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Romagnoli Romeo - - 2010
The central role of microtubules in cell division and mitosis makes them a particularly important target for anticancer agents. On our early publication, we found that a series of 2-(3',4',5'-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3-aminobenzo[b]thiophenes exhibited strong antiproliferative activity in the submicromolar range and significantly arrested cells in the G2-M phase of the cell cycle ...
Smith Tara C - - 2010
Supervillin, the largest member of the villin/gelsolin/flightless family, is a peripheral membrane protein that regulates each step of cell motility, including cell spreading. Most known interactors bind within its amino (N)-terminus. We show here that the supervillin carboxy (C)-terminus can be modeled as supervillin-specific loops extending from gelsolin-like repeats plus ...
Graham Trevor A TA Histopathology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, London, UK. - - 2010
Recently, Quyn et al. demonstrated that cells within the stem cell zone of human and mouse intestinal crypts tend to align their mitotic spindles perpendicular to the basal membrane of the crypt. This is associated with asymmetric division, whereby particular proteins and individual chromatids are preferentially segregated to one daughter ...
Price Helen P - - 2010
The Arf-like (Arl) small GTPases have a diverse range of functions in the eukaryotic cell. Metazoan Arl2 acts as a regulator of microtubule biogenesis, binding to the tubulin-specific chaperone cofactor D. Arl2 also has a mitochondrial function through its interactions with BART and ANT-1, the only member of the Ras ...
Lesage Bart - - 2010
Drosophila neuroblasts and mouse radial glial cells can divide asymmetrically to self-renew while producing differentiating daughter cells that contribute to brain growth. Intense research activity in the past few years has started to unveil some of the processes that govern asymmetric division in these two cell types. Here we discuss ...
Sobierajska Katarzyna - - 2010
Blepharisma japonicum ciliates display reversible cell elongation in response to lasting bright illumination. This light-induced phenomenon has been ascribed to the active sliding of the cortical microtubules of the ciliate. The detailed intracellular signaling pathway that activates the microtubule network in response to light, resulting in cell elongation, is unknown. ...
Seetapun Dominique - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Breaking cell symmetry, known as polarization, requires dynamic reorganization of microtubules (MTs) and is essential to many cellular processes, including axon formation in neurons. A critical step in polarization is believed to be the "selective stabilization" of MTs, which hypothesizes a spatial and/or temporal shift toward net MT assembly ...
Woodard Geoffrey E - - 2010
In model organisms, resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (Ric-8), a G protein alpha (G alpha) subunit guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), functions to orient mitotic spindles during asymmetric cell divisions; however, whether Ric-8A has any role in mammalian cell division is unknown. We show here that Ric-8A and G ...
Rodriguez-Fraticelli Alejo E - - 2010
Epithelial organs are made of tubes and cavities lined by a monolayer of polarized cells that enclose the central lumen. Lumen formation is a crucial step in the formation of epithelial organs. The Rho guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Cdc42, which is a master regulator of cell polarity, regulates the formation of ...
Prodon Fran?ois - - 2010
Mitotic spindle orientation with respect to cortical polarity cues generates molecularly distinct daughter cells during asymmetric cell division (ACD). However, during ACD it remains unknown how the orientation of the mitotic spindle is regulated by cortical polarity cues until furrowing begins. In ascidians, the cortical centrosome-attracting body (CAB) generates three ...
Nagai Yoko Y Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, - - 2010
Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that are present on the surfaces of almost all vertebrate cells. Most cilia function as sensory or molecular transport structures. Malfunctions of cilia have been implicated in several diseases of human development. The assembly of cilia is initiated by the centriole (or basal body), and several ...
Agostini T - - 2010
Liposarcoma is a common soft tissue sarcoma accounting for approximately 20% of all mesenchymal tumours across all ages. Recently, collaborative research in the specialties of pathology and genetics has led to the delineation of several tumour variants with different behaviours and prognoses, one of which includes the very rare spindle ...
Suzuki Minako - - 2010
Primary alveolar type of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) tumor tissue was collected from the tongue of a 17-year-old Japanese woman and used to successfully establish a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line, which has been designated NUTOS. The chromosomal distribution revealed that the NUTOS cell line was hyper-tetraploid with chromosomal translocation. The cells were grown ...
Gan Pei Pei - - 2010
Overexpression of betaIII-tubulin is associated with resistance to tubulin-binding agents (TBA) in a range of tumor types. We previously showed that small interfering RNA silencing of betaIII-tubulin expression hypersensitized non-small cell lung cancer cells to TBAs. To determine whether betaIII-tubulin mediates its effect on drug-induced mitotic arrest and cell death ...
Caracciolo Valentina - - 2010
In previous studies, we have shown overexpression and ectopic subcellular distribution of gamma-tubulin and betaIII-tubulin in human glioblastomas and glioblastoma cell lines (Katsetos et al., 2006, J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 65:455-467; Katsetos et al., 2007, Neurochem Res 32:1387-1398). Here we determined the expression of gamma-tubulin in surgically excised medulloblastomas (n ...
Valinluck Michael - - 2010
Ustilago maydis is a basidiomycete fungus that exhibits a yeast-like and a filamentous form. Growth of the fungus in the host leads to additional morphological transitions. The different morphologies are characterized by distinct nuclear movements. Dynein and alpha-tubulin are required for nuclear movements and for cell morphogenesis of the yeast-like ...
Rovini Amandine - - 2010
Microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs), anticancer drugs widely used in the clinic, often induce peripheral neuropathy, a main dose-limiting side effect. The mechanism for this neurotoxicity remains poorly understood and there are still no approved therapies for neuropathies triggered by MTAs. Olesoxime (cholest-4-en-3-one, oxime; TRO19622) has shown marked neuroprotective properties in animals ...
Cao Jian - - 2010
Proper centrosome separation is a prerequisite for positioning the bipolar spindle. Although studies demonstrate that microtubules (MTs) and their associated motors drive centrosome separation [1], the role of actin in centrosome separation remains less clear. Studies in tissue culture cells indicate that actin- and myosin-based cortical flow is primarily responsible ...
Heng Yi-Wen - - 2010
The network of actin filaments is one of the crucial cytoskeletal structures contributing to the morphological framework of a cell and which participates in the dynamic regulation of cellular functions. In adherent cell types, cells adhere to the substratum during interphase and spread to assume their characteristic shape supported by ...
Lim James I - - 2010
Directed cell migration requires continuous cycles of protrusion of the leading edge and contraction to pull up the cell rear. How these spatially distributed processes are coordinated to maintain a state of persistent protrusion remains unknown. During wound healing responses of epithelial sheets, cells along the wound edge display two ...
Pesquet Edouard - - 2010
Xylem tracheary elements (TEs) form hollow, sap-conducting tubes kept open by thickened ribs of secondary cell wall that provide the major structural element in wood. These ribs are enriched with cellulose and lignin, molecules that utilize more atmospheric CO(2) than any other biopolymer on Earth. The thickenings form characteristic patterns ...
Zheng Zhen - - 2010
Coordinated cell polarization and mitotic spindle orientation are thought to be important for epithelial morphogenesis. Whether spindle orientation is indeed linked to epithelial morphogenesis and how it is controlled at the molecular level is still unknown. Here, we show that the NuMA- and Galpha-binding protein LGN is required for directing ...
Barr Alexis R - - 2010
The centrosomal protein, CDK5RAP2, is mutated in primary microcephaly, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by reduced brain size. The Drosophila melanogaster homologue of CDK5RAP2, centrosomin (Cnn), maintains the pericentriolar matrix (PCM) around centrioles during mitosis. In this study, we demonstrate a similar role for CDK5RAP2 in vertebrate cells. By disrupting two ...
O'Neill M A - - 2010
Usnic acid, a lichen metabolite, is known to exert antimitotic and antiproliferative activities against normal and malignant human cells. Many chemotherapy agents exert their activities by blocking cell cycle progression, inducing cell death through apoptosis. Microtubules, protein structure involved in the segregation of chromosomes during mitosis, serve as chemotherapeutical targets ...
Archambault Vincent - - 2010
Centrosomes act as major microtubule-organizing centers in most cell types. Their functions in interphase and mitosis are usually facilitated by their association with the nucleus. This may be particularly true in very large cells. Several papers report free centrosomes in syncytial Drosophila embryos. However, this phenotype often remains little explored. ...
Nguyen Vy - - 2010
Bilberry (European blueberry) has been reported to have many biological effects, including anticancer activity. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects of bilberry extract in relation to its ability to induce apoptosis and affect microtubule assembly and organization in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. We observed that bilberry extract ...
Yamada Masami - - 2010
Lissencephaly is a devastating neurological disorder caused by to defective neuronal migration. LIS1 (or PAFAH1B1), the gene mutated in lissencephaly patients and its binding protein NDEL1 were found to regulate cytoplasmic dynein function and localization. LIS1 and NDEL1 also play a pivotal role on a microtubule regulation and determination of ...
Goldyn Alexandra M - - 2010
The cytoskeleton is an important factor in the functional and structural adaption of cells to mechanical forces. In this study we investigated the impact of microtubules and the acto-myosin machinery on the kinetics of force-induced reorientation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. These cells were subjected to uniaxial stretching forces that are known ...
Tokési Natália - - 2010
TPPP/p25 (tubulin polymerization-promoting protein/p25) is an unstructured protein that induces microtubule polymerization in vitro and is aligned along the microtubule network in transfected mammalian cells. In normal human brain, TPPP/p25 is expressed predominantly in oligodendrocytes, where its expression is proved to be crucial for their differentiation process. Here we demonstrated ...
Wang Yubao - - 2010
The invasion of host cells by Toxoplasma gondii is accompanied by a reorganization of host cell structure, in which the host centrosome and Golgi apparatus are localized to the vacuole, and mitochondria, microtubules, and endolysosomes are recruited to the vacuole perimeter. The mechanism and functional significance of this process have ...
Goldbach Philip - - 2010
The scaffolding protein anillin is required for completion of cytokinesis. Anillin binds filamentous (F) actin, nonmuscle myosin II, and septins and in cell culture models has been shown to restrict actomyosin contractility to the cleavage furrow. Whether anillin also serves this function during the incomplete cytokinesis that occurs in developing ...
Yang Chia-Ping Huang - - 2010
Centromere associated protein-E (CENP-E), a mitotic checkpoint protein, is required for efficient, stable microtubule capture at kinetochores during mitosis. Absence of CENP-E results in misaligned chromosomes leading to metaphase arrest. Microtubule-interacting agents such as Taxol and epothilone B (EpoB), at concentrations that induce mitotic arrest, transiently increase expression of CENP-E ...
Keller-Pinter Aniko - - 2010
During mitosis, cells detach, and the cell-matrix interactions become restricted. At the completion of cytokinesis, the two daughter cells are still connected transiently by an intercellular bridge (ICB), which is subjected to abscission, as the terminal step of cytokinesis. Cell adhesion to the matrix is mediated by syndecan-4 (SDC4) transmembrane ...
Yonetani Ann - - 2010
For successful cell division, cytokinesis must be properly timed to occur only after the segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, contractile ring assembly initiates at the onset of mitosis, and ring contraction occurs concomitant with septation at the end of anaphase. Although many of the ...
Basora Nuria - - 2010
In this study, we have analyzed the expression and localization of polycystin-1 in intestinal epithelial cells, a system lacking primary cilia. Polycystin-1 was found to be expressed in the epithelium of the small intestine during development and levels remained elevated in the adult. Dual-labelling indirect immunofluorescence revealed polycystin-1 at sites ...
Johnson Mary Kathrine - - 2010
When hydroxyurea and caffeine are added to Chinese hamster ovary cells, the cells bypass the S-phase checkpoint, and enter unscheduled mitosis. These cells build a morphologically normal spindle, and distribute unreplicated kinetochore fragments to daughters. We examined these cells and found that they undergo a full repertoire of mitotic stages, ...
Jeffery J M - - 2010
The proper function of the spindle is crucial to the high fidelity of chromosome segregation and is indispensable for tumor suppression in humans. Centrobin is a recently identified centrosomal protein that has a role in stabilizing the microtubule structure. Here we functionally characterize the defects in centrosome integrity and spindle ...
Wang Shan - - 2010
Ribosomal large subunit protein RPL41 is a basic (positively charged) peptide consisting of only 25 amino acids. An antisense-based functional screening revealed that the down-regulation of RPL41 led to an anchorage-independent growth of NIH3T3 cells in soft agar plates. RPL41 depletion with gene-specific small interfering RNA also resulted in malignant ...
Manca P - - 2010
2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME), a metabolite deriving from 17-beta estradiol, is a well-established antiangiogenic, apoptotic and antiproliferative agent in cell cultures and animal models. 2ME may also exert its cytotoxic activity by interacting with tubulin and by causing an impairment of the microtubular system. The aim of this study was to investigate ...
Bheda Anjali - - 2010
Microtubules are essential components of the cytoskeleton and are involved in many aspects of cell responses including cell division, migration, and intracellular signal transduction. Among other factors, post-translational modifications play a significant role in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin-editing enzyme UCH L1, abundant expression ...
Saha Sougata - - 2010
Actin arginylation regulates lamella formation in motile fibroblasts, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. To understand how arginylation affects the actin cytoskeleton, we investigated the biochemical properties and the structural organization of actin filaments in wild-type and arginyltransferase (Ate1) knockout cells. We found that Ate1 knockout results in a ...
Chan Ariane - - 2011
Peloruside A (PelA), a novel microtubule-stabilizing agent and potential anti-cancer drug, isolated from the marine sponge Mycale hentscheli, binds to a distinct, non-taxoid binding site on tubulin. Using live-cell confocal microscopy, the effects of PelA on microtubule dynamics were quantified in a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7) stably expressing ...
Gonçalves João - - 2010
In animal cells the centrosome is positioned at the cell centre in close association with the nucleus. The mechanisms responsible for this are not completely understood. Here, we report the first characterization of human TBCC-domain containing 1 (TBCCD1), a protein related to tubulin cofactor C. TBCCD1 localizes at the centrosome ...
Riparbelli Maria Giovanna - - 2010
Centrioles are involved in the formation of cilia and flagella and in the organization of the centrosome, the main microtubule-organizing center of the cell. Since structural and functional centriole aberrations can contribute to several human diseases, these organelles have recently focused the attention of cell biologists. Here, we review data ...
Seitzer Ulrike - - 2010
Intracellular leukoproliferative Theileria are unique as eukaryotic organisms that transform the immune cells of their ruminant host. Theileria utilize the uncontrolled proliferation for rapid multiplication and distribution into host daughter cells. The parasite distribution into the daughter cells is accompanied by a tight association with the host cell mitotic apparatus. ...
Wu Yi-Chen - - 2010
Glyfoline exhibits cytotoxic activity in vitro and antitumor activity in mice bearing murine or human solid tumors, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In our study, we found that glyfoline inhibited cell growth and induced accumulation of mitotic cells in human cancer cell lines. Glyfoline induced the appearance of spindle ...
Du Yaqing - - 2010
Motility is a fundamentally important property of most members of the kinesin superfamily, but a rare subset of kinesins are also able to alter microtubule dynamics. At kinetochore-microtubule plus ends, the kinesin-8 family member Kif18A is essential to align mitotic chromosomes at the spindle equator during cell division, but how ...
Greenan Garrett - - 2010
Just as the size of an organism is carefully controlled, the size of intracellular structures must also be regulated. The mitotic spindle is a supramolecular machine that generates the forces which separate sister chromatids during mitosis. Although spindles show little size variation between cells of the same type, spindle length ...
Moore Jeffrey K - - 2010
In many cell divisions, the position of the spindle apparatus is coordinated with polarity signals at the cell cortex so that copies of the genome are delivered to regions of the cell that are designated for differential inheritance by the two progeny. To coordinate spindle position with cell polarity, the ...
Ferenz Nick P - - 2010
In all eukaryotic cells, molecular motor proteins play essential roles in spindle assembly and function. The homotetrameric kinesin-5 motors in particular generate outward forces that establish and maintain spindle bipolarity and contribute to microtubule flux. Cell-cycle dependent phosphorylation of kinesin-5 motors regulates their localization to the mitotic spindle. Analysis of ...
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