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O'Reilly Linda P - - 2011
Programmed cell death is critical not only in adult tissue homeostasis but for embryogenesis as well. One of the earliest steps in development, formation of the proamniotic cavity, involves coordinated apoptosis of embryonic cells. Recent work from our group demonstrated that c-Src protein-tyrosine kinase activity triggers differentiation of mouse embryonic ...
Wu Chia-Yen - - 2011
Deletion or mutation(s) of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a neuromuscular disease characterized by spinal motor neuron death and muscle paralysis. Complete loss of the SMN protein is embryonically lethal, yet reduced levels of this protein result in selective death of motor neurons. ...
Zhang Bo - - 2011
Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by over-expression of defined factors, and pluripotency has been confirmed by the tetraploid complementation assay. However, especially in human cells, estimating the quality of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell(iPSC) is still difficult. Here, we present a novel supervised method for the assessment ...
Ruan Jing - - 2011
Efficient preparation and labeling of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is a great challenge in stem cell research and development. With the aim of investigating the feasibility of using nanotechnology to enhance the preparation efficiency of iPS cells and to label iPS cells for long-term tracing and imaging, in ...
Niu Wei - - 2011
We have described a protocol for performing high-throughput immunofluorescence microscopy on microarrays of yeast cells. This approach employs immunostaining of spheroplasted yeast cells printed as high-density cell microarrays, followed by imaging using automated microscopy. A yeast spheroplast microarray can contain more than 5,000 printed spots, each containing cells from a ...
Nichols Jennifer J Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK. - - 2011
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are used extensively in biomedical research and as a model with which to study early mammalian development, but their exact origin has been subject to much debate. They are routinely derived from pre-implantation embryos, but it has been suggested that the cells that give rise to ...
Fujikawa-Yamamoto Kohzaburo - - 2011
Hexaploid H1 (ES) cells (6H1 cells) were established from octaploid H1 cells (8H1 cells), as were pentaploid H1 cells (5H1 cells). 6H1 cells were compared with 5H1 cells. The number of chromosomes of 6H1 cells was 115, 20 more than the 95 of 5H1 cells. The durations of G(1), S, ...
Riaz Amjad - - 2011
Mouse cloning from fertilized eggs can assist development of approaches for the production of "genetically tailored" human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that are not constrained by the limitations of oocyte availability. However, to date only zygotes have been successfully used as recipients of nuclei from terminally differentiated somatic cell ...
Muramoto Kazuyo - - 2010
To investigate the effects of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract (ESE) on cellular aging, intracellular calcium homeostasis in young and senescent cells was analyzed using a rat fibroblast culture as an in vitro model system and a calcium imaging technique. The application of bradykinin (BK) transiently elicited intracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) ...
Zhang Zhuo - - 2010
Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) has been implicated in embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency; however, the mechanistic roles of this complex are unclear. It was assumed that ES cells contain PRC2 with the same subunit composition as that identified in HeLa cells and Drosophila embryos. Here we report that PRC2 ...
Prigione Alessandro - - 2010
Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells transforms differentiated cells to an embryonic stem (ES) cell-like state characterized by the acquisition of pluripotency and self-renewal capabilities. We recently demonstrated that human ES and iPS cells share similar mitochondrial properties and bioenergetic metabolism, which are distinct from those of ...
Li Hsin-Yang - - 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cell transplantation represents a potential means for the treatment of degenerative diseases and injuries. As appropriate distribution of transplanted ES cells in the host tissue is critical for successful transplantation, the exploration of efficient strategies to enhance ES cell migration is warranted. In this study we investigated ...
Jin Jonghwa - - 2010
The recent generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represents a novel opportunity to complement embryonic stem (ES) cell-based approaches. iPS cells can be generated by viral transduction of specific transcription factors, but there is a potential risk of tumorigenicity by random retroviral integration. We have generated novel iPS (sFB-protein-iPS) ...
Ruiz Sergio S Gene Expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2011
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells show an atypical cell-cycle regulation characterized by a high proliferation rate and a short G1 phase. In fact, a shortened G1 phase might protect ES cells from external signals inducing differentiation, as shown for certain stem cells. It has been suggested that self-renewal and pluripotency ...
Haque Amranul - - 2011
Generation of specific lineages of cells from embryonic stem (ES) cells is pre-requisite to use these cells in pre-clinical applications. Here, we developed a recombinant E-cadherin substratum for generation of hepatic progenitor populations at single cell level. This artificial acellular feeder layer supports the stepwise differentiation of ES cells to ...
Li Qing-Run - - 2011
Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and capable of unlimited self-renewal. Elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanism may contribute to the advancement of cell-based regenerative medicine. In the present work, we performed a large scale analysis of the phosphoproteome in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. Using multiplex strategies, we detected 4581 ...
Mohamet Lisa - - 2011
E-cadherin is the primary cell adhesion molecule within the epithelium, and loss of this protein is associated with a more aggressive tumour phenotype and poorer patient prognosis in many cancers. Loss of E-cadherin is a defining characteristic of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process associated with tumour cell metastasis. We have ...
Okita Keisuke - - 2010
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from patient's somatic cells could be a useful source for drug discovery and cell transplantation therapies. However, there are still several problems to be solved in terms of safety concerns. We herein summarize the current knowledge about iPS cells and the ...
Murakami Kazuhiro K Laboratory for Pluripotent Stem Cell Studies, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology (CDB), Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, - - 2011
In female mammals, one of two X chromosomes is epigenetically inactivated for gene dosage compensation, known as X inactivation (Xi). Inactivation occurs randomly in either the paternal or maternal X chromosome in all embryonic cell lineages, designated as random Xi. By contrast, in extra-embryonic cell lineages, which are segregated from ...
Huang Hai-Jun - - 2011
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have been investigated in many animal models of severe injury and degenerative disease. However, few studies have examined the ability of ES cells to improve functional outcome following mammary gland injury. This study investigates the feasibility of implanting mouse ES cells labeled with enhanced green fluorescence ...
Wada Haruka - - 2011
Forced expression of certain transcription factors in somatic cells results in generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which differentiate into various cell types. We investigated T-cell and B-cell lineage differentiation from iPS cells in vitro. To evaluate the impact of iPS cell source, murine splenic B-cell-derived iPS (B-iPS) cells ...
Li Fuming - - 2010
Induction of definitive endoderm (DE) cells is a prerequisite for the whole process of embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiating into hepatic or pancreatic progenitor cells. We have established an efficient method to induce mouse ES cell-derived DE cells in suspension embryonic body (EB) culture. Similar to previous studies, mouse ES ...
Gridina Maria M - - 2010
Immunofluorescent analysis of markers specific for parental genomes was used to study heterokaryons and hybrid cells soon after the fusion of diploid embryonic stem (ES) cells marked with green fluorescent protein and diploid fibroblasts labeled by blue fluorescent beads. Heterokaryons were identified by an analysis of parental mitochondrial DNAs. Within ...
Ségalen Marion - - 2010
The Frizzled receptor and Dishevelled effector regulate mitotic spindle orientation in both vertebrates and invertebrates, but how Dishevelled orients the mitotic spindle is unknown. Using the Drosophila S2 cell "induced polarity" system, we find that Dishevelled cortical polarity is sufficient to orient the spindle and that Dishevelled's DEP domain mediates ...
Woodruff Jeffrey B JB Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2010
The mitotic spindle is a complex and dynamic structure. Although much has been learned about how spindles assemble and mediate chromosome segregation, how spindles rapidly and irreversibly disassemble during telophase is less clear. We used synthetic lethal screens in budding yeast to identify mutants defective in spindle disassembly. Real-time, live ...
Karna P P Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, - - 2011
We have previously shown that a non-toxic noscapinoid, EM011 binds tubulin without altering its monomer/polymer ratio. EM011 is more active than the parent molecule, noscapine, in inducing G2/M arrest, inhibiting cellular proliferation and tumor growth in various human xenograft models. However, the mechanisms of mitotic-block and subsequent cell death have ...
Maly V I - - 2010
Many cell cytoskeletons include an aster of microtubules, with the centrosome serving as the focal point. The position of the centrosome within the cell is important in such directional activities as wound closure and interactions of immune cells. Here we analyzed the centrosome positioning as it is dictated by microtubule ...
Luo Xianwen - - 2010
To examine the alteration in cellular characteristics of polyploid embryonic stem (ES) cells during long-term culturing without leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), mouse diploid and tetraploid H-1 (ES) cells (2H1 and 4H1 cells, respectively) were cultured without LIF for approximately 5 months. 2H1 and 4H1 cells were adapted to the medium ...
Takaku Yasuharu - - 2011
Little is known about how the size of an adult animal is determined and regulated. To investigate this issue in hydra, we altered the body size by surgically removing a part of the body column and/or by axial grafting, and examined changes of column length with time. When the body ...
Bian MingLei - - 2010
Paclitaxel is a widely used microtubule drug and cancer medicine. Here we report that by short exposure to paclitaxel at a low dose, multipolar spindles were induced in mitotic cells without centrosome amplification. Both TPX2 depletion and Aurora-A overexpression antagonized the multipolarity. Live cell imaging showed that some paclitaxel-treated cells ...
Jakobiec Frederick A - - 2010
To distinguish, in a 36-year-old man, an atypical lipomatous neoplasm/well-differentiated liposarcoma from a spindle cell lipoma in a recurrent orbital tumor. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic evaluations coupled with immunohistochemical studies for CD34, factor XIII, bcl-2, S-100, muscle-specific actin, Ki-67, and MDM2. MDM2 gene amplification was discovered in the CD34 tumor ...
Collins Elizabeth S - - 2010
When CHO cells are arrested in S-phase, they undergo repeated rounds of centrosome duplication without cell-cycle progression. While the increase is slow and asynchronous, the number of centrosomes in these cells does rise with time. To investigate mechanisms controlling this duplication, we have arrested CHO cells in S-phase for up ...
Manneville Jean-Baptiste - - 2010
Centrosome positioning is crucial during cell division, cell differentiation, and for a wide range of cell-polarized functions including migration. In multicellular organisms, centrosome movement across the cytoplasm is thought to result from a balance of forces exerted by the microtubule-associated motor dynein. However, the mechanisms regulating dynein-mediated forces are still ...
AbouAlaiwi Wissam A - - 2011
Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary and systemic disorder associated with various cardiovascular complications. It has been implicated with dysfunction in primary cilia. We and others have shown that the immediate function of endothelial cilia is to sense extracellular signal. The long-term function of cilia is ...
Zhu Jie - - 2010
The centrosome position in many types of interphase cells is actively maintained in the cell center. Our previous work indicated that the centrosome is kept at the center by pulling force generated by dynein and actin flow produced by myosin contraction and that an unidentified factor that depends on microtubule ...
Ganguly Anutosh A Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin St., Houston, TX 77030, - - 2010
We previously described the isolation of Tax 18 and Tax 11-6, two paclitaxel-dependent cell lines that assemble low amounts of microtubule polymer and require the drug for cell division. In the present studies, fluorescence time-lapse microscopy was used to measure microtubule dynamic instability behavior in these cells. The mutations were ...
Riparbelli Maria Giovanna - - 2011
The orientation of the mitotic spindle plays a central role in specifying stem cell-renewal by enabling interaction of the daughter cells with external cues: the daughter cell closest to the hub region is instructed to self-renew, whereas the distal one starts to differentiate. Here, we have analyzed male gametogenesis in ...
Zhang Hong H Women's Cancer Program, Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, - - 2011
Gamma-synuclein is a neuronal protein found in peripheral and motor nerve systems. It becomes highly expressed in metastatic but not in primary tumor or normal tissues. The close association between gamma-synuclein expression and cancer spreading has been demonstrated in a broad range of malignancies. Our previous study showed that exogenous ...
Perdiz Daniel - - 2011
Microtubules are highly dynamic polymers of α/β tubulin heterodimers that play key roles in cell division and in organizing cell cytoplasm. Although they have been discovered more than two decades ago, tubulin post-translational modifications recently gained a new interest as their role was increasingly highlighted in neuron differentiation and neurodegenerative ...
Vaughan Sue - - 2011
Centrioles are found in nearly all eukaryotic cells and are required for growth and maintenance of the radial array of microtubules, the mitotic spindle, and cilia and flagella. Different types of microtubule structures are often required at different places in a given cell; centrioles must move around to nucleate these ...
Mahjoub Moe R - - 2010
Centrioles form the core of the centrosome in animal cells and function as basal bodies that nucleate and anchor cilia at the plasma membrane. In this paper, we report that Cep120 (Ccdc100), a protein previously shown to be involved in maintaining the neural progenitor pool in mouse brain, is associated ...
Naik Meghna U MU Delaware Cardiovascular Research Center, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, United - - 2011
Polo-like kinases (Plks) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that are involved in the regulation of the various stages of the cell cycle. Plk2 and Plk3, two members of this family, are known to interact with calcium- and integrin-binding protein 1 (CIB1). Activity of both Plk2 and Plk3 is ...
Chang Chia-Hao - - 2011
As a nephrotoxic mycotoxin, citrinin (CTN) contaminates various foodstuffs and animal feed commodities. In the present study, the effects of CTN on cell cycle arrest and microtubule formation were investigated by applying human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells as a model. Exposure of HEK293 cells to CTN resulted in an arrest ...
Cesinaro Anna Maria - - 2010
Multinucleate cell angiohistiocytoma (MCAH) is a putative reactive skin lesion, which has been reported mostly in adult female patients, and hormones have been recently suggested as a factor influencing its development. To test this hypothesis, monoclonal anti-estrogen receptor (ER) a, anti-progesterone receptor (PR), anti-Factor XIIIa, and polyclonal anti-vascular endothelial growth ...
Price Helen P - - 2010
The Arf-like (Arl) small GTPases have a diverse range of functions in the eukaryotic cell. Metazoan Arl2 acts as a regulator of microtubule biogenesis, binding to the tubulin-specific chaperone cofactor D. Arl2 also has a mitochondrial function through its interactions with BART and ANT-1, the only member of the Ras ...
Jindal C - - 2010
Spindle-cell differentiation in ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare event. Although reported by many authors, it was first described as a separate entity in 1999 by Slater under the heading "low-grade spindle-cell ameloblastic carcinoma." Here, we report a case of low-grade spindle-cell ameloblastic carcinoma arising in pre-existing unicystic ameloblastoma.The patient, a ...
Oroudjev Emin - - 2010
Maytansine and its analogues (maytansinoids) are potent microtubule-targeted compounds that inhibit proliferation of cells at mitosis. Antibody-maytansinoid conjugates consisting of maytansinoids (DM1 and DM4) attached to tumor-specific antibodies have shown promising clinical results. To determine the mechanism by which the antibody-DM1 conjugates inhibit cell proliferation, we examined the effects of ...
Imai Janice H JH Developmental Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, - - 2010
The importance of the centrosome in regulating basic cellular processes and cell fate decisions has become increasingly evident from recent studies tracing the etiology of developmental disorders to mutations in genes encoding centrosomal proteins. This unit details a protocol for a fluorescence-based pulse labeling of centrioles of neural progenitor cells ...
Grzanka D - - 2010
The actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in many cellular processes, including cell mortality, mitosis, cytokinesis, intracellular transport, endocytosis and secretion but also is involved in gene transcription. The dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton is controlled by different classes of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) which regulate the polymerization of actin filaments. ...
Varma Hemant H Department of Biological Sciences, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, New York 10027, - - 2010
Cellular responses to drug treatment show tremendous variations. Elucidating mechanisms underlying these variations is critical for predicting therapeutic responses and developing personalized therapeutics. Using a small molecule screening approach, we discovered how a disease causing allele leads to opposing cell fates upon pharmacological perturbation. Diverse microtubule-depolymerizing agents protected mutant huntingtin-expressing ...
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