like the centrosome, organization of the spindles and phragmoplasts in mitosis is known to involve the evolutionarily conserved gamma-tubulin complex. We have investigated the function of Arabidopsis thaliana NEDD1, a WD40 repeat protein related to the animal NEDD1/GCP-WD protein, ...
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