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Results 301 - 350 of 1929
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Natsuaki Sumiko - - 2007
An adult dairy cow fatally affected with winter dysentery was investigated pathologically and virologically. The cow had severe anemia and diarrhea with massive blood. Pathologically, the loss of surface epithelial cells and necrosis of crypt epithelial cells in the large intestine were observed. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) antigen was observed in ...
Wong, Pat Shun Patsy
The marine pulmonate limpet Siphonaria Zelandica is commonly found in the mid-eulittoral zone in shallow pans or rock pools with dense algal growth. Though it resembles a true limpet externally, it is active when emersed during the ebbing of the tide browsing on small succulent algae, rather than grazing the ...
Iwai Hiroki - - 2007
The gut epithelium self-renews every several days, providing an important innate defense system that limits bacterial colonization. Nevertheless, many bacterial pathogens, including Shigella, efficiently colonize the intestinal epithelium. Here, we show that the Shigella effector IpaB, when delivered into epithelial cells, causes cell-cycle arrest by targeting Mad2L2, an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome ...
Ali M Al Haj - - 2007
The distribution and relative frequency of neuroendocrine cells in the small and large intestines of one-humped camel were studied using antisera against 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), cholecystokinin (CCK-8), somatostatin (SOM), peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), substance P (SP), and neurokinin ...
Maciel Andressa A F L AA Clinical Research Unit & Institute of Biomedicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, - - 2007
Vitamin A (retinol), a fat-soluble vitamin, is an essential nutrient for the normal functioning of the visual system, epithelial cell integrity and growth, immunity, and reproduction. Our group has investigated the effect of high doses of oral vitamin A on early childhood diarrhea in our prospective community-based studies from Northeast ...
Ohara Koji - - 2007
The cancer drug daunomycin is used in treatment of leukemia but possesses severe side effects that involve the gastrointestinal tract. We therefore used a newly developed immunocytochemical procedure to determine the distribution of DM in the gastrointestinal tracts of rats after i.v. injection. Two hours after injection, DM was diffusely ...
Garneau Hugo - - 2007
E2F transcription factors control cell cycle progression. The localization of E2F4 in intestinal epithelial cells is cell cycle dependent, being cytoplasmic in quiescent differentiated cells but nuclear in proliferative cells. However, whether nuclear translocation of E2F4 alone is sufficient to trigger intestinal epithelial cell proliferation remains to be established. Adenoviruses ...
López-Díaz Lymari L Cellular and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0622, - - 2007
Neurogenin 3 is essential for enteroendocrine cell development; however, it is unknown whether this transcription factor is sufficient to induce an endocrine program in the intestine or how it affects the development of other epithelial cells originating from common progenitors. In this study, the mouse villin promoter was used to ...
McPherson Ronald J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (Epo) receptors are widely expressed in the small bowel of neonatal rats and evidence suggests Epo has important trophic effects in developing bowel. OBJECTIVE: To compliment in vitro data, we directly examine in vivo the hypotheses that systemic Epo treatment can promote cell division and enterocyte migration, and ...
Auclair Benoit A - - 2007
Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) are morphogens known to play key roles in gastrointestinal development and pathology. Most Bmps are produced primarily by the mesenchymal compartment and activate their signaling pathways following a paracrine or autocrine route. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of epithelial Bmp signaling ...
Warth Arne - - 2008
Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) is an important animal pathogen with a potential role in human disease. MAP is recognized to cause severe diarrheas and wasting syndrome in patients infected by the human immuno-deficiency virus. Recently, there is also growing evidence that MAP is somehow involved into the patho-mechanisms of Crohn's ...
Wierup Nils - - 2007
CONTEXT: Ghrelin is a novel hormone produced mainly in the gastric body. Hitherto, mapping studies of ghrelin cells covering the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract in humans have been lacking. Furthermore, the phenotype of extragastric ghrelin cells is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to perform a detailed ...
Wu Linda - - 2007
Intestinal microbes are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Microbes and their products are generally well tolerated by intestinal epithelial cells in the intestinal tract of healthy individuals. It is of significance to understand what breaks down the established tolerance leading to intestinal barrier dysfunction ...
Gassler Nikolaus - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The constant renewal of enterocytes along the crypt-villus axis (CVA) of human small intestine is due to cell-inherent changes resulting in the apoptotic cell death of senescent enterocytes. The aim of the present study was to examine underlying molecular mechanisms of the cell death at the villus ...
Stenstad Hanna - - 2007
The CC chemokine receptor (CCR)9 is expressed on the majority of small intestinal, but few colonic, T cells, whereas its ligand CCL25 is constitutively expressed by small intestinal epithelial cells. As such, CCR9/CCL25 have been proposed to play a central role in regulating small intestinal but not colonic immune responses ...
Mori-Akiyama Yuko - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The transcription factor SOX9 has been shown previously to have an essential role in the differentiation of a small number of discrete cell lineages. In the intestine, Sox9 is expressed in the epithelial cells of the crypts and is a target of Wnt signaling. METHODS: To examine ...
Bodinier Marie - - 2007
Because intestinal absorption of food protein can trigger an allergic reaction, the effect of wheat proteins on intestinal epithelial cell permeability was evaluated and the abilities of these proteins in native or pepsin-hydrolyzed state to cross the epithelial cell monolayer were compared. Enterocytic monolayers were established by culturing Caco-2 cells, ...
Korkmaz Hatice - - 2007
In order to clarify the developmental regulation of the eNOS activity in intestine by phosphorylation, we examined the immunohistochemical localizations of the eNOS phosphorylation sites at Ser(1177), Ser(116) and at Thr(495) in cells of the mouse enteric mucosa and myenteric plexus at E13.5, E14.5, E16.5, E18.5, E20.5 and P3. In ...
Haxhija Emir Q - - 2007
Early intestinal adaptation after massive small bowel resection (SBR) is driven by increased epithelial cell (EC) proliferation. There is a clear clinical difference in the post-operative course of patients after the loss of proximal (P) compared to distal (D) small bowel. This study examined the effects of the site of ...
Borrmann Erika - - 2007
Campylobacter (C.) jejuni and C. coli can cause gastrointestinal disorders in humans characterized by acute inflammation. Inflammatory signals are initiated during interaction between these pathogens and human intestinal cells, but nothing is known about the stimulation of avian intestinal cells by Campylobacter. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as a proinflammatory chemokine plays an ...
Edwards Carina M - - 2007
This paper presents a biomechanical model for the small pits, called crypts, that line the colon. A continuum approach is adopted, with the crypt epithelium modelled as a growing beam attached to the underlying lamina by cell bonds, which generate tension within the layer. These cell attachments are assumed to ...
Lin Shyr-Yi - - 2007
We study the effect of fungal-derived chitosan on the development of chemical-induced colonic precancerous lesions in ICR mice and delineate its possible molecular mechanisms. In the 2 weeks preventive experiments, mice fed with a diet containing high molecular weight chitosan (HMWC) had significant fewer aberrant crypt foci formation than those ...
Liquori Giuseppa Esterina - - 2007
In this study, the variety of sugar residues in the gut glycoconjugates of Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Caudata) are investigated by carbohydrate conventional histochemistry and lectin histochemistry. The oesophageal surface mucous cells contained acidic glycoconjugates, with residues of GalNAc, Gal beta1,3 GalNAc and (GlcNAc beta1,4)(n) oligomers. The gastric surface cells mainly ...
McGarvey M Alice - - 2007
To determine whether the gut-sparing selectivity of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors is related to early crypt kinetic mechanisms, this study compared the primary effects on small intestinal mucosal epithelial cell proliferation and morphometry of a nonselective dual cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, with a cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor, nimesulide. Indomethacin downregulated the crypt cell production ...
Charrier Laetitia - - 2007
Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) play an immunoregulatory role in the intestine. This role involves cell-cell interactions with intraepithelial lymphocytes that may also play a role in some enteropathies. The discovery of the RGD motif-containing Protein ADAM-15 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease-15) raises the question of its involvement in these cell-cell interactions. ...
Younes Mamoun - - 2007
CONTEXT: Identification of intestinal-type goblet cells (ITGCs) in hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections of esophageal biopsies is essential for the diagnosis of Barrett metaplasia. However, we have seen cases diagnosed as Barrett metaplasia based solely on cells that pose morphologic similarity to ITGCs on hematoxylin-eosin staining or stain positive with Alcian blue. OBJECTIVE: ...
Rodríguez-Serrano Fernando - - 2007
Exogenous nucleotides are considered semiessential nutritional components that play an important role in intestinal development, maintenance, and recovery from tissue damage. Nucleosides (NS) are the best-absorbed chemical form of nucleotides in the intestinal epithelium. The aim of this work was to clarify, at the cellular level, the effects described in ...
Alferez D - - 2007
Arrangement of the intestinal cell lining, as it is, into distinct anatomically defined zones where proliferation is confined to the crypts, makes it an ideal tissue to study growth control mechanisms. While many methods have been used to quantify cell proliferation in the gut, several of them have severe limitations ...
Gloux Karine - - 2007
Metagenomic libraries derived from human intestinal microbiota (20,725 clones) were screened for epithelial cell growth modulation. Modulatory clones belonging to the four phyla represented among the metagenomic libraries were identified (hit rate, 0.04 to 8.7% depending on the screening cutoff). Several candidate loci were identified by transposon mutagenesis and subcloning.
Cigna Natacha - - 2007
Acylase 1 was investigated at the cellular level in the rat small intestine along the enterocyte-differentiation axis. As confirmed by microscopic analysis, villus tip cells and crypt cells of rat jejunal mucosa were successfully separated using the Weiser method. The proliferating undifferentiated crypt cells showed much higher ACY 1 activity ...
Al-Toma Abdulbaqi - - 2007
True Refractory Coeliac Disease (RCD) is being currently defined as persisting or recurring villous atrophy with crypt hyperplasia and increased intraepithelial lymphocytes in spite of a strict gluten free diet for more than 12 months or when severe persisting symptoms necessitate intervention independent of the duration of the dietary therapy. ...
Turner Douglas J DJ Cell Biology Group, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. - - 2007
The current study examined the effect of substance P (SP) upon intestinal epithelial cells and the mechanistic details of this interaction. Intestinal epithelial cells must be capable of migration to reseal mucosal wounds for several vital intestinal functions. This process is incompletely understood; however, recent evidence implicates the neurotransmitter SP ...
Sutherland Kate - - 2007
Nutrient-evoked gastrointestinal reflexes are likely initiated by specialized epithelial cells located in the small intestine that detect luminal stimuli and release mediators that activate vagal endings. The G-protein alpha-gustducin, a key signal molecule in lingual taste detection, has been identified in mouse small intestine, where it may also subserve nutrient ...
Lenaerts Kaatje - - 2007
Arginine is classified as a conditionally essential amino acid required exogenously during catabolic disease states and periods of rapid growth, both characterized by increased arginine utilization. Arginine plays an important role in the intestine, where it is extensively metabolized, and enhances its immune-supportive function and mucosal repair. Cell proliferation is ...
Ishizuya-Oka Atsuko - - 2007
The epithelium of the mammalian digestive tract originates from stem cells and undergoes rapid cell-renewal throughout adulthood. It has been proposed that the microenvironment around the stem cells, called 'niche', plays an important role in epithelial cell-renewal through cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. The amphibian intestine, which establishes epithelial cell-renewal ...
Byrne Catherine M - - 2007
Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of serious diarrhoeal disease in humans, in contrast to the avian population, where exposure results in prolonged colonization at high density without disease. Colonized poultry present a significant source of infection to humans worldwide. The aim of this work was to compare the interaction ...
Morin Lawrence P LP Department of Psychiatry, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8101, USA. - - 2007
The SCN has long had organizational schemas imposed on it. In most, the SCN is dichotomized, with one region typically associated with the presence of vasopressin cells and the other associated with cells containing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and certain afferent terminal fields. If assumed to be accurate, the schemas that ...
Higashiyama Hiroyuki - - 2007
Liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1) is a nuclear receptor that plays important roles in lipid homeostasis and embryogenesis. To elucidate systemic physiological functions of LRH-1, we used tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry to examine the tissue distribution and localization of LRH-1 in adult mouse tissues. LRH-1 immunoreactivity was observed in the nucleus ...
De Keukeleire B - - 2007
Propagation of the scrapie isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) depends on the expression of endogenous cellular prion (PrP(C)). During oral infection, PrP(Sc) propagates, by conversion of the PrP(C) to PrP(Sc), from the gastrointestinal tract to the nervous system. Intestinal epithelium could serve as the primary site for PrP(C) conversion. ...
Uc Aliye - - 2007
Heme induces Cl(-) secretion in intestinal epithelial cells, most likely via carbon monoxide (CO) generation. The major source of endogenous CO comes from the degradation of heme via heme oxygenase (HO). We hypothesized that an inhibitor of HO activity, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), may inhibit the stimulatory effect of heme on ...
Wierup, Nils
Context: Ghrelin is a novel hormone produced mainly in the gastric body. Hitherto, mapping studies of ghrelin cells covering the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract in humans have been lacking. Furthermore, the phenotype of extragastric ghrelin cells is not known. Objective: The objective of the study was to perform a detailed ...
Narita Hiroki - - 2007
Intestinal cells are the first line of defense against toxic substances that may enter the body orally. Some of these substances may emanate from wastewater treatment plants and thus may eventually enter the food chain. In this study, human intestinal Caco-2 cells were incubated with biologically treated activated sludge and ...
Lenaerts Kaatje - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In vitro models are indispensable study objects in the fields of cell and molecular biology, with advantages such as accessibility, homogeneity of the cell population, reproducibility, and growth rate. The Caco-2 cell line, originating from a colon carcinoma, is a widely used in vitro model for small intestinal epithelium. ...
Martoni Christopher - - 2007
This study investigated the use of microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase (BSH) overproducing Lactobacillus plantarum 80 cells for oral delivery applications using a dynamic computer-controlled model simulating the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Bile salt deconjugation rates for microencapsulated BSH overproducing cells were 4.87 +/- 0.28 mumol/g microcapsule/h towards glycoconjugates and 0.79 ...
Weigmann Benno - - 2007
Studies on colonic cells in the lamina propria (LP) of mice are important for understanding the cellular and immune responses in the gut, especially in inflammatory bowel diseases (such as morbus crohn and colitis ulcerosa). This protocol details a method to isolate LP cells and characterize freshly isolated cells by ...
Furuya Sonoko - - 2007
Ingestion of food and water induces chemical and mechanical signals that trigger peristaltic reflexes in the gut. Intestinal villi are motile, equipped with chemosensors and mechanosensors, and transduce signaling to sensory neurons, but the exact mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Subepithelial fibroblasts located under the villous epithelium form contractile ...
Boos Alois - - 2007
Vitamin D (VD) plays an important role in calcium homeostasis. 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol modulates gene transcription via nuclear VD receptors (VDR). In the intestines, VD promotes calcium resorption via VDR. VDR has not been systematically assessed within the intestine in any species. We therefore present a semiquantitative immunohistochemical study of ...
Bakke-McKellep A M - - 2007
T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity could be central in soybean meal (SBM)-induced intestinal changes in salmon. However, tools for immunohistochemical detection of T cells have been lacking in teleosts, including Atlantic salmon. Application of a specific histochemical protocol allowed demonstration of T-cell-like reactivities in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using an antibody reacting to a ...
Akao Teruaki - - 2007
Baicalin and its aglycone, baicalein, being are strong antioxidants and have various pharmacological actions. Baicalein has shown a unique metabolic fate in rat intestine, being excreted into the intestinal lumen from mucosal (epithelial) cells following glucuronidation of baicalein absorbed after oral administration. The purpose of this study was to examine ...
Fu Liezhen - - 2007
Intestinal metamorphosis in anurans is an excellent model system for studying post-embryonic tissue remodeling and organ development in vertebrates. This process involves degeneration of the larval or tadpole form of its primary functional tissue, the simple tubular epithelium through apoptosis or programmed cell death. Concurrently, adult epithelial stem cells, whose ...
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