Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1915
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Gassler Nikolaus - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The constant renewal of enterocytes along the crypt-villus axis (CVA) of human small intestine is due to cell-inherent changes resulting in the apoptotic cell death of senescent enterocytes. The aim of the present study was to examine underlying molecular mechanisms of the cell death at the villus ...
Stenstad Hanna - - 2007
The CC chemokine receptor (CCR)9 is expressed on the majority of small intestinal, but few colonic, T cells, whereas its ligand CCL25 is constitutively expressed by small intestinal epithelial cells. As such, CCR9/CCL25 have been proposed to play a central role in regulating small intestinal but not colonic immune responses ...
Mori-Akiyama Yuko - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The transcription factor SOX9 has been shown previously to have an essential role in the differentiation of a small number of discrete cell lineages. In the intestine, Sox9 is expressed in the epithelial cells of the crypts and is a target of Wnt signaling. METHODS: To examine ...
Bodinier Marie - - 2007
Because intestinal absorption of food protein can trigger an allergic reaction, the effect of wheat proteins on intestinal epithelial cell permeability was evaluated and the abilities of these proteins in native or pepsin-hydrolyzed state to cross the epithelial cell monolayer were compared. Enterocytic monolayers were established by culturing Caco-2 cells, ...
Korkmaz Hatice - - 2007
In order to clarify the developmental regulation of the eNOS activity in intestine by phosphorylation, we examined the immunohistochemical localizations of the eNOS phosphorylation sites at Ser(1177), Ser(116) and at Thr(495) in cells of the mouse enteric mucosa and myenteric plexus at E13.5, E14.5, E16.5, E18.5, E20.5 and P3. In ...
Haxhija Emir Q - - 2007
Early intestinal adaptation after massive small bowel resection (SBR) is driven by increased epithelial cell (EC) proliferation. There is a clear clinical difference in the post-operative course of patients after the loss of proximal (P) compared to distal (D) small bowel. This study examined the effects of the site of ...
Borrmann Erika - - 2007
Campylobacter (C.) jejuni and C. coli can cause gastrointestinal disorders in humans characterized by acute inflammation. Inflammatory signals are initiated during interaction between these pathogens and human intestinal cells, but nothing is known about the stimulation of avian intestinal cells by Campylobacter. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as a proinflammatory chemokine plays an ...
Edwards Carina M - - 2007
This paper presents a biomechanical model for the small pits, called crypts, that line the colon. A continuum approach is adopted, with the crypt epithelium modelled as a growing beam attached to the underlying lamina by cell bonds, which generate tension within the layer. These cell attachments are assumed to ...
Lin Shyr-Yi - - 2007
We study the effect of fungal-derived chitosan on the development of chemical-induced colonic precancerous lesions in ICR mice and delineate its possible molecular mechanisms. In the 2 weeks preventive experiments, mice fed with a diet containing high molecular weight chitosan (HMWC) had significant fewer aberrant crypt foci formation than those ...
Liquori Giuseppa Esterina - - 2007
In this study, the variety of sugar residues in the gut glycoconjugates of Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Caudata) are investigated by carbohydrate conventional histochemistry and lectin histochemistry. The oesophageal surface mucous cells contained acidic glycoconjugates, with residues of GalNAc, Gal beta1,3 GalNAc and (GlcNAc beta1,4)(n) oligomers. The gastric surface cells mainly ...
McGarvey M Alice - - 2007
To determine whether the gut-sparing selectivity of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors is related to early crypt kinetic mechanisms, this study compared the primary effects on small intestinal mucosal epithelial cell proliferation and morphometry of a nonselective dual cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, with a cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor, nimesulide. Indomethacin downregulated the crypt cell production ...
Charrier Laetitia - - 2007
Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) play an immunoregulatory role in the intestine. This role involves cell-cell interactions with intraepithelial lymphocytes that may also play a role in some enteropathies. The discovery of the RGD motif-containing Protein ADAM-15 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease-15) raises the question of its involvement in these cell-cell interactions. ...
Younes Mamoun - - 2007
CONTEXT: Identification of intestinal-type goblet cells (ITGCs) in hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections of esophageal biopsies is essential for the diagnosis of Barrett metaplasia. However, we have seen cases diagnosed as Barrett metaplasia based solely on cells that pose morphologic similarity to ITGCs on hematoxylin-eosin staining or stain positive with Alcian blue. OBJECTIVE: ...
Rodríguez-Serrano Fernando - - 2007
Exogenous nucleotides are considered semiessential nutritional components that play an important role in intestinal development, maintenance, and recovery from tissue damage. Nucleosides (NS) are the best-absorbed chemical form of nucleotides in the intestinal epithelium. The aim of this work was to clarify, at the cellular level, the effects described in ...
Alferez D - - 2007
Arrangement of the intestinal cell lining, as it is, into distinct anatomically defined zones where proliferation is confined to the crypts, makes it an ideal tissue to study growth control mechanisms. While many methods have been used to quantify cell proliferation in the gut, several of them have severe limitations ...
Gloux Karine - - 2007
Metagenomic libraries derived from human intestinal microbiota (20,725 clones) were screened for epithelial cell growth modulation. Modulatory clones belonging to the four phyla represented among the metagenomic libraries were identified (hit rate, 0.04 to 8.7% depending on the screening cutoff). Several candidate loci were identified by transposon mutagenesis and subcloning.
Cigna Natacha - - 2007
Acylase 1 was investigated at the cellular level in the rat small intestine along the enterocyte-differentiation axis. As confirmed by microscopic analysis, villus tip cells and crypt cells of rat jejunal mucosa were successfully separated using the Weiser method. The proliferating undifferentiated crypt cells showed much higher ACY 1 activity ...
Al-Toma Abdulbaqi - - 2007
True Refractory Coeliac Disease (RCD) is being currently defined as persisting or recurring villous atrophy with crypt hyperplasia and increased intraepithelial lymphocytes in spite of a strict gluten free diet for more than 12 months or when severe persisting symptoms necessitate intervention independent of the duration of the dietary therapy. ...
Turner Douglas J - - 2007
The current study examined the effect of substance P (SP) upon intestinal epithelial cells and the mechanistic details of this interaction. Intestinal epithelial cells must be capable of migration to reseal mucosal wounds for several vital intestinal functions. This process is incompletely understood; however, recent evidence implicates the neurotransmitter SP ...
Sutherland Kate - - 2007
Nutrient-evoked gastrointestinal reflexes are likely initiated by specialized epithelial cells located in the small intestine that detect luminal stimuli and release mediators that activate vagal endings. The G-protein alpha-gustducin, a key signal molecule in lingual taste detection, has been identified in mouse small intestine, where it may also subserve nutrient ...
Lenaerts Kaatje - - 2007
Arginine is classified as a conditionally essential amino acid required exogenously during catabolic disease states and periods of rapid growth, both characterized by increased arginine utilization. Arginine plays an important role in the intestine, where it is extensively metabolized, and enhances its immune-supportive function and mucosal repair. Cell proliferation is ...
Ishizuya-Oka Atsuko - - 2007
The epithelium of the mammalian digestive tract originates from stem cells and undergoes rapid cell-renewal throughout adulthood. It has been proposed that the microenvironment around the stem cells, called 'niche', plays an important role in epithelial cell-renewal through cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. The amphibian intestine, which establishes epithelial cell-renewal ...
Byrne Catherine M - - 2007
Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of serious diarrhoeal disease in humans, in contrast to the avian population, where exposure results in prolonged colonization at high density without disease. Colonized poultry present a significant source of infection to humans worldwide. The aim of this work was to compare the interaction ...
Morin Lawrence P - - 2007
The SCN has long had organizational schemas imposed on it. In most, the SCN is dichotomized, with one region typically associated with the presence of vasopressin cells and the other associated with cells containing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and certain afferent terminal fields. If assumed to be accurate, the schemas that ...
Higashiyama Hiroyuki - - 2007
Liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1) is a nuclear receptor that plays important roles in lipid homeostasis and embryogenesis. To elucidate systemic physiological functions of LRH-1, we used tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry to examine the tissue distribution and localization of LRH-1 in adult mouse tissues. LRH-1 immunoreactivity was observed in the nucleus ...
De Keukeleire B - - 2007
Propagation of the scrapie isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) depends on the expression of endogenous cellular prion (PrP(C)). During oral infection, PrP(Sc) propagates, by conversion of the PrP(C) to PrP(Sc), from the gastrointestinal tract to the nervous system. Intestinal epithelium could serve as the primary site for PrP(C) conversion. ...
Uc Aliye - - 2007
Heme induces Cl(-) secretion in intestinal epithelial cells, most likely via carbon monoxide (CO) generation. The major source of endogenous CO comes from the degradation of heme via heme oxygenase (HO). We hypothesized that an inhibitor of HO activity, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), may inhibit the stimulatory effect of heme on ...
Wierup, Nils
Context: Ghrelin is a novel hormone produced mainly in the gastric body. Hitherto, mapping studies of ghrelin cells covering the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract in humans have been lacking. Furthermore, the phenotype of extragastric ghrelin cells is not known. Objective: The objective of the study was to perform a detailed ...
Narita Hiroki - - 2007
Intestinal cells are the first line of defense against toxic substances that may enter the body orally. Some of these substances may emanate from wastewater treatment plants and thus may eventually enter the food chain. In this study, human intestinal Caco-2 cells were incubated with biologically treated activated sludge and ...
Lenaerts Kaatje - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In vitro models are indispensable study objects in the fields of cell and molecular biology, with advantages such as accessibility, homogeneity of the cell population, reproducibility, and growth rate. The Caco-2 cell line, originating from a colon carcinoma, is a widely used in vitro model for small intestinal epithelium. ...
Martoni Christopher - - 2007
This study investigated the use of microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase (BSH) overproducing Lactobacillus plantarum 80 cells for oral delivery applications using a dynamic computer-controlled model simulating the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Bile salt deconjugation rates for microencapsulated BSH overproducing cells were 4.87 +/- 0.28 mumol/g microcapsule/h towards glycoconjugates and 0.79 ...
Weigmann Benno - - 2007
Studies on colonic cells in the lamina propria (LP) of mice are important for understanding the cellular and immune responses in the gut, especially in inflammatory bowel diseases (such as morbus crohn and colitis ulcerosa). This protocol details a method to isolate LP cells and characterize freshly isolated cells by ...
Furuya Sonoko - - 2007
Ingestion of food and water induces chemical and mechanical signals that trigger peristaltic reflexes in the gut. Intestinal villi are motile, equipped with chemosensors and mechanosensors, and transduce signaling to sensory neurons, but the exact mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Subepithelial fibroblasts located under the villous epithelium form contractile ...
Boos Alois - - 2007
Vitamin D (VD) plays an important role in calcium homeostasis. 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol modulates gene transcription via nuclear VD receptors (VDR). In the intestines, VD promotes calcium resorption via VDR. VDR has not been systematically assessed within the intestine in any species. We therefore present a semiquantitative immunohistochemical study of ...
Bakke-McKellep A M - - 2007
T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity could be central in soybean meal (SBM)-induced intestinal changes in salmon. However, tools for immunohistochemical detection of T cells have been lacking in teleosts, including Atlantic salmon. Application of a specific histochemical protocol allowed demonstration of T-cell-like reactivities in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using an antibody reacting to a ...
Akao Teruaki - - 2007
Baicalin and its aglycone, baicalein, being are strong antioxidants and have various pharmacological actions. Baicalein has shown a unique metabolic fate in rat intestine, being excreted into the intestinal lumen from mucosal (epithelial) cells following glucuronidation of baicalein absorbed after oral administration. The purpose of this study was to examine ...
Fu Liezhen - - 2007
Intestinal metamorphosis in anurans is an excellent model system for studying post-embryonic tissue remodeling and organ development in vertebrates. This process involves degeneration of the larval or tadpole form of its primary functional tissue, the simple tubular epithelium through apoptosis or programmed cell death. Concurrently, adult epithelial stem cells, whose ...
Nielsen Allan Evald - - 2007
Metallothionein (MT) is a highly conserved, low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich protein that occurs in 4 isoforms (MT-I to MT-IV), of which MT-I+II are the major and best characterized proteins.This review will focus on mammalian MT-I+II and their functional impact upon cellular survival and death, as seen in two rather contrasting pathological conditions: ...
Arns W - - 2007
Mycophenolic acid (MPA), a reversible inhibitor of inosine 5''-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), selectively inhibits T- and B-cell proliferation. MPA exposure correlates inversely with the risk of acute rejection. Mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept; MMF) is an immediate-release formulation of MPA that is absorbed in the stomach and small intestine. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (myfortic; ...
Khanal R C - - 2007
Phosphate homeostasis is controlled in part by absorption from the intestine, and reabsorption in the kidney. While the effect of Vitamin D metabolites on enterocytes is well documented, in the current study we assess selected responses in primary cultures of kidney cells. Time course studies revealed a rapid stimulation of ...
Mueller Matthias - - 2007
Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones with important functions in development, immune regulation, and glucose metabolism. The adrenal glands are the predominant source of glucocorticoids; however, there is increasing evidence for extraadrenal glucocorticoid synthesis in thymus, brain, skin, and vascular endothelium. We recently identified intestinal epithelial cells as an important source of ...
Simon-Assmann P - - 2007
The intestinal epithelium is a particularly interesting tissue as (1) it is in a constant cell renewal from a stem cell pool located in the crypts which form, with the underlying fibroblasts, a stem cell niche and (2) the pluripotent stem cells give rise to four main cell types: enterocytes, ...
Nyasae L - - 2007
We report for the first time on the copper-dependent behavior of endogenous ATP7A in two types of polarized intestinal epithelia, rat enterocytes in vivo and filter-grown Caco-2 cells, an accepted in vitro model of human small intestine. We used high-resolution, confocal immunofluorescence combined with quantitative cell surface biotinylation and found ...
Esposito A - - 2006
A wide number of gastro-intestinal disorders are associated with structural alterations of this district leading to an impaired gastrointestinal function. The study of cell material interactions represents one of the major issues for the development of tissue engineering purposes. Benzyl esters of hyaluronic acid are promising materials because they exhibit ...
Takagi T - - 2006
Background Recent studies in models of inflammatory bowel disease have demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction, or its by-products in this process such as carbon monoxide (CO), plays an important role in the intestinal inflammation. However, the distribution of HO-1 in intestinal mucosa and the concentration of intestinal luminal CO ...
Jeong Da-Hee - - 2006
A male, 5-year-old Jindo dog underwent enterectomy and enteroanastomosis due to ileus of the intestine at a local veterinary hospital. Grossly, the excised intestine showed markedly thickened multinodular masses in the serosal layer of the upper part, and soft-to-firm, cream-colored neoplastic masses that displayed extensive nodular mucosal protuberances into the ...
Wilcks Andrea - - 2006
The capability of two bioinsecticide strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (ssp. israelensis and ssp. kurstaki) to germinate and persist in vivo in the gastrointestinal tract of human-flora-associated rats was studied. Rats were dosed either with vegetative cells or spores of the bacteria for 4 consecutive days. In animals fed spores, B. ...
Tremblay Eric - - 2006
cDNA microarray technology enables detailed analysis of gene expression throughout complex processes such as differentiation. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile of normal human intestinal epithelial cells using cell models that recapitulate the crypt-villus axis of intestinal differentiation in comparison with the widely used ...
Bezençon Carole - - 2007
The taste system, made up of taste receptor cells clustered in taste buds at the surface of the tongue and the soft palate, plays a key role in the decision to ingest or reject food and thereby is essential in protecting organisms against harmful toxins and in selecting the most ...
Cutler Christopher Paul - - 2007
The aquaporin isoform, AQP3 has now been identified in a number of different teleost fish species, with additional DNA sequence information on AQP3 genes in further fish species available in genome databases. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), the AQP3 gene is present as two duplicate isoforms resulting from a teleostean fish ...
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