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Chen Shaolin - - 2010
The CESA1 component of cellulose synthase is phosphorylated at sites clustered in two hypervariable regions of the protein. Mutations of the phosphorylated residues to Ala (A) or Glu (E) alter anisotropic cell expansion and cellulose synthesis in rapidly expanding roots and hypocotyls. Expression of T166E, S686E, or S688E mutants of ...
Li Xiao-Li - - 2011
Prion protein (PrP) is able to bind with tubulin and to interfere with the formation of microtubule. To investigate the influence of accumulation of cytosolic PrP in cytoplasm on microtubule, plasmid pcDNA3.1-PrP23-230 expressing human PrP23-230 was introduced into HeLa cells. Immunoprecipitation assays identified the molecular interaction between cytosolic PrP and ...
Uetake Yumi - - 2010
The mitotic checkpoint maintains genomic stability by blocking the metaphase-anaphase transition until all kinetochores attach to spindle microtubules [1, 2]. However, some defects are not detected by this checkpoint. With low concentrations of microtubule-targeting agents, the checkpoint eventually becomes satisfied, though the spindles may be short and/or multipolar [3, 4] ...
Cappell Kathryn M KM Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7365, - - 2010
Using a pangenomic loss-of-function screening strategy, we have previously identified 76 potent modulators of paclitaxel responsiveness in non-small-cell lung cancer. The top hit isolated from this screen, symplekin, is a well-established component of the mRNA polyadenylation machinery. Here, we performed a high-resolution phenotypic analysis to reveal the mechanistic underpinnings by ...
Cabernard Clemens C Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, - - 2010
The mitotic spindle determines the cleavage furrow site during metazoan cell division, but whether other mechanisms exist remains unknown. Here we identify a spindle-independent mechanism for cleavage furrow positioning in Drosophila neuroblasts. We show that early and late furrow proteins (Pavarotti, Anillin, and Myosin) are localized to the neuroblast basal ...
Recino Asha A Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, - - 2010
RASSF7, a member of the N-terminal Ras association domain family, has increased expression in various cancers and, on the basis of our previous work in Xenopus embryos, may be a regulator of mitosis. In the present study, we address, for the first time, the role of human RASSF7 in mitosis. ...
Bunnell Tina M TM Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455, - - 2010
Actins are among the most highly expressed proteins in eukaryotes and play a central role in nearly all aspects of cell biology. While the intricate process of development undoubtedly requires a properly regulated actin cytoskeleton, little is known about the contributions of different actin isoforms during embryogenesis. Of the six ...
Vanden Bosch An - - 2010
Mitotic spindle assembly is mediated by two processes: a centrosomal and a chromosomal pathway. RanGTP regulates the latter process by releasing microtubule-associated proteins from inhibitory complexes. NuSAP, a microtubule- and DNA-binding protein, is a target of RanGTP and promotes the formation of microtubules near chromosomes. However, the contribution of NuSAP ...
Holt Brian D - - 2010
The ability of globular actin to form filaments and higher-order network structures of the cytoskeleton is essential for cells to maintain their shape and perform essential functions such as force generation, motility, and division. Alterations of actin structures can dramatically change a cell's ability to function. We found that purified ...
Radulescu S S CR-UK Beatson Institute of Cancer Research, Glasgow, - - 2010
Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor are the key initiating event of colorectal cancer. Although the control of WNT signalling is well established as a central tumour-suppressive function, the significance of APC in regulating chromosome instability is less well established. In this study, we test whether APC-deficient ...
Chan Leon Y - - 2010
How spatial information is translated into a chemical signal is a fundamental problem in all organisms. The spindle position checkpoint is a prime example of this problem. This checkpoint senses spindle position and, in budding yeast, inhibits the mitotic exit network (MEN), a signaling pathway that promotes exit from mitosis. ...
Yasuhara Hiroki - - 2011
TMBP200 from tobacco BY-2 cells is a member of the highly conserved family of microtubule-associated proteins that includes Xenopus XMAP215, human TOGp, and Arabidopsis MOR1/GEM1. XMAP215 homologues have an essential role in spindle assembly and function in animals and yeast, but their role in plant mitosis is not fully clarified. ...
Godin Juliette D JD Institut Curie, Orsay F-91405, - - 2010
Huntingtin is the protein mutated in Huntington's disease, a devastating neurodegenerative disorder. We demonstrate here that huntingtin is essential to control mitosis. Huntingtin is localized at spindle poles during mitosis. RNAi-mediated silencing of huntingtin in cells disrupts spindle orientation by mislocalizing the p150(Glued) subunit of dynactin, dynein, and the large ...
Musacchio Andrea - - 2010
Prior to anaphase, sister chromatids must be attached to microtubules and under tension, a condition that satisfies the spindle checkpoint. Removal of sister chromatid cohesion is predicted to cause a fall in tension. Two studies shed light on how cells avoid re-activation of the spindle checkpoint when cohesion is lost.
Allard Jun F - - 2010
Microtubules anchored to the two-dimensional cortex of plant cells collide through plus-end polymerization. Collisions can result in rapid depolymerization, directional plus-end entrainment, or crossover. These interactions are believed to give rise to cellwide self-organization of plant cortical microtubules arrays, which is required for proper cell wall growth. Although the cell-wide ...
Yang Hailing - - 2010
Drugs that target microtubules are thought to inhibit cell division and cell migration by suppressing dynamic instability, a "search and capture" behavior that allows microtubules to probe their environment. Here, we report that subtoxic drug concentrations are sufficient to inhibit plus-end microtubule dynamic instability and cell migration without affecting cell ...
Kim Nam Doo - - 2010
Microtubule cytoskeletons are involved in many essential functions throughout the life cycle of cells, including transport of materials into cells, cell movement, and proper progression of cell division. Small compounds that can bind at the colchicine site of tubulin have drawn great attention because these agents can suppress or inhibit ...
Lulevich Valentin V Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, - - 2010
Keratinocytes represent the major cell type of the uppermost layer of human skin, the epidermis. Using AFM-based single cell compression, the ability of individual keratinocytes to resist external pressure and global rupturing forces is investigated and compared with various cell types. Keratinocytes are found to be 6-70 times stiffer than ...
Tai Cheng-Jeng - - 2010
Microtubules are part of cell structures that play a role in regulating the migration of cancer cells. The cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CSE1L/CAS) protein is a microtubule-associated protein that is highly expressed in cancer. We report here that CSE1L regulates the association of α-tubulin with β-tubulin and promotes the migration of ...
Nayak Tania - - 2010
A cold-sensitive gamma-tubulin allele of Aspergillus nidulans, mipAD159, causes defects in mitotic and cell cycle regulation at restrictive temperatures that are apparently independent of microtubule nucleation defects. Time-lapse microscopy of fluorescently tagged mitotic regulatory proteins reveals that cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, and the Ancdc14 phosphatase fail to accumulate in ...
Shahabi Shohreh - - 2010
Epothilone B (EpoB), like Taxol, stabilizes microtubules resulting in an inhibition of microtubule dynamic instability. The drug is being evaluated in phase III clinical trials. An EpoB analog, Ixabepilone, was approved by the FDA for the treatment of taxane-resistant metastatic breast cancer. Epithelial cell adhesion antigen (EpCAM) expression is significantly ...
Tominaga Makoto - - 2010
Neurite elongation is a critical process in the formation of nerve systems from neural cells. During metamorphosis, the holometabolous insect Drosophila melanogaster reorganizes its central nervous system (CNS) under the influence of the steroid molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). A neural cell line that responds to 20E treatment is therefore desired ...
Hirokawa Mitsuyoshi - - 2010
We report three benign nodular goiters associated with spindle cell component. The spindle cells were bland, and showed short fascicular pattern or formed small nests. The cytoplasm was pale or clear. A transition between follicular cells and the spindle cells was observed. Immunohistochemically, they were positive for thyroglobulin and thyroid ...
Li Yanhua - - 2010
Formins have long been known to regulate microfilaments but have also recently been shown to associate with microtubules. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana FORMIN14 (AFH14), a type II formin, was found to regulate both microtubule and microfilament arrays. AFH14 expressed in BY-2 cells was shown to decorate preprophase bands, spindles, ...
Bielak-Zmijewska A - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: Curcumin, a natural compound, is a potent anti-cancer agent, which inhibits cell division and/or induces cell death. It is believed that normal cells are less sensitive to curcumin than malignant cells; however, the mechanism(s) responsible for curcumin's effect on normal cells are poorly understood. The aim of this study ...
Wang Lei - - 2010
Spindle cell B-cell lymphoma is a rare morphologic variant of B-cell lymphoma that is generally associated with follicle center cell origin. It is typically found on the skin and presents as single nodule or plaque with a diameter of several centimeters. It is also characterized by abnormal spindle cells with ...
Keller Lani C LC Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, UCSF, San Francisco, California 94158, - - 2010
The functional role of centrioles or basal bodies in mitotic spindle assembly and function is currently unclear. Although supernumerary centrioles have been associated with multipolar spindles in cancer cells, suggesting centriole number might dictate spindle polarity, bipolar spindles are able to assemble in the complete absence of centrioles, suggesting a ...
Samereier Matthias - - 2011
We have localized TACC to the microtubule-nucleating centrosomal corona and to microtubule plus ends. Using RNAi we proved that Dictyostelium TACC promotes microtubule growth during interphase and mitosis. For the first time we show in vivo that both TACC and XMAP215 family proteins can be differentially localized to microtubule plus ...
Larson Stephanie M - - 2010
Cell division is inherently mechanical, with cell mechanics being a critical determinant governing the cell shape changes that accompany progression through the cell cycle. The mechanical properties of symmetrically dividing mitotic cells have been well characterized, whereas the contribution of cellular mechanics to the strikingly asymmetric divisions of female meiosis ...
Wu Mingfu - - 2010
During heart morphogenesis, epicardial cells undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migrate into the subepicardium. The cellular signals controlling this process are poorly understood. Here, we show that epicardial cells exhibit two distinct mitotic spindle orientations, directed either parallel or perpendicular to the basement membrane. Cells undergoing perpendicular cell division ...
Alliegro Mary Anne - - 2010
The nucleolinus is an RNA-rich compartment, closely apposed to or embedded within the nucleolus. Discovered over 150 y ago, fewer than two dozen articles have been published on the nucleolinus, probably because complex histochemical stains are required for its visualization in the great majority of cells. The nucleolinus has been ...
Choudhury Diptiman - - 2010
Ginger has a long history of use as traditional medicine for varied human disease. Our present study has shown that the aqueous extract of ginger (GAE) interacts directly with cellular microtubules and disrupts its structure and induces apoptosis of cancer cells as well. The IC(50) values of GAE, as determined ...
Banerjee Mithu - - 2010
In this study, curcumin, a potential anticancer agent, was found to dampen the dynamic instability of individual microtubules in living MCF-7 cells. It strongly reduced the rate and extent of shortening states, and modestly reduced the rate and extent of growing states. In addition, curcumin decreased the fraction of time ...
Zhou Jian - - 2010
During morphogenesis, forces generated by cells are coordinated and channeled by the viscoelastic properties of the embryo. Microtubules and F-actin are considered to be two of the most important structural elements within living cells accounting for both force production and mechanical stiffness. In this paper, we investigate the contribution of ...
Benítez-King Gloria - - 2010
Haloperidol a typical antipsychotic commonly used in the treatment of schizophrenia causes neuronal damage and extrapiramidal symptoms after several years of treatment. These symptoms have been associated with increased levels of oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species produce cytoskeletal collapse and an excessive phosphorylation of tau, a microtubule-associated protein that plays ...
An Songon - - 2010
Evidence has been presented for a metabolic multienzyme complex, the purinosome, that participates in de novo purine biosynthesis to form clusters in the cytoplasm of living cells under purine-depleted conditions. Here we identified, using fluorescent live cell imaging, that a microtubule network appears to physically control the spatial distribution of ...
Khaleghian Ali - - 2010
Euphorbia tirucalli (Euphorbiaceae family) an environmental risk factor for Burkitt's lymphoma also has pharmacological activities. In the northeast of region in Brazil its latex is used as an antimicrobial, antiparasitic in the treatment of coughs, rheumatism, cancer and other disease as folk treatment. The prevalent constituents of this plant latex ...
Fanarraga Mónica López - - 2010
Despite its fundamental role in centrosome biology, procentriole formation, both in the canonical and in the de novo replication pathways, remains poorly understood, and the molecular components that are involved in human cells are not well established. We found that one of the tubulin cofactors, TBCD, is localized at centrosomes ...
Golan Amnon - - 2010
Two major control systems regulate early stages of mitosis: activation of Cdk1 and anaphase control through assembly and disassembly of the mitotic spindle. In parallel to cell cycle progression, centrosomal duplication is regulated through proteins including Nek2. Recent studies suggest that centrosome-localized Chk1 forestalls premature activation of centrosomal Cdc25b and ...
Huff Lyn M - - 2010
We sought to examine the effects of microtubule-targeting agents (MTA) on neural cells to better understand the problem of neurotoxicity, their principal side effect, and to possibly develop a model of clinical toxicity. Studies showed that microtubule-depolymerizing agents (MDA) not only disassembled microtubules in neural HCN2 cells but also led ...
Zhou Wenbai - - 2010
Tubulin polymerization promoting protein 3 (TPPP3), a member of the TPPP family, can induce tubulin polymerization and microtubule bundling. Previously, it has been shown that TPPP3 plays an important role in cell proliferation. Depletion of TPPP3 by microRNA-based RNA interference (RNAi) inhibits cell growth, arrests cell cycles, and causes mitotic ...
Uppal Sonal O - - 2010
The current prognostic parameters, including tumor volume, biochemistry, or immunohistochemistry, are not sufficient to reflect the properties of cancer cells that distinguish them from normal cells. Our focus is to evaluate the effects of a combination of microtubule-polymerizing Taxol and -depolymerizing colchicine on IAR20 PC1 liver cells by measuring the ...
Das Amlan - - 2010
Parabenzoquinone (1,4-benzoquinone) (PBQ) is a bioactve quinone present in cigarette smoke and diesel smoke, which causes severe genotoxic effects both in vitro and in vivo. In the previous study, we showed that the microtubules are one of the major targets of cigarette smoke-induced damage of lung epithelium cells. In the ...
Frey Nicole - - 2010
Interaction and cross-talk between microtubules and actin microfilaments are important for numerous processes during plant growth and development, including the control of cell elongation and tissue expansion, but little is known about the molecular components of this interaction. Plant kinesins with the calponin-homology domain (KCH) were recently identified and associated ...
Loncarek Jadranka - - 2010
Supernumerary centrioles lead to abnormal mitosis, which in turn promotes tumorigenesis. Thus, centriole duplication must be coordinated with the cell cycle to ensure that the number of centrioles in the cell doubles precisely during each cell cycle. However, in some transformed cells, centrioles undergo multiple rounds of duplication (reduplication) during ...
Zhang Jingjing - - 2010
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a significant hereditary renal disease occurring in infancy and childhood, which presents with greatly enlarged echogenic kidneys, ultimately leading to renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease. ARPKD is caused by mutations in a single gene PKHD1, which encodes fibrocystin/polyductin (FPC), a large single ...
Barrera Jose A JA Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390, - - 2010
Centriole duplication occurs once per cell cycle, ensuring that each cell contains two centrosomes, each containing a mother-daughter pair of tightly engaged centrioles at mitotic entry. Loss of the tight engagement between mother and daughter centrioles appears to license the next round of centriole duplication. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating ...
Chia Keeming - - 2010
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are currently in trial or are in clinical use for the treatment of a number of tumor types. The clinical efficacy of HDACis can be partly attributed to the modulation of the cell cycle by the HDACis. Here, we have examined the effects of N-(2-aminophenyl)-4-((4-pyridin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-ylamino)methyl)benzamide (MGCD0103), ...
Hu Entan - - 2010
The function of centrosome that serves as the main microtubule organizing center is essential to ensure the genomic integrity during the cell division cycle. Centrosome abnormalities are frequently observed in many tumors and cells exposed to genotoxic agents. Here, we investigated the centrosome abnormalities induced by diethyl sulfate (DES) in ...
Patzke Sebastian - - 2010
We described previously the cell cycle- and microtubule-related functions of two splice isoforms of the centrosome spindle pole-associated protein (CSPP and CSPP-L). Here, we show that endogenous CSPP isoforms not only localize to centrosomes and the midbody in cycling cells but also extend to the cilia axoneme in postmitotic resting ...
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