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Results 451 - 500 of 2444
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Mohan Renu - - 2008
Estramustine (EM) alone or in combination with other anticancer agents is clinically used for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate cancer. Furthermore, EM has been shown to potently inhibit the proliferation of different types of cancer cells in culture apparently by targeting microtubules; however, the antiproliferative mechanism of action of ...
Zhou Lingli - - 2008
AIMS: Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a compound isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen). The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms of its anti-cancer effect. MAIN METHODS: To clearly delineate the cell cycle-dependent effects of Tan IIA, we used either synchronized cells or single living cell analysis ...
Alves-Silva Juliana - - 2008
Tendon cells are specialized cells of the insect epidermis that connect basally attached muscle tips to the cuticle on their apical surface via prominent arrays of microtubules. Tendon cells of Drosophila have become a useful genetic model system to address questions with relevance to cell and developmental biology. Here, we ...
Kwon Mijung - - 2008
Multiple centrosomes in tumor cells create the potential for multipolar divisions that can lead to aneuploidy and cell death. Nevertheless, many cancer cells successfully divide because of mechanisms that suppress multipolar mitoses. A genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells and a secondary analysis in cancer cells defined mechanisms that ...
LaFlamme Susan E SE Center for Cell Biology and Cancer Research, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA. - - 2008
Mitotic spindle bipolarity defines a unique division plane that promotes the successful transmission of genetic material during cytokinesis. The positioning and orientation of the spindle determines the symmetry of cell division and the relative location of daughter cells, which regulate cell fate decisions that contribute to embryonic development and tissue ...
Peset Isabel - - 2008
A major quest in cell biology is to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the high plasticity of the microtubule network at different stages of the cell cycle, and during and after differentiation. Initial reports described the centrosomal localization of proteins possessing transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) domains. This discovery prompted several ...
Movshovich Natalia - - 2008
We examined spindle elongation in anaphase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells mutated for the kinesin-5 motor proteins Cin8 and Kip1. Cells were deleted for KIP1 and/or expressed one of two motor-domain Cin8 mutants (Cin8-F467A or Cin8-R196K, which differ in their ability to bind microtubules in vitro, with Cin8-F467A having the weakest ...
Carbó Natalia - - 2008
The increasing evidence linking regulation of polar growth and pathogenicity in fungi has elicited a significant effort devoted to produce a better understanding of mechanisms determining polarization in pathogenic fungi. Here we characterize in the phytopathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis, the Spa2 protein, a well-known component of polarisome, firstly described in ...
Strnad Petr - - 2008
The centrosome comprises a pair of centrioles and associated pericentriolar material, and it is the principal microtubule-organizing centre of most animal cells. Like the genetic material, the centrosome is duplicated once and only once during the cell cycle. Despite the fact that both doubling events are crucial for genome integrity, ...
Sherwood Racquel Kim RK Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, 171 Meeting St., Providence, RI 02912, - - 2008
The kinesin-related protein Kar3 is a minus end-directed molecular motor that plays a multifunctional role in microtubule-directed nuclear movement. Previously, it was shown that Candida albicans Kar3p is critical for nuclear fusion during mating as kar3 mutants were defective in karyogamy. In this study, we confirm that Kar3p is required ...
Wang Yong-Ping - - 2008
The process of injury and repair in airway epithelium involves cell spreading and migration followed by cell proliferation. IQ domain GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) acts in a series of cell processes, but has not been clarified in lung epithelial cells. In this study, a widely used model of injury and ...
Pouthas François - - 2008
Although cells migrate in a constrained 3D environment in vivo, in-vitro studies have mainly focused on the analysis of cells moving on 2D substrates. Under such conditions, the Golgi complex is always located towards the leading edge of the cell, suggesting that it is involved in the directional movement. However, ...
Ide Fumio - - 2008
An unusual case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of intraoral minor salivary gland origin with spindled morphology was presented. A fascicular stream of bland spindle cells from typical MEC areas amounted to more than 70% of the tumor. Spindle population had features consistent with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural profiles of intermediate cells ...
Bovenschen Niels - - 2008
Serine protease granzyme M (GrM) is highly expressed in the cytolytic granules of NK cells, which eliminate virus-infected cells and tumor cells. The molecular mechanisms by which GrM induces cell death, however, remain poorly understood. In this study we used a proteomic approach to scan the native proteome of human ...
Basto Renata R The Gurdon Institute, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK. - - 2008
Centrosome amplification is a common feature of many cancer cells, and it has been previously proposed that centrosome amplification can drive genetic instability and so tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, we generated Drosophila lines that have extra centrosomes in approximately 60% of their somatic cells. Many cells with extra centrosomes ...
Mi Lixin - - 2008
Isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in cruciferous vegetables, including benzyl-ITC (BITC), phenethyl-ITC (PEITC), and sulforaphane (SFN), inhibit carcinogenesis in animal models and induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in various cell types. The biochemical mechanisms of cell growth inhibition by ITCs are not fully understood. Our recent study showed that ITC binding ...
Fabarius Alice - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Dasatinib is a multitargeted inhibitor of ABL, the SRC family, and other tyrosine kinases. We sought to evaluate the effects of this drug on cell proliferation, centrosomes, mitotic spindles, and cell cycle progression in vitro and in vivo. DESIGN AND METHODS: Human dermal fibroblasts, Chinese hamster cells, human osteosarcoma ...
Fraschini Roberta - - 2008
During asymmetric cell division, spindle positioning is critical to ensure the unequal segregation of polarity factors and generate daughter cells with different sizes or fates. In budding yeast the boundary between mother and daughter cell resides at the bud neck, where cytokinesis takes place at the end of the cell ...
Okazaki Koei - - 2008
Dikaryons, cells with two haploid nuclei contributed by the members of a mating pair, are part of the life cycle of many filamentous fungi, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the division of dikaryons are largely unknown. We found that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has a latent ability to divide ...
Lindon Catherine C Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK. - - 2008
Inactivation of key substrates by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis controls the passage of cells through mitosis. The APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome) targets a large number of substrates for proteolysis during the final steps of mitosis and cytokinesis, but the significance of these targeting events, particularly in mammalian cells, is largely unknown. In this ...
Schiller Martin R MR Department of Molecular, Microbial, and Structural Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030, USA. - - 2008
Kalirin is a GDP/GTP exchange factor (GEF) for Rho proteins that modulates the actin cytoskeleton in neurons. Alternative splicing generates Delta-isoforms, which encode the RhoGEF domain, but lack the N-terminal Sec14p domain and first 4 spectrin-like repeats of the full-length isoforms. Splicing has functional consequences, with Kal7 but not DeltaKal7 ...
Pope Karen L - - 2008
Diverse types of epithelial morphogenesis drive development. Similar cytoskeletal and cell adhesion machinery orchestrate these changes, but it is unclear how distinct tissue types are produced. Thus, it is important to define and compare different types of morphogenesis. We investigated cell flattening and elongation in the amnioserosa, a squamous epithelium ...
Passarella Daniele - - 2008
A series of novel hybrid compounds obtained by the attachment of anhydrovinblastine, vinorelbine, and vindoline to thiocolchicine, podophyllotoxin, and baccatin III are described. Two types of diacyl spacers are introduced. The influence of the hybrid compounds on tubulin polymerization is reported. The results highlight the importance of the length of ...
Daga Rafael R - - 2008
Correct spindle alignment requires a cell to detect and interpret its global geometry and to communicate this information to the mitotic spindle. In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the mitotic spindle is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the rod-shaped cell. Here, using wild-type and cell-shape mutants we investigate the ...
Clarke Paul R PR Biomedical Research Centre, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 9SY, Scotland, UK. - - 2008
The small nuclear GTPase Ran controls the directionality of macromolecular transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Ran also has important roles during mitosis, when the nucleus is dramatically reorganized to allow chromosome segregation. Ran directs the assembly of the mitotic spindle, nuclear-envelope dynamics and the timing of cell-cycle transitions. ...
Murphy Lynea A LA Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Chandler Medical Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40536, - - 2008
Mitosis is a series of events leading to division of a cell by the process known as cytokinesis. Protein regulating cytokinesis 1 (PRC1) is a CDK substrate that associates with the mitotic spindle and functions in microtubule bundling. Previous studies revealed that loss of PRC1 is associated with chromosomal mis-segregation ...
Carrassa Laura - - 2008
Chk1 is a conserved protein kinase originally identified in fission yeast, required to delay entry of cells with damaged or unreplicated DNA into mitosis. The requirement of Chk1 for both S and G2/M checkpoints has been elucidated while only few studies have connected Chk1 to the mitotic spindle checkpoint. We ...
Rogers Gregory C - - 2008
In animal cells, centrosomes nucleate microtubules that form polarized arrays to organize the cytoplasm. Drosophila presents an interesting paradox however, as centrosome-deficient mutant animals develop into viable adults. To understand this discrepancy, we analyzed behaviors of centrosomes and microtubules in Drosophila cells, in culture and in vivo, using a combination ...
Sedbrook John C - - 2008
Plant microtubules (MTs) polymerize and depolymerize in a process termed dynamic instability. This allows the assembly, reorganization, and disassembly of at least four MT arrays throughout the cell cycle. The cortical MT array lines the plasma membrane during interphase and plays a central role in directional cell expansion. Microtubule-associated proteins ...
Cuomo Maria Emanuela ME Cancer Research UK, Centre for Cell and Molecular Biology, The Institute of Cancer Research, Chester Beatty Laboratories, 237 Fulham Road, SW3 6JB London, UK. - - 2008
Chromosome loss or gain is associated with a large number of solid cancers, providing genomic plasticity and thus adaptability to cancer cells. Numerical centrosome abnormalities arising from centrosome over-duplication or failed cytokinesis are a recognized cause of aneuploidy. In higher eukaryotic cells, the centrosome duplicates only once per cell cycle ...
Petronczki Mark - - 2008
Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a key regulator of cell division in eukaryotic cells. New techniques, including the application of small-molecule inhibitors, have greatly expanded our knowledge of the functions, targets, and regulation of this key mitotic enzyme. In this review, we focus on how Plk1 is recruited to centrosomes, ...
Cenciarelli Chiara - - 2008
The relationship between microtubular dynamics, dismantling of pericentriolar components and induction of apoptosis was analysed after exposure of H460 non-small lung cancer cells to anti-mitotic drugs. The microtubule destabilising agent, combretastatin-A4 (CA-4) led to microtubular array disorganization, arrest in mitosis and abnormal metaphases, accompanied by the presence of numerous centrosome-independent ...
Schatten Heide - - 2008
Primarily known for its role as major microtubule organizing center, the centrosome is increasingly being recognized for its functional significance in key cell cycle regulating events. We are now at the beginning of understanding the centrosome's functional complexities and its major impact on directing complex interactions and signal transduction cascades ...
Sellin Mikael E - - 2008
Op18/stathmin (Op18), a conserved microtubule-depolymerizing and tubulin heterodimer-binding protein, is a major interphase regulator of tubulin monomer-polymer partitioning in diverse cell types in which Op18 is abundant. Here, we addressed the question of whether the microtubule regulatory function of Op18 includes regulation of tubulin heterodimer synthesis. We used two human ...
Hughes Julian R - - 2008
The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is required for many aspects of cell function, including the transport of intracellular materials, the maintenance of cell polarity, and the regulation of mitosis. These functions are coordinated by MT-associated proteins (MAPs), which work in concert with each other, binding MTs and altering their properties. We ...
Pampaloni Francesco - - 2008
Microtubules are self-assembling biological nanotubes that are essential for cell motility, cell division and intracellular trafficking. Microtubules have outstanding mechanical properties, combining high resilience and stiffness. Such a combination allows microtubules to accomplish multiple cellular functions and makes them interesting for material sciences. We review recent experiments that elucidate the ...
Si Huaxin H Department of Microbiology and the Abramson Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2008
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genomes are tethered to the host chromosomes and partitioned faithfully into daughter cells with the host chromosomes. The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is important for segregation of the newly synthesized viral genomes to the daughter nuclei. Here, we report that the nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA) ...
Romao Maryse - - 2008
Kinetochore components play a major role in regulating the transmission of genetic information during cell division. Ndc10p, a kinetochore component of the essential CBF3 complex in budding yeast is required for chromosome attachment to the mitotic spindle. ndc10-1 mutant was shown to display chromosome mis-segregation as well as an aberrant ...
Hu Chi-Kuo - - 2008
During cytokinesis, a specialized set of proteins is recruited to the equatorial region between spindle poles by microtubules and actin filaments, enabling furrow assembly and ingression before cell division. We investigate the mechanisms underlying regional specialization of the cytoskeleton in HeLa cells undergoing drug-synchronized monopolar cytokinesis. After forced mitotic exit, ...
Zhang Haining - - 2008
Alignment of the mitotic spindle along a preformed axis of polarity is crucial for generating cell diversity in many organisms, yet little is known about the role of the endomembrane system in this process. RAB-11 is a small GTPase enriched in recycling endosomes. When we depleted RAB-11 by RNAi in ...
Castellano M Mar - - 2008
Given the central role of cell division in meristems, one might expect meristem growth to be regulated by mitotic checkpoints, including checkpoints for correct microtubule function. Here, we studied the role of two close Phosducin-Like Protein 3 homologs from Arabidopsis thaliana (PLP3a and PLP3b) in the microtubule assembly pathway and ...
Kandasamy Muthugapatti K MK Genetics Department, Davison Life Sciences Building, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, - - 2008
Arabidopsis encodes six nuclear actin-related proteins (ARPs), among them ARP8 is unique in having an F-box domain and an actin homology domain. Analysis of the ARP8 promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion suggests that ARP8 is ubiquitously expressed in all organs and cell types. Immunocytochemical analysis with ARP8-specific monoclonal antibodies revealed that ARP8 ...
Matozzo Valerio - - 2008
In the present study, we report on haemocyte distribution, determined by a Coulter Counter, in the clam Tapes philippinarum. In addition, cytoskeleton components of haemocytes were examined using specific probes for F-actin and alpha-tubulin. The mean number of circulating haemocytes was 5 (x10(6))cells/ml haemolymph. Two main haemocyte populations were found ...
Zhang Xiang-Dong XD Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2008
SUMOylation is essential for cell-cycle regulation in invertebrates; however, its functions during the mammalian cell cycle are largely uncharacterized. Mammals express three SUMO paralogs: SUMO-1, SUMO-2, and SUMO-3 (SUMO-2 and SUMO-3 are 96% identical and referred to as SUMO-2/3). We found that SUMO-2/3 localize to centromeres and condensed chromosomes, whereas ...
Sachana M - - 2008
The aim of this work was to assess the toxic effects of the phosphorothionate insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its major in vivo metabolite chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) on differentiating rat C6 glioma cells. At sublethal concentrations (1-10 microM), both compounds were able to inhibit the development of extensions from C6 cells ...
Gomez-Ferreria Maria Ana - - 2008
The cellular mechanisms used to generate sufficient microtubule polymer mass to drive the assembly and function of the mitotic spindle remain a matter of great interest. As the primary microtubule nucleating structures in somatic animal cells, centrosomes have been assumed to figure prominently in spindle assembly. At the onset of ...
Taylor B Frazier BF Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Environmental Genomics and Integrative Biology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, - - 2008
Arsenite, a known mitotic disruptor, causes cell cycle arrest and cell death at anaphase. The mechanism causing mitotic arrest is highly disputed. We compared arsenite to the spindle poisons nocodazole and paclitaxel. Immunofluorescence analysis of alpha-tubulin in interphase cells demonstrated that, while nocodazole and paclitaxel disrupt microtubule polymerization through destabilization ...
Tatebe Hisashi H Section of Microbiology, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, California 95616, - - 2008
In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cell growth takes place exclusively at both ends of the cylindrical cell. During this highly polarized growth, microtubules are responsible for the placement of the cell-end marker proteins, the Tea1-Tea4/Wsh3 complex, which recruits the Pom1 DYRK-family protein kinase. Pom1 is required for proper positioning ...
Wei Yi - - 2008
A novel centrosome-related protein CrpF46 was detected using a serum F46 from a patient suffering from progressive systemic sclerosis. We identified the protein by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting followed by tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. The protein CrpF46 has an apparent molecular mass of ~60 kDa, is highly homologous to a ...
Pieroni Stefania - - 2008
Centrosomes direct microtubule organization during cell division. Aberrant number of centrosomes results from alteration of its components and leads to abnormal mitoses and chromosome instability. HOPS is a newly discovered protein isolated during liver regeneration, implicated in cell proliferation. Here, we provide evidence that HOPS is an integral constituent of ...
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