Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1926
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Wilcks Andrea - - 2006
The fate and effect of Bacillus cereus F4433/73R in the intestine of human-flora-associated rats was studied using bacteriological culturing techniques and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in combination with cell assays and immunoassays for detection of enterotoxins. In faecal samples from animals receiving vegetative cells, only few B. cereus cells were ...
Neunlist M - - 2007
Although recent studies have shown that enteric neurons control intestinal barrier function, the role of enteric glial cells (EGCs) in this control remains unknown. Therefore, our goal was to characterize the role of EGCs in the control of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation using an in vivo transgenic and an in ...
Tsukamoto Tetsuya - - 2006
Aberrant crypt foci, consisting of morphologically irregular crypts, are thought to be precancerous lesions for colorectal cancers. For analysis of individual crypts, F344 rats were administered weekly subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine ten times and sacrificed at experimental weeks 10 and 20 with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation 1 h before the sacrifice. ...
Paruchuri, Sailaja
The cysteinyl leukotriene(1) (CysLT(1)) receptor (CysLT(1)R) enhances survival and proliferation of intestinal cells via distinct pathways. Here, we have demonstrated that there is significant endogenous production of CysLTs from both non-tumour-and tumour-derived intestinal epithelial cells. Treatment of two non-tumour cell lines, Int 407 and IEC-6, with CysLT1R antagonists led to ...
Vieten Daniela - - 2006
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is characterised by severe mucosal loss and therefore gastrointestinal (GI) cell proliferation is essential for survival, epithelial repair and recovery of function. Trefoil peptides play a key role in epithelial restitution and repair, and we previously reported a down-regulation of these peptides in NEC. Oral administration of ...
Ouellette A J - - 2006
Endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) mediate innate immunity in every species in which they have been investigated. Cathelicidins and defensins are the two major AMP families in mammals, and they are abundant components of phagocytic leukocytes and are released by epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces. In the small intestine, Paneth cells ...
Canny Geraldine - - 2006
Epithelial cells at all mucosal surfaces are potentially apposed to bacteria, particularly in the intestine. It is established that intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) represent an important barrier between lamina propria cells and the potentially harmful lumenal contents. In addition, IECs are important immunoeffector cells with the capacity to release cytokines, ...
Wu Hai-Shan - - 2006
In this paper, we introduce a biased median filtering image segmentation algorithm for intestinal cell glands consisting of goblet cells. While segmentation of individual cells are generally based on the dissimilarities in intensities, textures, and shapes between cell regions and background, the proposed segmentation algorithm of intestine cell glands is ...
Takahashi Yoshihisa - - 2006
A case of ileal adenomyoma with goblet and Paneth cells is reported. A 75-year-old man died of ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma. As an incidental finding at autopsy, a 9 x 7 x 6 mm(3)-sized nodule was found in the ileal wall. Histologically, the lesion occupied the submucosa and muscularis propria, and ...
Kien C Lawrence CL Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, USA. - - 2006
Butyrate inhibits colonic cell proliferation in vitro but reportedly has an opposite effect in vivo. Because lactulose feeding decreases cecal cell proliferation, an effect attenuated by prefeeding inulin, we hypothesized that lactulose feeding would decrease colonic luminal synthesis of butyrate, and that prefeeding and cofeeding inulin would prevent this effect. ...
Wang Zhong Qiu - - 2005
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown small intestinal submucosa (SIS) can be used as biodegradable scaffolds in tissue engineering small intestine. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the regeneration of neointestine and its morphology using SIS. METHODS: A 2-cm tubular SIS graft from Sprague Dawley rat donors was interposed ...
Montoudis Alain - - 2006
Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a 14-15 kDa cytoplasmic molecule highly expressed in the enterocyte. Although different functions have been proposed for various FABP family members, the specific function of I-FABP in human intestine remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of I-FABP in molecularly modified normal human intestinal ...
Miyazawa Kohtaro - - 2006
Membranous (M) cells of the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) are believed to sample antigens from the gut lumen. However, the origin, differentiation mechanism, and cell death of M cells are still a matter of controversy. Therefore, we investigated the process of M cell differentiation and determined their fate in the intestine ...
Liu Shiguang - - 2006
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a cytokine-like proinflammatory protein, is secreted by activated macrophages and released by necrotic cells. We hypothesized that immunostimulated enterocytes might be another source for this mediator. Accordingly, Caco-2 cells or primary mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were incubated with "cytomix" (a mixture of TNF, IL-1beta, ...
Chen Wei - - 2005
AIM: To detect the effects of acid fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) on apoptosis and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells in differentiation or proliferation status to explore the protective mechanisms of aFGF. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-operated control group (C, n=6), intestinal ischemia group (I, n=6), aFGF treatment ...
Wolf Marc - - 2005
A specific protocol allowed to selectively stain and image the cell nuclei of the intestine of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Digital processing of these images yielded quantitative information on the coordinates and the relative DNA content of these cell nuclei. With this technique, the exact locations (in relation to the ...
Schroll Sebastian - - 2005
Erosions and ulcerations of the intestinal epithelium are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Intestinal epithelial cell migration (restitution) and proliferation are pivotal mechanisms for healing of epithelial defects after mucosal injury. In addition, the rate of apoptosis of epithelial cells may modulate intestinal wound healing. The purine antagonists azathioprine ...
Gendron Fernand-Pierre - - 2006
CDX2, a member of the caudal family of transcription factors, is involved in enterocyte lineage specification. CDX2 activates many intestine-specific genes, such as sucrase-isomaltase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH), and adhesion proteins, namely, LI-cadherin and claudin-2. In this study, we show that the proprotein convertase furin, involved in proteolytic maturation of ...
Grove Søren - - 2006
Leukocyte populations within the kidney, spleen, posterior intestine and gills of Atlantic halibut were investigated using a panel of histological, enzyme- and immunohistochemical methods. In the kidney and spleen, a diverse population of leukocytes was associated with the extensive network of sinusoids and larger blood vessels present in these tissues. ...
Brewer Katherine C - - 2005
Congenital disorders of the enteric nervous system (ENS) comprise a large group of conditions characterized by abnormalities in the number, size, or location of enteric ganglia. Their diagnosis requires careful histological evaluation of intestinal biopsies to determine the presence and morphology of these cells. Based on the recently discovered role ...
Okamoto Ryuichi - - 2005
Inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease frequently cause epithelial damage in the intestine. In general, the intestinal epithelium is able to rapidly repair itself by the restitution, proliferation, and differentiation of epithelial cells when such tissue damage occurs. However, severe and continuous inflammation could disturb the ...
Crivellato E - - 2005
In adult life, the architecture of the intestinal villus is maintained by a complex series of epithelial-stromal interactions that involve different types of fixed and mobile cells located in the intestinal mucosa. Mast cells (MC) are normal constituents of the small bowel mucosa where they reside in the villous and ...
Flemström Gunnar - - 2005
Surface sensory enteroendocrine cells are established mucosal taste cells that monitor luminal contents and provide an important link in transfer of information from gut epithelium to the central nervous system. Recent studies now show that these cells can also mediate efferent signaling from the brain to the gut. Centrally elicited ...
Spaenij-Dekking Liesbeth - - 2005
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Celiac disease (CD) is an intestinal disorder caused by T-cell responses to peptides derived from the gluten proteins present in wheat. Such peptides have been found both in the gliadin and glutenin proteins in gluten. The only cure for CD is a lifelong gluten-free diet. It is ...
Adams Kenneth F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Soy isoflavones have numerous biological properties that suggest that they may protect against colorectal cancer. Colorectal epithelial cell proliferation has been used extensively as an intermediate endpoint biomarker for colorectal neoplasia. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that supplementation with soy protein containing isoflavones decreases colorectal epithelial cell proliferation. DESIGN: ...
Marsman Willem A - - 2005
Adenoviral gene therapy could potentially be used for treatment of patients with a Barrett's esophagus. In order to study the feasibility of this approach it is important to study adenoviral intestinal transduction both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we used differentiating Caco-2 cells, closed intestinal loops ...
Jang Tae Jung - - 2005
Columnar-lined esophagus is composed of intestinal type and gastric type epithelium. Only the specialized or intestinal type columnar epithelium is susceptible to the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) in gastric-type and ...
Schauser Kirsten - - 2005
The small intestinal epithelium is continuously renewed through a balance between cell division and cell loss. How this balance is achieved is uncertain. Thus, it is unknown to what extent programmed cell death (PCD) contributes to intestinal epithelial cell loss. We have used a battery of techniques detecting the events ...
Kaushik Susmita - - 2005
The present study evaluated the effect of chronic cold stress on intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and inflammation. Male Wistar rats were subjected to cold exposure for three weeks. At the end of the cold exposure, intestinal cell proliferation, luminal nitrite and protein levels, intestinal myeloperoxidase activity and mast cell numbers ...
Tu Yahong - - 2005
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In previous studies in rodent models of food allergy, we identified that sensitization induces expression of CD23 on intestinal epithelial cells and results in enhanced IgE-dependent transepithelial antigen uptake; further studies in CD23-/- mice provided evidence that CD23 is involved in protected transport of antigen into the ...
Fredin Maria Fritsch - - 2005
The glucocorticosteroid budesonide is one of the mainstay treatments in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate its effects on Caco-2 cells upon coculture with LPS stimulated macrophages, or with conditioned medium (CM) from the same. The mRNA expression of the chemokines IL-8 and ENA-78 were ...
Baumgart Daniel C - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) derivatives is one of the main principles in the therapy of uncomplicated mild to moderate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The beneficial effect of 5-ASA in the treatment of IBD is attributed to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties within the inflamed gut. The aim of ...
Athman Rafika - - 2005
Villin is an actin-binding protein present in intestinal and kidney brush borders. Villin has been shown to present in vitro Ca(2+)-dependent bundling and severing F-actin properties. The study of villin knock-out mice allowed us to show that while bundling of F-actin microfilaments is unaffected, this protein is important for the ...
Mach Julie - - 2005
Intestinal epithelium contains several specialized cell types including M cells, which can be found in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) or occasionally on the villi. M cells are critical for sampling of intestinal flora and for transferring pathogens across the epithelial barrier for recognition by the immune system. Development of M ...
Isoda H - - 2006
Nonylphenol, an estrogenic xenobiotic widely used in the manufacture of plastics and detergents, has been found in drinking water and may therefore enter the body through the oral route. Thus, intestinal cells lining the alimentary tract serve as the body's first line of defense against this compound. In this study, ...
Riedl Jurgen A - - 2005
Ephrins are cell surface ligands that activate Eph receptor tyrosine kinases. This ligand-receptor interaction plays a central role in the sorting of cells. We have previously shown that the ephrinB-EphB signalling pathway is also involved in the migration of intestinal precursor cells along the crypts. Using the colon cell line ...
Lindqvist Annika - - 2005
The symmetrically cleaving beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCO1) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A in the mucosa of the small intestine. This enzyme is also expressed in epithelia in a variety of extraintestinal tissues. The newly discovered beta-carotene 9',10'-monooxygenase (BCO2) catalyzes asymmetric cleavage of ...
Oberreuther-Moschner Daniela L - - 2005
Products of oxidative stress are possibly important risk factors for colon cancer. It is necessary to assess their toxicity in tumour target cells, which include the stem cells and dividing daughter cells located in the bottom of the colon crypts. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of crypt cells towards hydrogen ...
Tang Shiue-Cheng SC Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2005
Intestinal gene transfer offers promise as a therapeutic option for treatment of both intestinal and non-intestinal diseases. Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2, rAAV2, based vectors have been utilized to transduce lung epithelial cells in culture and in human subjects. rAAV2 transduction of intestinal epithelial cells, however, is limited both in ...
Watanabe Naoharu - - 2005
We have analyzed the sma-5(n678) mutant in C. elegans to elucidate mechanisms controlling body size. The sma-5 mutant is very small, grows slowly and its intestinal granules look abnormal. We found a 15 kb deletion in the mutant that includes a 226 bp deletion of the 3' end of the ...
Gomes J R - - 2005
Circadian variation in cell proliferation of the jejunal epithelium of 18-day-old rats was studied using the 2-h arrested metaphase score and crypt isolation method. A continuous decrease in the arrested metaphases occurred from 07.00 h to 13.00 h. From 17.00 h arrested metaphase values increased and were maintained at the ...
Imai Teruko - - 2005
The absorption characteristics of temocapril were investigated using Caco-2 cells, and the esterases expressed in Caco-2 cells were identified. Temocapril was almost completely hydrolyzed to temocaprilat during transport across Caco-2 cells. Hydrolysis experiments of temocapril in Caco-2 cell 9000g supernatant (S9) and brush-border membrane vesicles showed that temocapril was mainly ...
Schmiedlin-Ren Phyllissa - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Delivery of genes encoding anti-inflammatory proteins has been proposed as a strategy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The goal of this study was to assess the ability of a standard adenoviral vector to transfect epithelial cells in intestinal explants from patients with IBD compared with controls. ...
Mumy Karen L - - 2005
An immense number of bacteria reside within the intestinal lumen. The task of appropriately identifying and responding to microbial threats lies primarily with the single layer of cells that line the intestinal tract. Intestinal epithelial cells have developed a number of strategies aimed at identifying microorganisms and eliciting the appropriate ...
Gautrey Hannah - - 2005
mRNA localisation, as a mechanism for directing localised protein synthesis, plays a vital role in the functioning of certain cells, such as neurons and oocytes. Potentially this mechanism may also occur in polarised intestinal epithelial cells. Here we show that Staufen1(55), a protein involved in mRNA localisation and transport, is ...
Cavret Séverine - - 2005
Food seems to be one of the main ways of animal and human contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. In vivo studies showed a blood absorption of these xenobiotics after their ingestion. Our work aimed at studying the in vitro transfer of PAHs and dioxins through intestinal barrier. ...
Bosi G - - 2005
Mucus secreted onto the surface of the intestine forms a physical barrier to invading parasites so that a possible attachment of helminths to the surface is prevented and their expulsion by peristalsis facilitated. In mammals, intestinal parasites induce hyperplasia and hypertrophy of intestine goblet cells and provoke changes in the ...
Marcos Z - - 2005
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) appears to be the main site of entry for the pathological isoform of prions (PrP(sc)). To understand how the PrP(sc) internalization process occurs, it is important to characterize the cell types that express normal prion protein (PrP(c)) along the GIT. To do so, we studied the ...
Tanabe Hiroki - - 2005
Mouse Paneth cells respond to bacteria and bacterial cell surface antigens by discharging secretory granules into the lumen of small intestinal crypts (T. Ayabe et al., Nat. Immunol. 1:113-118, 2000). To investigate mechanisms regulating these responses, purified surface glycolipid molecules with known acyl chain modifications and attenuated properties were tested ...
Weitkamp Jörn-Hendrik - - 2005
Memory B cells expressing the intestinal homing marker alpha4beta7 are important for protective immunity against human rotavirus (RV). It is not known whether the B cell repertoire of intestinal homing B cells differs from B cells of the systemic compartment. In this study, we analyzed the RV-specific VH and VL ...
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