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Results 201 - 250 of 2444
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Wilmes Anja - - 2011
Peloruside A, isolated from the marine sponge Mycale hentscheli, has a similar mechanism of action to paclitaxel (Taxol®), a drug used clinically to treat tumors of the breast, ovary and lung. Paclitaxel and peloruside stabilize the polymerized form of tubulin and arrest cells in G(2)/M of the cell cycle. We ...
Shen Shensi - - 2010
Autophagy is commonly characterized by the redistribution of the microtubule-associated light chain 3 (LC3) protein into cytoplasmic puncta, coinciding with its lipidation, as well as by a decrease in the abundance of autophagic substrates including p62 and ubiquitinylated proteins. Here, we describe a cell line, A549-B480, which, in contrast to ...
Kiselyov Alex S - - 2010
A series of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives based on structural and electronic overlap with combretastatins have been designed and synthesized. Initially, we tested all new compounds in vivo using the phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay to yield a number of agents with anti-proliferative, anti-mitotic, and microtubule destabilizing activities. The experimental data ...
Saleem Ramsey A - - 2010
Cell division depends critically on the temporally controlled assembly of mitotic spindles, which are responsible for the distribution of duplicated chromosomes to each of the two daughter cells. To gain insight into the process, Vizeacoumar et al., in this issue (Vizeacoumar et al. 2010. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.200909013), have combined ...
Toli?-N?rrelykke Iva M - - 2010
How does a living cell deal with basic concepts of physics such as length and force? The cell has to measure distances and regulate forces to dynamically organize its interior. This is to a large extent based on microtubules (MTs) and motor proteins. Two concepts are emerging from recent studies ...
Stambrook Peter J - - 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cells and germ cells have the potential to give rise to an entire organism. A common requirement is that both must have very robust mechanisms to preserve the integrity of their genomes. This is particularly true since somatic cells have very high mutation frequencies approaching 10-4 in ...
Samereier Matthias - - 2010
Dictyostelium amoebae provide a popular model system for analyses of cell and cytoskeletal dynamics. Yet, the sensitivity of Dictyostelium cells to phototoxic effects, their rapid cell movement, and the extraordinary motility of their microtubule system are specific challenges for live cell imaging. The protocols outlined in this chapter are optimized ...
Banuett Flora - - 2010
The cytoskeleton provides the basic architectural organization and shape of the eukaryotic cell, and plays a key role in segregation of the genetic material. A method to visualize the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in the fungus Ustilago maydis by indirect immunofluorescence is described here. The method entails growth of cells ...
Kiris Erkan - - 2010
The regulation of microtubule growing and shortening dynamics is essential for proper cell function and viability, and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) such as the neural protein tau are critical regulators of these dynamic processes. Further, we and our colleagues have proposed that misregulation of microtubule dynamics may contribute to tau-mediated neuronal ...
Barasoain Isabel - - 2010
The use of the antitumor drug taxol as an experimental microtubule-stabilizing agent is widespread. Fluorescent taxol conjugates, although less employed, are very useful tools for several purposes in microtubule research. These include easily visualizing microtubule cytoskeletons in a variety of cells as well as in vitro assembled microtubules, studying the ...
Krzysiek-Maczka Gracjana - - 2010
Single human skin fibroblasts and the skin keratinocyte cell line HaCaT show contact guidance and elongate along narrow (1-2 microm) scratches in glass substratum. During cell division these cells orientate their mitotic spindles along the long axis of the cell. Immunofluorescence staining of actin, tubulin, chromatin, and the nuclear NuMA ...
Weber Achim - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The general transcription factor II H (TFIIH), comprised of a core complex and an associated CAK-complex, functions in transcription, DNA repair and cell cycle control. Mutations of the two largest subunits, p89 (XPB) and p80 (XPD), cause the hereditary cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum. METHODS: The TFIIH subunit p89 was ...
Sumer Huseyin - - 2010
The ectopic expression of the key transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf-4 have been shown to reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state. In turn these induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, like embryonic stem (ES) cells, have been shown to be able to reprogram somatic cells by cell fusion. ...
Koo Vincent - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Two novel assays quantifying Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) were compared to traditional motility and migration assays. TGF-beta1 treatment of AY-27 rat bladder cancer cells acted as a model of EMT in tumourigenesis. METHODS: AY-27 rat bladder cancer cells incubated with 3 ng/ml TGF-beta1 or control media for 24 ...
Hong Yunhan - - 2010
The appearance of diploidy, the presence of two genomes or chromosome sets, is a fundamental hallmark of eukaryotic evolution and bisexual reproduction, because diploidy offers the basis for the bisexual life cycle, allowing for oscillation between diploid and haploid phases. Meiosis produces haploid gametes. At fertilization, male and female gametes ...
Goshima Gohta - - 2010
The Drosophila S2 cell line is popularly used to study mitosis. In this cell line, multiple genes can be easily and efficiently knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi), and the associated mitotic phenotypes can be assessed with high-resolution microscopy after immunofluorescence or in a living cell. However, compared to untransformed ...
Kamath Kathy - - 2010
The precise regulation of microtubules and their dynamics is critical for cell cycle progression, cell signaling, intracellular transport, cell polarization, and organismal development. For example, mitosis, cell migration, and axonal outgrowth all involve rapid and dramatic changes in microtubule organization and dynamics. Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) such as MAP2 and tau ...
Goshima Gohta - - 2010
The mitotic spindle accurately segregates genetic instructions by moving chromosomes to spindle poles (anaphase A) and separating the poles (anaphase B) so that, in general, the chromosomes and poles are positioned near the centers of the nascent daughter cell products of each cell division. Because the size of different types ...
Moretti Vincent M - - 2010
Spindle-cell hibernoma is 1 of 4 histologic variants of hibernomas, which are rare lipomatous tumors distinguished from other lipomas by their brown fat component. This article presents a case of a spindle-cell hibernoma that developed in the groin of a 58-year-old man, and is 1 of only 5 known cases ...
Duensing Anette - - 2010
Cancer cells are frequently characterized by ploidy changes including tetra-, poly- or aneuploidy. At the same time, malignant cells often contain supernumerary centrosomes. Aneuploidy and centrosome alterations are both hallmarks of tumor aggressiveness and increase with malignant progression. It has been proposed that aneuploidy results from a sequence of events ...
Payne Claire M - - 2010
We show, for the first time, that hydrophobic bile acids cause aberrations of the mitotic machinery of colon cells that can give rise to aneuploidy, the chromosomal perturbations common in colon tumors. First, we show that DOC induces a statistically significant fourfold increase in the number of micronuclei in NCM-460 ...
Osakada Fumitaka - - 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are derived from the inner cell mass of mammalian blastocyst stage embryos, have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body and to grow indefinitely while maintaining pluripotency. During development, cells undergo progressive and irreversible differentiation into specialized adult cell types. Remarkably, ...
Splinter Daniël - - 2010
BICD2 is one of the two mammalian homologues of the Drosophila Bicaudal D, an evolutionarily conserved adaptor between microtubule motors and their cargo that was previously shown to link vesicles and mRNP complexes to the dynein motor. Here, we identified a G2-specific role for BICD2 in the relative positioning of ...
Rathinasamy Krishnan - - 2010
Griseofulvin, an antifungal drug, has recently been shown to inhibit proliferation of various types of cancer cells and to inhibit tumor growth in athymic mice. Due to its low toxicity, griseofulvin has drawn considerable attention for its potential use in cancer chemotherapy. This work aims to understand how griseofulvin suppresses ...
Jonsdottir Asta Björk - - 2010
In cytokinesis, when the cleavage furrow has been formed, the two centrioles in each daughter cell separate. It has been suggested that the centrioles facilitate and regulate cytokinesis to some extent. It has been postulated that termination of cytokinesis (abscission) depends on the migration of a centriole to the intercellular ...
Cheung Chun Hei Antonio - - 2010
Anti-mitotic compounds (microtubule de-stabilizers) such as vincristine and vinblastine have been shown clinically successful in treating various cancers. However, development of drug-resistance cells limits their efficacies in clinical situations. Therefore, experiments were performed to determine possible drug resistance mechanisms related to the application of anti-mitotic cancer therapy. A KB-derived microtubule ...
Fanarraga Mónica López - - 2010
Microtubule-organizing centers recruit alpha- and beta-tubulin polypeptides for microtubule nucleation. Tubulin synthesis is complex, requiring five specific cofactors, designated tubulin cofactors (TBCs) A-E, which contribute to various aspects of microtubule dynamics in vivo. Here, we show that tubulin cofactor D (TBCD) is concentrated at the centrosome and midbody, where it ...
Soubry Adelheid - - 2010
Kaiso is a BTB/POZ zinc finger protein known as a transcriptional repressor. It was originally identified through its in vitro association with the Armadillo protein p120ctn. Subcellular localization of Kaiso in cell lines and in normal and cancerous human tissues revealed that its expression is not restricted to the nucleus. ...
Kandemir Nilüfer Onak - - 2010
Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma (IPM) is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm originating from smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts. It is characterized by spindle cells, amianthoid fibers, and by the proliferation of hemosiderin-containing histiocytes in the lymph node. A nodular lesion was excised from the inguinal region of an 80-year-old male patient. Macroscopic ...
Kong Zhaosheng - - 2010
Microtubule (MT) nucleation and organization depend on the evolutionarily conserved protein gamma -tubulin, which forms a complex with GCP2-GCP6 (GCP for gamma -Tubulin Complex Protein). To date, it is still unclear how GCP4-GCP6 (the non-core GCPs) may be involved in acentrosomal MT nucleation in plant cells. We found that GCP4 ...
Hage-Sleiman Rouba - - 2010
Microtubules are considered major therapeutic targets in patients with breast cancer. In spite of their essential role in biological functions including cell motility, cell division and intracellular transport, microtubules have not yet been considered as critical actors influencing tumor cell aggressivity. To evaluate the impact of microtubule mass and dynamics ...
Alieva Irina B - - 2010
To understand how microtubules contribute to the dynamic reorganization of the endothelial cell (EC) cytoskeleton, we established an EC model expressing EB3-GFP, a protein that marks microtubule plus-ends. Using this model, we were able to measure microtubule growth rate at the centrosome region and near the cell periphery of a ...
Higgins Julie - - 2010
Mutations in the Abnormal Spindle Microcephaly related gene (ASPM) are the commonest cause of autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) a disorder characterised by a small brain and associated mental retardation. ASPM encodes a mitotic spindle pole associated protein. It is suggested that the MCPH phenotype arises from proliferation defects in ...
Gu Bin - - 2010
Recent studies have shown that embryonic stem (ES) cells globally express most genes in the genome at the mRNA level; however, it is unclear whether this global expression is propagated to the protein level. Cell surface proteins could perform critical functions in ES cells, so determining whether ES cells globally ...
von Schubert Conrad - - 2010
The protozoan parasite Theileria inhabits the host cell cytoplasm and possesses the unique capacity to transform the cells it infects, inducing continuous proliferation and protection against apoptosis. The transforming schizont is a multinucleated syncytium that resides free in the host cell cytoplasm and is strictly intracellular. To maintain transformation, it ...
Samuel Temesgen - - 2010
Quercetin is a flavonoid with anticancer properties. In this study, we examined the effects of quercetin on cell cycle, viability, and proliferation of cancer cells, either singly or in combination with the microtubule-targeting drugs taxol and nocodazole. Although quercetin induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, 12.5-50 μM quercetin inhibited ...
Gomes Ismael C - - 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage early mammalian embryos. A crucial stage in the differentiation of ES cells is the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) aggregates. EB formation is based on spontaneous aggregation when ES cells are cultured in non adherent ...
Picone Remigio R Centre for Mathematics and Physics in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology, University College London, London, United - - 2010
Because physical form and function are intimately linked, mechanisms that maintain cell shape and size within strict limits are likely to be important for a wide variety of biological processes. However, while intrinsic controls have been found to contribute to the relatively well-defined shape of bacteria and yeast cells, the ...
Takesono Aya A University College London, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, London, United - - 2010
Migrating leukocytes normally have a polarized morphology with an actin-rich lamellipodium at the front and a uropod at the rear. Microtubules (MTs) are required for persistent migration and chemotaxis, but how they affect cell polarity is not known. Here we report that T cells treated with nocodazole to disrupt MTs ...
Barrett Susan L - - 2010
To investigate the role of cumulus cell contact during oocyte maturation on meiotic spindle assembly and the acquisition of developmental competence. Cumulus oocyte complexes isolated from mouse ovaries subjected to in vitro or in vivo maturation were analyzed by confocal microscopy with respect to oocyte somatic cell contacts and for ...
Kollu Swapna - - 2009
Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis relies on the organization of microtubules into a bipolar spindle. Kinesin-5 proteins play an evolutionarily conserved role in establishing spindle bipolarity [1, 2] and clinical trials are currently evaluating inhibitors of human kinesin-5 (i.e., Eg5) for chemotherapeutic potential. However, in mammalian somatic cells, Eg5 activity ...
Petersson Jessica - - 2010
TRIM22 (Staf50), a member of the TRIM protein family, is an interferon (IFN)-inducible protein as well as a p53 target gene. The function of TRIM22 is largely unknown, but TRIM22 is suggested to play a role in viral defense by restriction of viral replication. In addition, TRIM22 may function as ...
Diestel Randi - - 2009
Chivosazoles A and F, isolated from Sorangium cellulosum, showed high antiproliferative activity with different mammalian cell lines including human cancer cells. The chivosazoles caused a delay in G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and treated cells often contained two nuclei. By labeling F-actin it was shown that the actin cytoskeleton ...
Canman Julie C - - 2009
Division plane specification in animal cells has long been presumed to involve direct contact between microtubules of the anaphase mitotic spindle and the cell cortex. In this issue, von Dassow et al. (von Dassow et al. 2009. J. Cell. Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.200907090) challenge this assumption by showing that spindle microtubules can ...
von Dassow George - - 2009
Animal cells decide where to build the cytokinetic apparatus by sensing the position of the mitotic spindle. Reflecting a long-standing presumption that a furrow-inducing stimulus travels from spindle to cortex via microtubules, debate continues about which microtubules, and in what geometry, are essential for accurate cytokinesis. We used live imaging ...
Matsumoto Shouhei - - 2010
We investigated the roles of cortical microtubules in gravity-induced modifications to the development of stem organs by analyzing morphology and orientation of cortical microtubule arrays in hypocotyls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) tubulin mutants, tua3(D205N), tua4(S178Delta), and tua6(A281T), cultivated under 1g and hypergravity (300g) conditions. Hypocotyls of tubulin mutants were shorter ...
Chesarone Melissa A - - 2010
Formins are highly conserved proteins that have essential roles in remodelling the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to influence eukaryotic cell shape and behaviour. Recent work has identified numerous cellular factors that locally recruit, activate or inactivate formins to bridle and unleash their potent effects on actin nucleation and elongation. The ...
Appierto Valentina - - 2009
The retinoid 4-oxo-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-oxo-4-HPR), a metabolite of fenretinide (4-HPR) present in plasma of 4-HPR-treated patients, is very effective in inducing growth inhibition and apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. 4-Oxo-4-HPR and 4-HPR have different mechanisms of action because 4-oxo-4-HPR, unlike 4-HPR, causes marked cell accumulation in G2-M phase. Here, we ...
Li Jing - - 2009
Because cells are sensitive to mechanical forces,microgravity might act on stress-dependent cell changes. Regulation of focal adhesions (FAs) and cytoskeletal activity plays a role in cell maintenance, cell movement,and migration. Human MCF-7 cells were exposed to modeled microgravity (MMG) to test the hypothesis that migration responsiveness to microgravity is associated ...
Field Jessica J - - 2009
Zampanolide (1), a 20-membered macrolide from a Tongan marine sponge, stabilizes microtubules and blocks cells in G(2)/M of the cell cycle. Zampanolide is cytotoxic in the low nanomolar range and induces microtubule bundles in cells. It leads to tubulin assembly in cells and in purified tubulin preparations and is not ...
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