Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1924
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Ardesjö Brita - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A number of autoantibodies have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent sera from patients with IBD contain autoantibodies directed against normal human gastrointestinal mucosa. METHODS: Samples of sera from 50 patients with IBD and 50 healthy subjects ...
D'Errico I - - 2008
The intestinal epithelium is structured in crypt-villus units which are responsible for its continuous renewal. These units are organized in a dynamic scenario in which proliferating progenitor cells are generated from stem cells in the crypts and migrate along the villus axis until their extrusion as differentiated cells at the ...
Rubio Carlos A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In the normal duodenum, Paneth cells migrate from the stem cells downwards, towards the bottom of the crypts of Lieberkuhn. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The spatial position of Paneth cells within the profile of histological sections was investigated with hematoxilin and eosin (H&E) in 6 duodenal adenomas; 2 of them ...
Talukder Jamilur R - - 2008
Glutamine, the primary metabolic fuel for the mammalian small intestinal enterocytes, is primarily assimilated by Na-amino acid cotransporters. Although Na-solute cotransport has been shown to exist in the brush border membrane (BBM) of the absorptive villus cells, the identity of Na-glutamine cotransport in rabbit small intestinal villus cells was unknown. ...
Lindfors K - - 2008
Wheat gliadin induces severe intestinal symptoms and small-bowel mucosal damage in coeliac disease patients. At present, the only effective treatment for the disease is a strict life-long gluten-free diet. In this study we investigated whether probiotics Lactobacillus fermentum or Bifidobacterium lactis can inhibit the toxic effects of gliadin in intestinal ...
Stumpf Walter E - - 2008
Target tissues of in vivo receptor binding and deposition of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and its oxygen analog OCT are reviewed in rats, mice, hamsters and zebra finch, identified with high-resolution microscopic autoradiography. Throughout the digestive system numerous sites with nuclear receptor binding of 3H-1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and 3H-OCT exist: in ...
Fukamachi Hiroshi - - 2008
We have reported that a lack of RUNX3 function is causally associated with gastric carcinogenesis. We have also presented evidence that loss of Runx3 may be related to the genesis of intestinal metaplasia because expression of RUNX3 is reduced in some intestinal metaplasias, and some Runx3(-/-)p53(-/-) gastric epithelial cells differentiate ...
Zanuzzi C N - - 2008
The intestinal epithelium has a critical roll in host defence. One specialised cell type involved in this function is the Paneth cell, which secretes many substances with antimicrobial properties in response to different stimuli. Under pathological conditions, changes in the Paneth cell number, morphology and location as well as in ...
Wagner Carol L - - 2008
The gut represents a complex organ system with regional differences, which reflect selective digestive and absorptive functions that change constantly in response to bodily requirements and the outside milieu. As a barrier to the external environment, gut epithelium must be renewed rapidly and repeatedly. Growth and renewal of gut epithelial ...
Lu Lei L Developmental Gastroenterology Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2008
Diarrheal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children worldwide. Evidence has indicated immature human enterocytes and their interaction with bacteria and enterotoxins may account for the noted increased susceptibility of neonates to diarrhea. Our aim was to characterize the developmental difference in cholera toxin ...
Cho Kwang-Ho - - 2008
The density of intestinal endocrine cells, in Balb/c mice with colon 26 (CT-26) carcinoma cells, were examined immunohistochemically at 28 days after implantation. After CT-26 cell administration there was a significant decrease in most of the intestinal endocrine cells (p < 0.01) compared with the control group. The significant quantitative ...
Mondalek Fadee G - - 2008
Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) derived from porcine small intestine has been intensively studied for its capacity in repairing and regenerating wounded and dysfunctional tissues. However, SIS suffers from a large spectrum of heterogeneity in microarchitecture leading to inconsistent results. In this study, we introduced nanoparticles (NPs) to SIS with an ...
Bhattacharyya Sumit S Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago and Jesse Brown Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, - - 2008
Multiple studies in animal models have shown that the commonly used food additive carrageenan (CGN) induces inflammation and intestinal neoplasia. We performed the first studies to determine the effects of CGN exposure on human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in tissue culture and tested the effect of very low concentrations (1-10 ...
Miyauchi E - - 2008
AIMS: The evaluation of the effects of Enterococcus hirae, an intestinal bacterium in the adjacent mucosa (mucosal bacterium), on tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced barrier impairment in human epithelial Caco-2 cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: The filter-grown Caco-2 monolayers were used as an intestinal epithelial model system. In Caco-2 cells, heat-killed E. ...
Hebeisen Michaël - - 2008
Cdc25 phosphatases are key positive cell cycle regulators that coordinate cell divisions with growth and morphogenesis in many organisms. Intriguingly in C. elegans, two cdc-25.1(gf) mutations induce tissue-specific and temporally restricted hyperplasia in the embryonic intestinal lineage, despite stabilization of the mutant CDC-25.1 protein in every blastomere. We investigated the ...
Ringqvist Emma - - 2008
Giardia lamblia, an important cause of diarrheal disease, resides in the small intestinal lumen in close apposition to epithelial cells. Since the disease mechanisms underlying giardiasis are poorly understood, elucidating the specific interactions of the parasite with the host epithelium is likely to provide clues to understanding the pathogenesis. Here ...
Dundar Emine - - 2008
The aim of the present study is to investigate the treatment efficiency of intra-rectal (IR) and intra-peritoneal (IP) application of Origanum onites essential oil (OOEO), which is a well-known antioxidant, in the colitis model induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) and ethanol (E) in comparison with dexamethasone therapy through the morphologic ...
Welter Harald - - 2008
Uptake of energy into cells and its allocation to individual cellular compartments by transporters are essential for tissue homeostasis. The present study gives an analysis of MCT1 expression and its cellular occurrence in the porcine intestine. Tissue portions from duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon ascendens, colon transversum and colon descendens were ...
Whitehead Robert H RH Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. - - 2008
PTK6 is an intracellular src-related tyrosine kinase that regulates differentiation in the intestine, where knockout animals have increased proliferative activity and growth characteristics. To explore the phenotype further we attempted to establish epithelial cell lines from the intestinal mucosa. We mated Ptk6 null mice with a tsSV40 large T transgenic ...
Forder, Rebecca Edith Anne
Copyright © 2007 Poultry Science Association
Sarosi G - - 2008
Barrett's esophagus develops when refluxed gastric juice injures the esophageal squamous lining and the injury heals through a metaplastic process in which intestinal-type columnar cells replace squamous ones. The progenitor cell that gives rise to Barrett's metaplasia is not known, nor is it known why the condition is predisposed to ...
Barshack Iris - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Local anesthetics which preferentially interact with voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) were shown to have a clinical beneficial effect in ulcerative colitis and to regulate the secretion of inflammatory mediators from intestinal epithelial cells. However, expression of VGSCs in epithelial cells was not demonstrated. Herein we assessed whether ...
Davis C William - - 2008
Major advances in understanding regulated mucin secretion from airway goblet cells have been made in the past decade in the areas of pharmacology and basic cell biology. For instance, it is now appreciated that nucleotide agonists acting locally through P2Y purinoceptors on apical membranes of surface goblet cells provide the ...
Hanson Nicholas B - - 2008
Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) development requires interaction with the intestinal microbiota. Because murine secondary lymphoid tissue development is driven by positive feedback interactions between B cells and stromal cells, we used in situ hybridization to determine whether intestinal commensals influence such interactions during rabbit appendix development. The features of positive ...
Croucher Lisa J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Markers of crypt cell proliferation are frequently employed in studies of the impact of genetic and exogenous factors on human colonic physiology. Human studies often rely on the assessment of tissue acquired at endoscopy. Modulation of cell proliferation by bowel preparation with oral laxatives may confound the findings of ...
Koninkx J F J G - - 2008
The intestinal environment accommodates a wide range of contents ranging from harmless beneficial dietary and microbial flora to harmful pathogenic bacteria. This has resulted in the development of highly adapted epithelial cells lining the intestine. This adaptation involves the potential of crypt cells to proliferate and to constantly replace villous ...
Ishizuya-Oka Atsuko - - 2008
The organogenesis of the digestive tract proceeds according to the positional information along the cephalo-caudal, dorsal-ventral and left-right axes of the embryonic body and the radial axis of the tract during development. Among them the radial axis, which corresponds to the crypt-villus axis in the adult small intestine, is essential ...
Gasbarrini Giovanni - - 2008
It is well known that human intestine is involved in different important functions. First of all, it is responsible for digestion and absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, water, bile salts and drugs, but it also has immunologic, endocrine and motor functions. Moreover, intestinal microflora, composed by a large diversity of bacterial ...
Hansen Wendy R - - 2008
The parasite Giardia lamblia must remain attached to the host small intestine in order to proliferate and subsequently cause disease. However, little is known about the factors that may cause detachment in vivo, such as changes in the aqueous environment. Osmolality within the proximal small intestine can vary by nearly ...
George Michael D MD Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis CA 95616, USA. - - 2008
The small intestinal epithelium mediates vital functions of nutrient absorption and host defense. The spatial organization of the epithelial cells along the crypt-villus axis segregates them into regions of specialized function. However, the differences in transcriptional programming and the molecular machinery that governs the migration, adhesion, and differentiation of intestinal ...
Dos Santos Clarice Machado - - 2008
The purpose of the present study was to examine the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), gastrin (GAS), cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon (GLUC) endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of frugivorous Phillostomidae bats, Sturnira lilium and Artibeus cinerius, to clarify the correlation between distribution of cell types and their relative frequency, with feeding ...
Derrien Muriel - - 2008
A 16S rRNA-targeted probe, MUC-1437, was designed and validated in order to determine the presence and numbers of cells of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin degrader, in the human intestinal tract. As determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization, A. muciniphila accounted more than 1% of the total fecal cells and was ...
Saitoh Osamu - - 2007
STC-1 cells have been established as an enteroendocrine cell line from the small intestine. By monitoring the level of intracellular Ca using a calcium-imaging technique, cellular responses of intestinal STC-1 cells to compounds of five basic tastants were investigated. Although this cell line was known to respond to bitter compounds, ...
Takeuchi T - - 2007
We measured villous cell intracellular pH (pH(i)) and solute diffusion between the bathing media and the epithelial cells in stripped, chambered mouse duodenum. Apical perfusion of a high CO2 solution rapidly acidified the upper villous cells with recovery after its removal. Apical zoniporide (ZP) enhanced CO(2)-induced acidification. Serosal ZP, dimethylamiloride ...
Yang Fang - - 2007
Lactobacillus is a probiotic commonly used for supplementation to human and animal diets. In this study, we used 2-DE and MS to analyze changes in the proteomes of Lactobacillus and intestinal epithelial cells in two model systems. The in vivo and in vitro models were involved the inoculation of Lactobacillus ...
Ponce-Macotela Martha - - 2008
Giardiosis is one of the major intestinal parasitic diseases of human beings as well as wild and domesticated animals. Several protective mechanisms against infection have been described. However, specific information about relationship between giardiosis and the increased proliferation of goblet cells (GC) in patients infected with Giardia intestinalis (Syn. G. ...
Leser T D - - 2008
To determine if orally ingested Bacillus spores used as probiotics or direct-fed microbial feed additives germinate and the vegetative cells grow in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Three independent experiments were done to determine if spores of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis germinate and grow in the GI tract of pigs. ...
Khurana Seema - - 2008
Autotaxin (ATX) is a potent tumor cell motogen that can produce lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) from lysophosphatidylcholine. LPA is a lipid mediator that has also been shown to modulate tumor cell invasion. Autotaxin mRNA is expressed at significant levels in the intestine. Likewise, LPA2 receptor levels have been shown to be ...
Onishi Sachiko - - 2007
It is well known that some caspases in apoptosis is involved in determinant of terminal differentiation and maturation of various cells. Our previous study ultrastructurally clarified the differentiation into M cells from immature microvillous epithelial cells and the redifferentiation from M cells to microvillous epithelial cells in the follicle-associated epithelium ...
Forder R E A - - 2007
Mucins possess potential binding sites for both commensal and pathogenic organisms and may perform a defensive role during establishment of the intestinal barrier. To observe the effects of bacteria on intestinal goblet cell mucin production during posthatch development, differences in the small intestine of conventionally reared (CR) and low bacterial ...
Marchbank Tania T Centre for Gastroenterology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, - - 2007
Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) is a serine protease inhibitor, expressed in gut mucosa, whose function is unclear. We, therefore, examined the effects of PSTI on gut stability and repair. Transgenic mice overexpressing human PSTI within the jejunum (FABPi(-1178 to +28) hPSTI construct) showed no change in baseline morphology or ...
Pannequin Julie J Laboratoire de Biochimie, Faculté de Pharmacie, Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Bâtiment E, 15 Avenue Charles Flahault, 34093 Montpellier Cedex 5, - - 2007
Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer. High concentrations of ethanol trigger mucosal hyperregeneration, disrupt cell adhesion, and increase the sensitivity to carcinogens. Most of these effects are thought to be mediated by acetaldehyde, a genotoxic metabolite produced from ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenases. Here, we studied ...
Polyak Steven S Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. - - 2008
Intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) result in chronic illness requiring lifelong therapy. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene delivery to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Human colon epithelial cell lines and colon biopsies were transduced using ...
Kuntz Sabine - - 2008
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are considered to influence the composition of the gut microflora in breastfed infants. We investigated direct effects of milk HMO fractions or individual oligosaccharides on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in transformed human intestinal cells (HT-29 and Caco-2) and non-transformed small intestinal epithelial crypt cells of fetal ...
Desai Shailey S Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado at Denver Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045, - - 2008
Nkx2.2 is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor essential for pancreatic islet cell specification. In this study we investigate the role of Nkx2.2 within the small intestine. We have determined that Nkx2.2 is expressed at the onset of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation in specific intestinal cell populations, including a subset of enteroendocrine ...
Couesnon Aurélie - - 2008
Botulism is mainly acquired by the oral route, and botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) escapes the gastrointestinal tract by crossing the digestive epithelial barrier prior to gaining access to the nerve endings. Here, we show that biologically active BoNT/A crosses intestinal cell monolayers via a receptor-mediated transcytosis, including a transport inhibition at ...
Natsuaki Sumiko - - 2007
An adult dairy cow fatally affected with winter dysentery was investigated pathologically and virologically. The cow had severe anemia and diarrhea with massive blood. Pathologically, the loss of surface epithelial cells and necrosis of crypt epithelial cells in the large intestine were observed. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) antigen was observed in ...
Wong, Pat Shun Patsy
The marine pulmonate limpet Siphonaria Zelandica is commonly found in the mid-eulittoral zone in shallow pans or rock pools with dense algal growth. Though it resembles a true limpet externally, it is active when emersed during the ebbing of the tide browsing on small succulent algae, rather than grazing the ...
Iwai Hiroki - - 2007
The gut epithelium self-renews every several days, providing an important innate defense system that limits bacterial colonization. Nevertheless, many bacterial pathogens, including Shigella, efficiently colonize the intestinal epithelium. Here, we show that the Shigella effector IpaB, when delivered into epithelial cells, causes cell-cycle arrest by targeting Mad2L2, an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome ...
Ali M Al Haj - - 2007
The distribution and relative frequency of neuroendocrine cells in the small and large intestines of one-humped camel were studied using antisera against 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), cholecystokinin (CCK-8), somatostatin (SOM), peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), substance P (SP), and neurokinin ...
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