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Hirano Tomonari - - 2010
Pollen tubes of Cyrtanthus mackenii, a species with bicellular pollen, were cultured in vitro to investigate nuclear phase changes during generative cell division and male germ unit (MGU) formation, using flow cytometric analysis. Results revealed that sperm cells were formed after 12 h of culture. During sperm maturation, the nuclei ...
Peralta-Sastre A - - 2010
Aneuploidy is a common feature of tumours that arise by errors in chromosome segregation during mitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible signaling pathways involved in sensitization to chemotherapy in cells with chromosomal instability. We designed a screen using the fission yeast Squizossaccharomyces pombe, to isolate strains ...
Geymonat Marco - - 2009
Lte1 is a mitotic regulator long envisaged as a guanosine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Tem1, the small guanosine triphosphatase governing activity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic exit network. We demonstrate that this model requires reevaluation. No GEF activity was detectable in vitro, and mutational analysis of Lte1's putative GEF ...
Taylor Jane B - - 2010
The pathogenesis of infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) organisms may be linked to its capacity to invade respiratory epithelium. An antibiotic exclusion assay was used to study B. dolosa AU4459 and B. cenocepacia J2315 invasion into wild-type (WT) and CFTR-deficient respiratory epithelial cells. Inhibitors were used to evaluate Bcc ...
Wickström Sara A - - 2010
CYLD is a tumour-suppressor gene that is mutated in a benign skin tumour syndrome called cylindromatosis. The CYLD gene product is a deubiquitinating enzyme that was shown to regulate cell proliferation, cell survival and inflammatory responses, mainly through inhibiting NF-kappaB signalling. Here we show that CYLD controls cell growth and ...
Zhao Lingli - - 2010
Centrosome cohesion and segregation are accurately regulated to prevent an aberrant separation of duplicated centrosomes and to ensure the correct formation of bipolar spindles by a tight coupling with cell cycle machinery. CPAP is a centrosome protein with five coiled-coil domains and plays an important role in the control of ...
Doyle Alex A School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NJ, - - 2009
Class V myosins are dimeric actin-associated motor proteins that deliver cellular cargoes to discrete cellular locations. Fission yeast possess two class V myosins, Myo51 and Myo52. Although Myo52 has been shown to have roles in vacuole distribution, cytokinesis and cell growth, Myo51 has no as yet discernible function in the ...
Vecchio Giada - - 2009
We herein report a rare case of a lipomatous tumor of the buccal mucosa, showing intermediate morphological features between spindle cell and pleomorphic lipomas, for which the term spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma is proposed. The presence of multinucleated floretlike cells may pose differential diagnostic problems, especially with spindle cell variant of ...
Müller-Taubenberger Annette - - 2009
During a REMI screen for proteins regulating cytokinesis in Dictyostelium discoideum we isolated a mutant forming multinucleate cells. The gene affected in this mutant encoded a kinase, SepA, which is an ortholog of Cdc7, a serine-threonine kinase essential for septum formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Localization of SepA-GFP in live cells ...
Verhey Kristen J KJ Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2200, USA. - - 2009
Kinesins are a family of molecular motors that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move along the surface of, or destabilize, microtubule filaments. Much progress has been made in understanding the mechanics and functions of the kinesin motors that play important parts in cell division, cell motility, intracellular trafficking ...
Thadani Rahul - - 2009
Microtubule (MT) arrays are mechanistic effectors of polarity specification and cell division. Linear bundles in which MTs are bridged laterally are dynamically assembled in systems ranging from differentiated metazoan cells to fungi in a process that remains poorly understood. Often, bundled MTs slide with respect to each other via molecular ...
Bisig C Gast?n - - 2009
In many laboratories, the requirement of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and the stabilization of microtubules for the elongation of neurites has been intensively investigated, with controversial results being obtained. We have observed that the neurite microtubules of Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells, a mouse brain derived cell, are highly dynamic structures, and so ...
Williamson Adam A Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2009
Ubiquitination by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is essential for proliferation in all eukaryotes. The human APC/C promotes the degradation of mitotic regulators by assembling K11-linked ubiquitin chains, the formation of which is initiated by its E2 UbcH10. Here, we identify the conserved Ube2S as a K11-specific chain elongating E2 for ...
Fu Ying Y State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Department of Plant Sciences, College of Biological Sciences, China. - - 2009
Cortical microtubules (MTs) participate in the spatial control of cell expansion and division that is required for plant growth and morphogenesis. Well-ordered transverse cortical MTs promote cell elongation and restrict radial cell expansion. The molecular mechanism controlling their ordering is poorly understood. We report the first known signaling pathway that ...
Ofek Gidon - - 2009
The cytoskeleton is known to play an important role in the biomechanical nature and structure of cells, but its particular function in compressive characteristics has not yet been fully examined. This study focused on the contribution of the main three cytoskeletal elements to the bulk compressive stiffness (as measured by ...
Martín-García Rebeca R School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NJ, - - 2009
Coordination between microtubule and actin cytoskeletons plays a crucial role during the establishment of cell polarity. In fission yeast, the microtubule cytoskeleton regulates the distribution of actin assembly at the new growing end during the monopolar-to-bipolar growth transition. Here, we describe a novel mechanism in which a myosin V modulates ...
Schatten Heide - - 2009
Centrosomes had been discovered in germ cells and germ cells continue to provide excellent but also challenging material in which to study complex centrosomal dynamics. The present review highlights the importance of centrosomes for meiotic spindle integrity and the susceptibility of meiotic spindle centrosomes to aging and drugs or toxic ...
Lukasiewicz Kara B - - 2009
The centrosome, also known as the microtubule organizing center of the cell, is a membrane-less organelle composed of a pair of barrel-shaped centrioles surrounded by electron-dense pericentriolar material. The centrosome progresses through the centrosome cycle in step with the cell cycle such that centrosomes are duplicated in time to serve ...
Malz Mona - - 2009
Microtubule-dependent effects are partly regulated by factors that coordinate polymer dynamics such as the microtubule-destabilizing protein stathmin (oncoprotein 18). In cancer cells, increased microtubule turnover affects cell morphology and cellular processes that rely on microtubule dynamics such as mitosis and migration. However, the molecular mechanisms deregulating modifiers of microtubule activity ...
Yu Mia - - 2009
In cultured cells, exposure to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) zidovudine (AZT) induces genomic instability, cell cycle arrest, micronuclei, sister chromatid exchanges, and shortened telomeres. In previous studies, we demonstrated AZT-induced centrosome amplification (>2 centrosomes/cell). Here, we investigate centrosome amplification in cells exposed to other commonly used NRTIs. Experiments ...
Moon Dong Oh - - 2009
The JNK inhibitor SP600125 strongly inhibits cell proliferation in many human cancer cells by blocking cell-cycle progression and inducing apoptosis. Despite extensive study, the mechanism by which SP600125 inhibits mitosis-related effects in human leukemia cells remains unclear. We investigated the effects of SP600125 on the inhibition of cell proliferation and ...
Moynihan Katherine L KL Stahlman Cardiovascular Research Laboratories, Program in Developmental Biology, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-6300, - - 2009
The microtubule (MT) network is essential in a broad spectrum of cellular functions. Many studies have linked CENP-F to MT-based activities as disruption of this protein leads to major changes in MT structure and function. Still, the basis of CENP-F regulation of the MT network remains elusive. Here, our studies ...
Silveira e Souza Adriana Maria Mariano - - 2010
Gangliosides are known to be important in many biological processes. However, details concerning the exact function of these glycosphingolipids in cell physiology are poorly understood. In this study, the role of gangliosides present on the surface of rodent mast cells in maintaining cell structure was examined using RBL-2H3 mast cells ...
Ducki Sylvie - - 2009
The alpha-methyl chalcone SD400 is a potent inhibitor of tubulin assembly and possesses potent anticancer activity. Various chalcone analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their cell growth inhibitory properties against the K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line (SD400, IC(50) 0.21nM; combretastatin A4 CA4, IC(50) 2.0nM). Cell cycle analysis by ...
Johnston Christopher A CA Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, - - 2009
Asymmetric cell division is intensely studied because it can generate cellular diversity as well as maintain stem cell populations. Asymmetric cell division requires mitotic spindle alignment with intrinsic or extrinsic polarity cues, but mechanistic detail of this process is lacking. Here, we develop a method to construct cortical polarity in ...
Rebollo Elena - - 2009
Spindle alignment along the apicobasal polarity axis is mandatory for proper self-renewing asymmetric division in Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs). In embryonic NBs, spindles have been reported to assemble orthogonally to the polarity axis and later rotate to align with it. In larval NBs, spindles assemble directly aligned with the axis owing ...
Saadatfar Zohreh - - 2009
An ultrastructural study was performed on chloride cells of euryhaline R.r.Caspicus of south of Caspian Sea. The chloride cells are distributed in the interlamellar region of filaments. They are oval to elongated form with an apical positioned nucleus, expanded tubular system and heteromorphic mitochondria. These cells are surrounded by pavement ...
Sieberer Björn J - - 2009
The microtubule cytoskeleton and the cell wall both play key roles in plant cell growth and division, determining the plant's final stature. At near weightlessness, tubulin polymerizes into microtubules in vitro, but these microtubules do not self-organize in the ordered patterns observed at 1g. Likewise, at near weightlessness cortical microtubules ...
Riffell Jenna L - - 2009
Microtubule-targeting cancer therapies interfere with mitotic spindle dynamics and block cells in mitosis by activating the mitotic checkpoint. Cells arrested in mitosis may remain arrested for extended periods of time or undergo mitotic slippage and enter interphase without having separated their chromosomes. How extended mitotic arrest and mitotic slippage contribute ...
Romagnoli Romeo - - 2009
The essential role of microtubules in mitosis makes them a major target of compounds useful for cancer therapy. In our search for potent antitumor agents, a novel series of 2-anilino-4-amino-5-aroylthiazoles was synthesized and evaluated for antiproliferative activity, inhibition of tubulin polymerization, and cell cycle effects. SAR was elucidated with various ...
Schenk Judith - - 2009
Interkinetic nuclear migration (INM) is a hallmark of the polarized stem and progenitor cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the developing vertebrate CNS. INM is responsible for the pseudostratification of the VZ, a crucial aspect of brain evolution. The nuclear migration toward the apical centrosomes in G2 is thought ...
Yang Zhenye Z Division of Translational Medicine, Wadsworth Center, NY State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201, - - 2009
To determine why the duration of mitosis (DM) is less in Taxol than in nocodazole or Eg5 inhibitors we studied the relationship between Taxol concentration, the DM, and the mitotic checkpoint. We found that unlike for other spindle poisons, in Taxol the DM becomes progressively shorter as the concentration surpasses ...
Zhang Zhixiang - - 2010
Targeting cellular mitosis is an attractive antitumor strategy. Here, we reported MT7, a novel compound from the 6H-Pyrido[2',1':2,3]imidazo [4,5-c]isoquinolin- 5(6H)-one library generated by using the multi-component reaction strategy, as a new mitotic inhibitor. MT7 elicited apparent inhibition of cell proliferation by arresting mitosis specifically and reversibly in various tumor cell ...
Beamish Heather - - 2009
Mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein is a major contributor to tumor initiation and progression in several tumor types. These mutations affect APC function in the Wnt-beta-catenin signaling and influence mitotic spindle anchoring to the cell cortex and orientation. Here we report that the mitotic anchoring and orientation function ...
Vogt Andreas A Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. - - 2009
The natural product (-)-pironetin is a structurally simple small molecule microtubule-perturbing agent whose biological activities appear to be exquisitely dependent on defined stereochemistry and the presence of an eletrophilic alpha,beta-unsaturated lactone moiety. We used alkaloid-catalyzed acyl halide-aldehyde cyclocondensation reactions in asymmetric total syntheses of (-)-pironetin and three synthetic analogs, and ...
Saleem Mohammad M School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, 1300 University Avenue, MSC # 4385, Madison, WI 53719, USA. - - 2009
Recently we showed Lupeol, a triterpene, found in fruits and vegetables inhibits the growth of tumors originated from human androgen-sensitive prostate cancer (CaP) cells and decreases the serum-PSA levels in a mouse model. Here, we provide evidence that Lupeol inhibits the growth of androgen-sensitive as well as androgen-insensitive CaP cells ...
Hara Yuki - - 2009
Cell size is one of the critical parameters controlling the size of intracellular structures. A well-known example is the constant nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio (N/C ratio) [1-5]. The length of the metaphase spindle is proportional to cell size, but it has an upper limit during early embryogenesis [6]. During anaphase, the mitotic ...
Anderson Charles T CT Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5020, - - 2009
Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that play important roles in development and disease . They are required for Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling. Primary cilia grow from the older of the two centrioles of the centrosome, referred to as the mother centriole. In cycling cells, ...
Wu Rui - - 2009
The present data showed that a novel synthesized compound, N-acetyl-N-(4-(4-methoxyphenyl-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl)acetamide (XN05), exhibited potent antitumor activity against various cancer cells in vitro. XN05-treatment in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells resulted in the accumulation of G2/M phase cells and finally induced apoptosis assessed by flow cytometry analysis. Western blot and immunofluorescence experiments indicated ...
Cassimeris Lynne - - 2009
TOGp, a member of the XMAP215 MAP family, is required for bipolar mitotic spindle assembly. To understand how TOGp contributes to spindle assembly, we examined microtubule dynamics after depleting TOGp by siRNA. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of GFP-tubulin demonstrated that spindle microtubule turnover is slowed two-fold in the absence of ...
Kuriyama Ryoko - - 2009
Centriole assembly is initiated by Plk4, a Polo-like kinase 4, which causes the recruitment of downstream regulators, such as SAS6 and SAS4, to a nascent centriole. Simultaneous expression of Plk4, SAS6 and SAS4 in CHO cells resulted in the formation of massive fibrogranular aggregates of various sizes and shapes. These ...
Carrassa Laura - - 2009
Chk1 is a conserved protein kinase originally identified in fission yeast, required to delay entry of cells with damaged or unreplicated DNA into mitosis. The requirement of Chk1 for both S and G2/M checkpoints has been elucidated while only few studies have connected Chk1 to the mitotic spindle checkpoint. We ...
Moore Jeffrey K JK Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri, USA. - - 2009
Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule motor that powers minus-end-directed motility in a variety of biological settings. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been a useful system for the study of dynein, due to its molecular genetics and cell biology capabilities, coupled with the conservation of dynein-pathway proteins. In this review ...
Feldman Jessica L JL Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, - - 2009
An intriguing feature of centrioles is that these highly complicated microtubule-based structures duplicate once per cell cycle, affording the cell precise control over their number. Each cell contains exactly two centrioles, linked together as a pair, one of which is a mother centriole formed in a previous cell cycle and ...
Zhou Wenbai - - 2010
Microtubules (MTs) play an important role in cell division, and their functions are regulated by a set of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Tubulin polymerization promoting protein family member 3 (TPPP3), also known as p20, is a new member of the tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP) family. Previous studies have demonstrated that ...
Amano Miho - - 2009
The constitutive centromere-associated network (CCAN) proteins are central to kinetochore assembly. To define the molecular architecture of this critical kinetochore network, we sought to determine the full complement of CCAN components and to define their relationships. This work identified a centromere protein S (CENP-S)-containing subcomplex that includes the new constitutive ...
Boutant Emmanuel - - 2009
Cell-to-cell movement of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) involves the interaction of virus-encoded 30-kDa movement protein (MP) with microtubules. In cells behind the infection front that accumulate high levels of MP, this activity is reflected by the formation of stabilized MP/microtubule complexes. The ability of MP to bind along and stabilize ...
Vinogradova Tatiana T Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, - - 2009
Cell migration requires polarization of the cell into the leading edge and the trailing edge. Microtubules (MTs) are indispensable for polarized cell migration in the majority of cell types. To support cell polarity, MT network has to be functionally and structurally asymmetric. How is this asymmetry achieved? In interphase cells, ...
Holmfeldt Per - - 2009
The microtubule-system organizes the cytoplasm during interphase and segregates condensed chromosomes during mitosis. Four unrelated conserved proteins, XMAP215/Dis1/TOGp, MCAK, MAP4 and Op18/stathmin, have all been implicated as predominant regulators of tubulin monomer-polymer partitioning in animal cells. However, while studies employing the Xenopus egg extract model system indicate that the partitioning ...
Kanada Masamitsu - - 2009
The dynamics of astral and midzone microtubules (MTs) must be separately regulated during cell division, but the mechanism of selective stabilization of midzone MTs is poorly understood. Here we show that, in HT1080 cells, activation of Rho is required to stabilize midzone MTs, and to maintain the midzone structures after ...
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